六级汉译英讲义 一、汉译英应试原则和基本程序 (一)汉译英应试原则 手法灵活(如遇难译之处,换用其它相近说法表达) 语法正确(避免时态、语态、单复数等语法错误) 内容忠实(必须把原文的内容准确而完整地表达出来,不得有任何歪曲、遗漏 或增删) 语言闪光(译文符合英语表达习惯,且用词准确、多样) (二)汉译英基本程序
  1.理解 通读并透彻理解原文含义
  2.翻译 确定译文句子的时态、句型、结构和用词
  3. 审校 首先检查译文是否正确地转述了原文内容, 是否有错译和漏译; 其次, 检查是否有语言上的明显错误,如时态、语态、单复数、拼写、大小写、标点符 号等。发现错误,及时改正。
二、汉译英专项练习 一、倍数增减的表示法 Force N1 (比力 N2 大
  2.5 倍). This substance (反应速度是另外那种物质的三倍). The earth (是月球大小的 49 倍). The landlord (想将租金提高三分之一). They (计划将投资增加一倍). 二、时态 Be quick, (否则等我们到达教堂时婚礼就已经结束 了). When she got home, (孩子们已经睡着了). When I prepare for the college entrance examination, (我姐姐将在海边度假). I(一上午都在修改我的简历). Do you often go on holiday? (不,我已经有五年没 有度假了). He joined the army in October, 20
  01. (他参军已 五年了). 三、被动语态 The blackboard and chalk (正在被电脑和投影机所 取代). The book (到今年年底就将已出版).
Computer models (可以用来演示细胞工作的方式). When the bill of fare was brought, (我惊呆了, 价格大大超出了我的预料). (必须立即采取有效措施)to eliminate sandy storms. 四、情态动词 The phone is ringing, (但是没人接听。她一定不在 家). I can’t find my sunglasses. (我可能昨天落在咖 啡店里了). You screamed in your sleep last night. (你一定 梦见什么可怕的东西了). It’s a pity. (你本应该邀请她来参加你的毕业典礼 的). (其实我没必要穿上我最好的套装去参加那次聚会的); most of the guests were wearing jeans and sweaters. 五、虚拟语气 I wish (我年轻的时候有你们这样的机会). If only (他知道这病是可以治好的)! Then he would not have killed himself. ?? Would you like him to paint your door with yellow stars? ?? I’d rather he (漆成蓝色的, 而且不带任何装饰). It’s high time that (采取措施解决交通堵塞的问 题). Hugh usually talks (仿佛在大会上发表演说似的). We insist that (让杰克立刻进医院). It was advised that (在居民区设立更多的流动商店). His proposal was that (他们成立一个专门委员会来 检查这个问题). We are going to discuss his suggestion that (取 消期中考试). It is ridiculous that (我们在一个总是下雨的国家 还缺水). It is essential that (每个人都为紧急情况做好准 备). (如果他按照我告诉他的办法订票), we would have had quite a comfortable journey. I was to have made a speech (要不是有人把我的话 打断了). It didn’t rain last night. (要是下了,地就会湿 的). (如果我一直住在纽约), I would know the U.S. well
now If the doctor had not come in time, (他现在就不 在人间了). But for his help, (我们就不会以这么低的价格租到 房子了). I used my calculator; (否则,我会花更长的时间才 能算出这道题). Were I in your place, (我会毫不犹豫地抓住机会). Had it not been for their opposition, (这项法案 早就通过了). Should there be another world war, (人类的继续 存在就会有危险). He walked lightly (以免惊醒婴儿). 六、不定式 It was a great achievement (10 个月建成一栋 24 层的楼). It is necessary (我们在考试前好好地睡一晚上觉). It is generous (你把这么多钱捐给灾区人民). The teacher decided (不惩罚那些上课迟到的学生). Mr. Green was wondering (是否去看望在法国的儿 子). The gardener (刚才警告我不要在中午给花浇水). We (请他给我们做有关现代艺术的讲座). He feels it challenging (在这么大一所大学做学生 会主席). We hope to have more opportunities (把我们在课 堂上学到的东西应用于实践). The bad weather (破坏了我们在露天放电影的计划). The environmentalists are against (在郊区建一座 核电站的决定). Sally Ride was the first (探索外部空间的美国妇 女). They lifted a rock (结果砸了自己的脚). He was surprised (在这个山村遇见一个中学同学). I am sorry (占用了您这么多时间). I happened (在他冲进来的时候站在门口). She doesn’t like (被当作客人). If you want to save money, you’d better (到校 园书店买旧书). We did nothing (除了整天打桥牌). We were made (进屋之前在垫子上擦擦脚).
七、分词 This is the first time that I heard (用意大利语 唱“祝你生日快乐”). The cars (停在消防通道的) will be ticketed. The war went on for years, (夺去了成千上万人的 生命). The farmers used a new insecticide, thus (将平 均产量提高了 15%). Einstein watched the toy in delight, (想推导出 它的运转原理). (看到大家都在聚精会神地看书), we stopped talking and began to study. (被这个男孩的事迹深深打动了), they decided to pay for his education. (从一个年轻朋友的眼光来看), Einstein was a simple, modest and ordinary man. (好久没有收到父母的来信了), he was worried about them. 八、动名词 (每天洗冷水澡) does him a lot of good. They tried to avoid (让女儿做她不喜欢的事情). Developing varieties is the key to (使我们的产 品进入国际市场). It is no use (为洒了的牛奶而哭泣). He denied(偷看了同桌的试卷). We congratulated her on (被提升为经理). 九、非谓语动词用法区别 Success means (非常努力地工作). John meant (开车去那儿,但他的车出了故障). I heard him (在跟他的母亲谈话). I heard him (跟他的母亲谈了一个小时). He jumped into the pool to save the child (结果 却摔断了自己的腿). He jumped from the burning house, (摔断了双腿). He was happy (看到父母很健康). (看到父母安然无恙), he issued a sigh of relief. (跟随着它的脚印), the zoologists spotted the hungry panda. The pop, (后面跟着两个保镖), came to meet his fans. 十、名词从句 (他们为什么离开家乡去云南) is still a secret.
(最让我不解的) was that he spoke English so well. (这么做是故意的) became obvious. It is not clear yet (谁应该为这件事负责). It is none of your business (玛丽与谁订婚). Don’t put off till tomorrow (今天能做的事). This novel is just (我一直在寻找的). It is not yet known (机器人是否有一天能拥有象人一样的 视力). (她是否喜欢那个礼物) is not clear to me. My main problem right now is (我是否应该请求另一笔贷款). It all depends on (他们是否会支持我们). You have yet to answer my question (我是否可以指望你的 投票). Finally, the workers got an answer (政府做不了什么事来 提高他们工资). Obviously, there was little certainty (主席会同意他的 提议). 十一、定语从句 Everyday many tourists come to visit (鲁迅出生 的那栋房子). The old lady died (在她儿子到达的那天). This is (我赞成这一改革的理由). Let ABC be (一个三边不等长的三角形). Some of the roads were flooded, (这使我们的旅程 更为艰难). He introduced me to his students, (他们大部分是 英语专业的学生). (众所周知), water is a liquid. 十二、状语从句 (不管我们谈论什么), Jim brings polities into the discussion. (不管哪一方获胜), I shall be satisfied. (不管观众中的一些人如何使劲地难为他), the comedian always had a quick, sharp reply. We climbed high (这样我们就可以看到更好的风景). The problem so very complicated (花了我们两个周 才解决). You can go out (只要你答应晚上 11 点以前回来). I remember the whole thing (仿佛是昨天发生的). 十三、比较级最高级 Does she dance (跟她姐姐一样地优美)?
The buildings look (在伦敦比在这儿难看得多). This is (他画的最好的画之一). The higher you climb, (空气就越稀薄). 十四、倒装句 Scarcely had she fallen asleep (一阵敲门声就把 她吵醒). No sooner had Anne arrived (就生病了). The husband was not hospitable to the visitor. (他 妻子也没说一句欢迎的话). Only then (那个医生才意识到他的病人需要手术). Only when you adjust down your price (我们才能 做成这笔买卖). 十五、强调句 (正是 Jefferson 写下了)the Declaration of Independence. (作者是带着真挚的情感)praises all that is progressive. (正是因为水涨了)we could not cross the river. (人们听见正是 Jim 这个无情的家伙) shouting at his mother in the dead of night. (直到我告诉她) Mrs. Williams knew anything about it.
汉译英专项练习答案及解析 一、倍数增减的表示法 is
  2.5 times greater than Force N2 (考点:倍数 + 形容词/副词比较级 + than) reacts three times as fast as the other one (考点:倍数 + as + 形容词/副词 + as) is 49 times the size of the moon (考点:倍数 + 名词) wants to raise the rent by a third (考点:动词 + by + 数词/百分比/倍数) plan to double their investment (考点:double + 名词) 二、时态 or the wedding will have finished by the time we get to the church (考点:将来完成时) the children had fallen asleep (考点:过去完成时) my sister will be taking her vacation at the seaside (考点:将来进行时) have been revising my resume all the morning (考点:现在完成进行时) No. It has been five years since I went on holiday (考点:It has been … since sb. did sth. 表示某人有多长时间没有做某事 了) He has been in the army for 5 years (考点:
  1. 现在完成时;
  2.要用持续性动词才能接一段时间) 三、被动语态 is being replaced by the computer and the projector (考点:被动语态的现在进行时) will have been published by the end of this year (考点:被动语态的将来完成时) can be used to demonstrate the way that cells work (考点:
  1. 被动语态与情态动词联用;
  2. 汉语有些没有“被”字等标志词的句 子也表示被动, 要译成英语的被动语态) I was startled, for the prices were a great deal higher than I had anticipated (考点:同“3”的考点
  2) Effective measures must be taken immediately (考点:汉语的无主句通常翻译成英语的被动语态) 四、情态动词 but there is no answer. She can’t be at home
(考点:情态动词可以表示可能性,can’t 表示“一定不”) I may have left them in the coffee shop yesterday (考点:“情态动词 can/could, may/might, must + 完成式”用于表示对过去 发生的动作的主观判断) You must have dreamed of something terrible (考点:同上) You should have invited her to your graduation ceremony (考点:“情态动词 should/ought to + have done” 用于评论过去应该做而 实际并未做的动作,含有批评的意思) I needn’
 

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