大学英语四级模拟试题( 大学英语四级模拟试题(四) I: Part I:Writing(30minutes) 有人在公共场所吸烟;
  2. 在公共场所吸烟的危害;
  3. 如何杜绝这一现象。 如何杜绝这一现象。
  1. 有人在公共场所吸烟;
  2. 在公共场所吸烟的危害; Part II Reading Comprehension (Skimming and Scanning) (15minutes) What Is Culture Shock? disorientation(迷惘)that ation(迷惘 Culture shock can be described as the feeling of confusion and disorientation(迷惘)that one experiences when faced with a large number of new and unfamiliar people and situations. Many things contribute to it ?smells, sounds, flavors and the very feeling of the air one is breathing. The symptoms of culture shock can appear at different times. Although one can experience real pain from culture shock, it is also an opportunity of redefining one’s life objectives. It is a great opportunity of learning understanding and acquiring new perspectives. Culture shock can make one develop a better understanding of oneself and stimulate personal creativity. Symptoms: Sadness, loneliness, melancholy(忧郁)Preoccupation with health Aches, pains and allergies(过敏)Insomnia, melancholy(忧郁)Preoccupation allergies(过敏)Insomnia, 忧郁 过敏 desire to sleep too much or too little Changes in temperament, depression, feeling vulnerable, feeling powerless Anger, irritability, resentment, unwillingness to interact with others Identifying with the old culture or idealizing the old country Loss of Identity: Trying too hard to absorb everything in the new culture or country Inability to solve simple problems Lack of confidence Feelings of inadequacy or insecurity Developing stereotypes about the new culture overDeveloping obsessions such as over-cleanliness Longing for family exploited Feelings of being lost, overlooked, exploited or abused Stages of Culture Shock Culture shock has many stages. Each stage can be ongoing or appear only at certain times. The first stage is the incubation stage. In this first stage, the new arrival may feel euphoric and be pleased by all of the new things encountered. This time is called the "honey moon" stage, as everything encountered is new and exciting. Afterwards, the second stage presents itself. A person may encounter some difficult times and crises in daily communication life. For example, communication difficulties may occur, such as not being understood. In this stage, there may be feelings of discontent, impatience, anger, sadness, and feeling incompetence. This happens when a person is from trying to adapt to a new culture that is very different from the culture of origin. Transition between the old methods and those of the new country is a difficult process and takes time to complete. During the transition, there can be strong feelings of dissatisfaction. solution: Stress, tension, mental fatigue? Your solution: medical cell therapy underThe third stage is characterized by gaining some under-standing of the new culture. A new feeling of pleasure and sense of humor may be experienced. One may start to feel a certain psychological balance. The new arrival may not feel as lost and starts to have a feeling of direction. The individual is more familiar with the environment and wants to belong to it. This initiates an evaluation of the old ways versus those of the new. the In the fourth stage, the person realizes that the new culture has good and bad things to offer. This stage can be one of double integration(整合)or triple integration depending on the number of cultures that the person integration(整合)or 整合 The has to process. This integration is accompanied by a more solid feeling of belonging. The person starts to define himself / herself and establish goals for living.
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The fifth stage is the stage that is called "reentry shock". This occurs when a return to the country of example, origin is made. One may find that things are no longer the same. For example, some of the newly acquired customs are not in use in the old culture. These stages are present at different times and each person has his / her own way of reacting in the stages more of culture shock. As a consequence, some stages will be longer and more difficult than others. Many factors contribute to the duration and effect of culture shock. The factors are the individual’s state of mental health, sociofamily type of personality, previous experiences, socio-economic conditions, familiarity with the language, family and/or social support systems and level of education. How to Fight Culture Shock The majority of emigrant individuals and families have the ability to positively confront the obstacles of a new environment. Some ways to combat stress produced by culture shock are: Develop a hobby. Don’t forget the good things you already have. Remember, there are always resources that you can use. Be patient ?the act of emigrating is a process of adaptation to new situations. It is going to take time. environment, Learn to be constructive. If you encounter an unfavorable environment, don’t put yourself in that position again. Be easy on yourself. Don’t try too hard. Learn to include a regular form of physical activity in your routine. This will help combat the sadness and take loneliness in a constructive manner. Exercise, swim, take an aerobics class, etc. Relaxation and meditation have been proven to be very positive for people who are passing through periods of stress. Maintain contact with your ethnic group. This will give you a feeling of belonging and will reduce your feelings feelings of loneliness and alienation. Maintain contact with the new culture. Learn the language. Volunteer in community activities that allow you to practice the language that you are learning. This will help you feel less stress about language and be useful useful at the same time. Allow yourself to feel sad about the things that you have left behind: your family, your friends, etc. Recognize the sorrow of leaving your old country. Accept the new country. Focus your power on getting through the transition. Pay attention to relationships with your family and your colleagues. They will serve as support for you in difficult times. Establish simple goals and evaluate your progress. confidence Find ways to live with the things that don’t satisfy you 100%. Maintain confidence in yourself. Follow your ambitions and continue your plans for the future. If you feel stressed, look for help. There is always someone or some service available to help you.
  1. Culture shock can make one develop a better understanding of oneself and stimulate personal creativity.
  2. You may feel culture shock when you go to live in a foreign culture.
  3. You feel lonely and depressed during the first stage of culture shock.
  4. A new feeling of pleasure and sense of humor may be experienced in the third stage.
  5. only happens to young people that culture shock might be reversed. "re
  6. One may find that things are no longer the same during "re-entry shock". shock.
  7. Emigrant individuals and families cannot combat the stress produced by culture shock.
  8. The new arrival may not feel as lost and starts to in the third stage.
  9. Many things it ?smells, sounds, flavors and the very feeling of the air one is breathing.
  10. relationships with your family and your colleagues. They will serve as support for you in colleagues. difficult times. Part III Reading Comprehension (Reading in Depth)(25minutes) Section A
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This year, the summer travel crush could prove to be one of the toughest on record: high fares, crowded planes and thousands of lost bags every day. Flight delays, already at their highest levels since 2001, could bedevil(长期搅扰 长期搅扰)travelers hurricanes(飓风 飓风)hit also bedevil(长期搅扰)travelers if thunderstorms or hurricanes(飓风)hit particularly hard. A few smart representatives strategies 11 by analysts, travel consultants and airline representatives could help 12 the way. Firstly, you can go on the Internet to look for package flights, or you can fly on low-demand days to find lowa cheap 13 . Secondly, if you get booted or find yourself on a flight going 14 , you’d better have a backup plan plan ?a list of other flights on other airlines heading to the destination, and then get on the phone with the airline’s reservation service. If those carriers have open seats, 15 them right away. If your original airline of still cannot find you seats on one of its flights, it will pay for your tickets on the other carrier. Thirdly, you can start your trip in the morning to 16 delays and cancellations. Because problems tend to mount 17 the delays; day, it makes sense that earlier flights have a better chance of fewer delays; the chain effect can make an airline’s schedule worse later in the day. Finally, what can you do to ensure your bags make 18 to your destination with you? Here are some tips for reducing the risks of arriving without your bags and mitigating(减轻)the problems 减轻)the mitigating(减轻 if you do: ●Make sure your baggage tags 19 where you are going. ●If traveling with a 20 , pack some of each other’s belongings in each bag. That way, if the airline misplaces clothing. one bag, you might arrive with the other and have a few items of clothing. carry●Pack backup clothes in a carry-on bag. ●Fly an airline that does not lose many bags. A) spouse I) avoid B) reserve J) smooth C) offered K) throughD) it L) match E) fare M) cost F) affecting N) anywhere G) sensed O) specially H)nowhere Section B Passage One Anthropologist Margaret Mead is known for her groundbreaking research on the effects of culture on gender hypothesis(假设 假设)was roles. Her working hypothesis(假设)was that if gender behavior was the effect purely of biology, then what was considered masculine and feminine would be the same in all cultures. If gender behavior differed in different masculine cultures, this would demonstrate that gender behavior resulted from culture rather than biology. To test this hypothesis, Mead studied three different societies in New Guinea. The first society that she (阿拉佩什人 阿拉佩什人). obstudied was the Arapesh (阿拉佩什人). In this society, she ob-served that behavior by men and behavior by women were remarkably similar. She found that both men and women exhibited characteristics that are traditionally considered feminine: they were sensitive to each others’ feelings and expressed emotions. The second society (蒙杜古马人 蒙杜古马人), that she studied in New Guinea was the Mundugumor (蒙杜古马人), which was a society of headhunters and cannibals 食人肉者). (食人肉者). The society was the opposite of the gentle and feminine Arapesh. In this second society, both men and women exhibited characteristics that are traditionally considered male: they were harsh and aggressive. In Tchambuli(德昌布利人 德昌布利人), the third society that she studied, the Tchambuli(德昌布利人), Mead found that males and females exhibited very different types of behavior. What was unusual was that the roles were the opposite of what we have come to expect. Mead found that in this society, the men were emotional and submissive to the women, and the women were dominant and aggressive. Based on these findings, Margaret Mead came to the conclusion that culture, more than biology, determines gender behavior.
  21. According to the passage, Margaret Mead believed that. feminine A) what we consider masculine and feminine results from culture but not biology B) we cannot prove the effects of culture on gender roles C) there are no cannibals in the world D) the Arapesh is a wonderful tribe
  22. In the Arapesh society, behavior by men and behavior by women are remarkably similar, where . remarkably A) the men are emotional and submissive to the women, and the women are dominant and aggressive B) both men and women exhibit characteristics that are traditionally considered male C) both men and women are sensitive to each others’feelings and express emotions
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D) nobody knows why they act the way they do
  23. The word "submissive" in the last sentence of Paragraph 2 means. A) obedient C) feminine B) giving D) masculine
  24. According to the passage, which of the following state ments is FALSE? passage, A) The Mundugumor is the society in which men and women are sensitive to each others’ feelings and express emotions the B) The Tchambuli is the society in which the men are emotional and submissive to the women, and the women are dominant and aggressive C) Margaret Mead’s conclusion is based on the findings from the three societies in New Guinea D) gender behavior results from culture rather than biology passage
  25. The author’s purpose in writing the passage is . A) to describe the three different societies in New Guinea B) to introduce Margaret Mead’s hypothesis on gender behavior C) to argue against the opinion that gender behavior is the effect purely of biology D) to demonstrate that gender behavior should be the same in all cultures Passage Two Hemp(大麻 大麻)has Hemp(大麻)has been cultivated by many cultures for thousands of years. It can be made into paper, fuel, oils, textiles, food and rope. For many centuries, it was essential to the economies of many countries because countries it was used to make th
 

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