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Part II Reading Comprehension(35 minutes) Directions:There are 4 passages in this part.Each passage is followed by some questions or unfinished statements.For each of them there are four choices marked A) ,C)and D) ,B) .You should decided on the choice that best answers the question or completes the statement.Then mark the corresponding letter on the Answer Sheet with a single line through the centre . Questions 21 to 25 are based on the following passage: The ordinary family in colonial North America was primarily concerned with sheer physical survival and beyond that,its own economic prosperity.Thus,children were valued in terms of their productivity and they assumed the role of producer quite early.Until they fulfilled this role, their position, the structure of the family was one of subordination, their psychological need in and and capacities received little consideration. As the society became more complex, status 地位) children in the family and in the society the ( of became more important.In the complex technological society that the United States has become, each member must fulfill a number of personal and occupational roles and be in constant contact with a great many other members.Consequently,viewing children as potentially acceptable and necessarily multifaceted(多方面的)member of society means that they are regarded more as people in their own right than as utilitarian(功利的)organisms .This acceptance of children as equal participants in the contemporary family is reflected in the variety of statutes protecting the rights of children and in the social and public welfare programs devoted exclusively to their well-being. This new view of children and the increasing contact between the members of society has also resulted in a surge of interest in child-rearing techniques.People today spend a considerable portion of their time conferring on the proper way to bring up children.It is now possible to influence the details of the socialization of another person's child by spreading the gospel(原则、 信条)of current and fashionable theories and methods of child rearing. The socialization of the contemporary child in the United States is a two-way transaction between parent and child rather than a one-way parent-to-child training program.As a consequence, socializing children and living with them over a long period of time is for parents a mixture of pleasure,satisfaction,and problem.
  21.Which of the following would be the best title for the passage? A)The Place of Children in United States Society B)The Children of Colonial North America C)The Development of Cultural Values
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D)The Child as a Utilitarian Organism
  22.According to the author,children in colonial North America were mainly valued for their . A)academic achievements B)survival instincts C)physical characteristics D)productive roles

  23.What can be inferred from the passage about formal schooling in colonial North America?
A)Children were taught to learn from other children's success.
B)Children were taught to be more productive.
C)Schooling at that time was very undeveloped.
D)Teachers and parents would pay much attention to the children's psychological needs.

  24.Which of the following does the author mention as a cause of changes in the role of the child in the United States?
A)An increase in technology.
B)The growing complexity of the child's psychological needs.
C)A decrease in the child's intellectual capacities.
D)The growing number of single parent families.
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  25.According to the passage parents have become increasingly interested in .
A)their children's future occupations
B)having smaller families
C)adoptions programs for childless couples
D)child-rearing techniques
Questions 26 to 30 are based on the following passage:
On June
  17, 17
  44, officials from Maryland and Virginia held a talk with the Indians of the Six the Nations.The Indians were invited to send boys to William and Mary College.In a letter the next day they refused the offer as follows:
We know that you have a high opinion of the kind of learning taught in your colleges,and that the costs of living of our young men,while with you,would be very expensive to you.We are convinced that you mean to do us good by your proposal and we thank you heartily.But you must know that different nations have different ways of looking at things,and you will therefore not be offended if our ideas of this kind of education happen not to be the same as yours.We have had some experience of it. Several of our young people were formerly brought up at the colleges of the northern provinces ; they were taught all your sciences; when they came back to us they were but bad runners,ignorant of every means of living in the woods,they were totally good for nothing.
We are,however,not the less obliged by your kind offer,though we refuse to accept it,and to show our grateful sense of it,if the gentlemen of Virginia will send us a dozen of their sons,we wi1l take care of their education,teach them in al1 we know and make men of them.

  26.This passage is about .
A)the colleges of the northern province
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B)the problems of the Americans in the mid 18th century
C)the educational values of the Indians
D)the talk between the Indians and the officials

  27.According to the letter,the Indians believed that .
A)they were being insulted by the offer
B)they knew more about science than the officials
C)it would be better for their boys to receive some schooling
D)they had a better way of educating young men

  28.The Indian's chief purpose in writing the letter seems to .
A)politely refuse a friendly offer
B)describe Indian customs
C)express their opinions on equal treatment
D)show their pride

  29.Different from the officials'view of education,the Indians thought .
A)they taught different branches of science
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B)they should teach the sons of the officials first
C)they had different goals of education
D)young women should also be educated

  30.The tone of the letter as a whole is best described as .
A)pleasant B)polite C)inquiring D)angry
Questions 31 to 36 are based on the following passage:
The focusing or sharpening of the image is performed by a special apparatus. every camera, In the farther the object is from the eye,the farther forward?and the nearer the object is to the eye,the farther backward?is its image thrown.In photographers'cameras,the back is made to slide,and can be drawn away from the lens when the object that casts the picture near, and pushed forward when it is far.The picture is thus kept always sharp.But no such change of length is possible in the eyeball, the same result is reached in another way. lens, namely, and The grows more convex (凸面的) when a near object is looked at, flatter when the object recedes. and This change is due to the antagonism of the“ciliary muscle (睫状肌) The ligament 韧带) when the ciliary muscle . ( , is at rest,assumes such a spreadout shape as to keep the lens rather flat.But the lens is highly elastic;and it springs into the more convex form which is natural to it whenever the ciliary muscle,by contracting, makes the ligament relax its pressure.The contraction of the muscle, by thus tendering the lens more refractive, adapts the eye for near objects “accommodatesit for ( them,as we say) :and its relaxation,by rendering the lens less refractive, adapts the eye for distant vision.Accommodation for the near is thus the more active change,since it involves contraction of the ciliary muscle.When we look far off,we simply let our eyes go passive. We feel the difference in the effort when we compare the two sensation of change.

  31.In order to focus on distant objects,the lens of the eye .
A)becomes more convex B)becomes more active
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C)becomes more refractive D)flattens

  32.The ligament,when not acted on by the contraction of the ciliary muscle, .
A)maintains its pressure on the lens so that the lens remains flat
B)relaxes its pressure on the lens so that it remains convex
C)maintains its pressure on the lens so that the lens remains convex
D)relaxes its pressure on the lens so that it remains flat

  33.Functionally,we may compare .
A)the lens of the camera with the lens of the eye
B)the lens of the camera with the ciliary muscle
C)the lens of the eye with the sliding of the back of the camera
D)the sliding of the back of the camera with the adaptability of the eyeball

  34.Which of the following activities is most tiring for the lens of the eye?
A)Looking at a distant mountain.
B)Being a“sidewalk superintendent.
C)Watching squirrels being fed.
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D)Reading a book.

  35.The tone of this passage can best be described as .
A)professionally scientific B)argumentative
C)matter of fact and formal D)informal and matter of fact
Questions 36 to 40 are based on the following passage:
Are you aware that you actually possess six senses?The sixth is a muscular sense responsible for directing your muscles intelligently to the exact extent necessary for each action you perform.For example,when you reach for an object,the sensory nerves linking the muscles to the brain stop your hand at the correct spot. This automatic perception of the position of your muscles in relation to the object is your muscular sense in action.
Muscles are stringy bundles of fibers varying from one five thousandth of an inch to about three inches.They have three unique characteristics: they can become shorter and thicker;they can stretch; they can retract to their original po- sition. and Under a high-powered microscope, muscle tissue is seen as long,slender cells with a grainy texture like wood.
More than half of a person's body is composed of muscle fibers,most of which are involuntary, in other words,work without conscious direction.The voluntary muscles,those that we move consciously to perform particular actions,number more than five hundred.Women have only 60 to 70 percent as much muscle as men for their body mass. That is why an average woman can't lift as much,throw as far,or hit as hard as an average man.

  36.According to the selection,more than half of a person's body is composed of .
A)involuntary muscles B)muscle fibers
C)sensory nerves D)voluntary muscles
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  37.Intelligent use of the muscles means that .
A)one improves muscular action consciously
B)one always knows what his muscles are doing
C)one's muscles are used only to the extent necessary for each action they perform
D)one perform simple actions without working

  38.An average woman is weaker than an average man because she has .
A)60to 70percent less muscle for her body mass
B)only 60to 70percent as much musc1e for her body mass as an average man
C)less muscle fiber for her body weight
D)more voluntary muscles than an average man

  39.Which of the following statements is implied but not stated?
A)Muscular sense involves automatic perception.
B)There are more than 500involuntary muscles in the body.
C)Muscle tissue is inflexible.
D)The muscular sense is more important than any other sense.
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  40.According to the pas
 

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