2008 年 12 月大学英语四级考试真题 Part I Writing (30 minutes)
Directions: For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write a short essay entitled Limiting the Use of Disposable Plastic Bag. You should write at least 150 words following the outline given below.
  1.一次性塑料袋的使用
  2.使用一次性塑料袋带来的问题
  3.限制一次性塑料袋的意义 Limiting the Use of Disposable Plastic Bag Part II Reading Comprehension (Skimming and Scanning) (15 minutes)
Directions: In this part, you will have 15 minutes to go over the passage quickly and answer the questions on Answer Sheet
  1. For questions 1-7, choose the best answer from the four choices marked [A], [B], [C] and [D]. For questions 8 -10, complete the sentences with the information given in the passage. That's enough, kids It was a lovely day at the park and Stella Bianchi was enjoying the sunshine with her two children when a young boy, aged about four, approached her two-year-old son and pushed him to the ground. "I'd watched him for a little while and my son was the fourth or fifth child he'd shoved," she says." I went over to them, picked up my son, turned to the boy and said, firmly, 'No, we don't push," What happened next was unexpected. "The boy's mother ran toward me from across the park," Stella says," I thought she was coming over to apologize, but instead she started shouting at me for disciplining her child, All I did was let him know his behavior was unacceptable. Was I supposed to sit back while her kid did whatever he wanted, hurting other children in the process?" Getting your own children to play nice is difficult enough. Dealing with other people's children has become a minefield. In my house, jumping on the sofa is not allowed. In my sister's house it's encouraged. For her, it's about kids being kids: "If you can't do it at three, when can you do it?" Each of these philosophies is valid and, it has to be said, my son loves visiting his aunt's house. But I find myself saying "no" a lot when her kids are over at mine. That's OK between sisters but becomes dangerous territory when you're talking to the children of friends or acquaintances. "Kids aren't all raised the same," agrees Professor Naomi White of Monash University." But there is still an idea that they're the property of the parent. We see our children as an extension of ourselves, so if you're saying that my child is behaving inappropriately, then that's somehow a criticism of me." In those circumstances, it's difficult to know whether to approach the child directly or the parent first. There are two schools of thought. "I'd go to the child first," says Andrew Fuller, author of Tricky Kids. Usually a quiet reminder that 'we don't do that here' is enough. Kids nave finely tuned antennae (直觉) for how to behave in different settings." He points out bringing it up with the parent first may make them feel neglectful, which could cause problems. Of course, approaching the child first can bring its own headaches, too. This is why White recommends that you approach the parents first. Raise your concerns with the parents if they're there and ask them to deal with it," she says. Asked how to approach a parent in this situation, psychologist Meredith Fuller answers: "Explain your needs as well as stressing the importance of the friendship. Preface your remarks with something like: 'I know you'll think I'm silly but in my house I don't want…'" When it comes to situations where you're caring for another child, white is straightforward: "common sense must prevail. If things don't go well, then have a chat." 1
There're a couple of new grey areas. Physical punishment, once accepted from any adult, is no longer appropriate. "A new set of considerations has come to the fore as part of the debate about how we handle children." For Andrew Fuller, the child-centric nature of our society has affected everyone:" The rules are different now from when today's parents were growing up," he says, "Adults are scared of saying: 'don't swear', or asking a child to stand up on a bus. They're worried that there will be conflict if they point these things out ? either from older children, or their parents." He sees it as a loss of the sense of common public good and public courtesy (礼貌), and says that adults suffer form it as much as child. Meredith Fuller agrees: "A code of conduct is hard to create when you're living in a world in which everyone is exhausted from overwork and lack of sleep, and a world in which nice people are perceived to finish last." "It's about what I'm doing and what I need," Andrew Fuller says. "the days when a kid came home from school and said, "I got into trouble". And dad said, 'you probably deserved it'. Are over. Now the parents are charging up to the school to have a go at teachers." This jumping to our children's defense is part of what fuels the "walking on eggshells" feeling that surrounds our dealings with other people's children. You know that if you remonstrate(劝诫) with the child, you're going to have to deal with the parent. It's admirable to be protective of our kids, but is it good? "Children have to learn to negotiate the world on their own, within reasonable boundaries," White says. "I suspect that it's only certain sectors of the population doing the running to the school ?better ?educated parents are probably more likely to be too involved." White believes our notions of a more child-centered, it' a way of talking about treating our children like commodities(商品). We're centered on them but in ways that reflect positively on us. We treat them as objects whose appearance and achievements are something we can be proud of, rather than serve the best interests of the children." One way over-worked, under-resourced parents show commitment to their children is to leap to their defence. Back at the park, Bianchi' intervention(干预) on her son' behalf ended in an undignified exchange of insulting words with the other boy' mother. As Bianchi approached the park bench where she'd been sitting, other mums came up to her and congratulated her on taking a stand. "Apparently the boy had a longstanding reputation for bad behaviour and his mum for even worse behaviour if he was challenged." Andrew Fuller doesn't believe that we should be afraid of dealing with other people's kids. "look at kids that aren't your own as a potential minefield," he says. He recommends that we don't stay silent over inappropriate behaviour, particularly with regular visitors.
  1. What did Stella Bianchi expect the young boy's mother to do when she talked to him? A) make an apology B) come over to intervene C) discipline her own boy D) take her own boy away

  2. What does the author say about dealing with other people's children? A) it's important not to hurt them in any way C) it's advisable to treat them as one's own kids B) it's no use trying to stop their wrongdoing D) it's possible for one to get into lots of trouble

  3. According to professor Naomi white of Monash university, when one's kids are criticized, their parents will probably feel A) discouraged B) hurt C) puzzled D) overwhelmed

  4. What should one do when seeing other people's kids misbehave according to Andrew fuller? A) talk to them directly in a mild way C) simply leave them alone B) complain to their parents politely D) punish them lightly

  5. Due to the child-centric nature of our society, A) parents are worried when their kids swear at them C) people are reluctant to point our kids' wrongdoings B) people think it improper to criticize kids in public D) many conflicts arise between parents and their kids

  6. In a world where everyone is exhausted from over work and lack of sleep, A) it's easy for people to become impatient C) it's important to be friendly to everybody B) it's difficult to create a code of conduct D) it's hard for people to admire each other

  7. How did people use to respond when their kids got into trouble at school? 2
A) they'd question the teachers C) they'd tell the kids to clam down
B) they'd charge up to the school D) They'd put the blame on their kids

  8. Professor white believes that the notions of a more child-centred society should be
  9. According to professor white, today's parents treat their children as something they
  10. Andrew fuller suggests that , when kids behave inappropriately, people should not Part III Section A Directions: In this section, you will hear 8 short conversations and 2 long conversations. At the end of each conversation, one or more questions will be asked about what was said. Both the conversation and the questions will be spoken only once. After each question there will be a pause. During the pause, you must read the four choices marked [A], [B], [C] and [D], and decide which is the best answer. Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre.
  11. A)Only true friendship can last long. C)She keeps in regular touch with her classmates.
  12. A) A painter. B) A mechanic. C) A porter. B)Letter writing is going out of style. D)She has lost contact with most of her old friends. D) A carpenter. Listening Comprehension (35 minutes)

  13. A) Look for a place near her office. B) Find a new job down the street.
C) Make inquiries elsewhere. D) Rent the $600 apartment. B) He has been extremely busy recently. D) He enjoyed going shopping with Jane yesterday. B) Women have a better artistic taste than men. D) He doesn't like abstract paintings. B) she may have put her notebook amid the journals. D) she shouldn't have read his notes without his knowing it.

  14. A) He prefers to wear jeans with a larger waist. C) He has gained some weight lately.
  15. A)The woman possesses a natural for art. C) He isn't good at abstract thinking.

  16. A) She couldn't have left her notebook in the library. C) she should have made careful notes while doing reading.
  17. A)she wants to get some sleep B) she needs time to write a paper
C) she has a literature class to attend D)she is troubled by her sleep problem B)His chance of getting the job is slim. D)The interview didn't go as well as he expected.

  18. A)He is confident he will get the job. C)It isn't easy to find a qualified sales manager.
Questions 19 to 21 are based on the conversation you have just heard.
  19. A)He can manage his time more flexibly. C)He can concentrate on his own projects.
  20. A)Reading its ads in the newspapers. C)Contacting its manager
  21. A)To cut down its production expenses. C)To improve its administrative efficiency. B)He can renew contact with his old friends. D)He can learn to do administrative work. B)Calling its personnel department. D)Searching its website. B)To solve the problem of staff shortage. D)To utilize its retired employees' resources.
Questions 22 to 25 are based on the conversation you have just heard.
  22. A)Buy a tractor. C)See a piece of property. B)Fix a house. D)Sing a business contract. B)It is a small one with a two-bedroom house. D)It has a large garden with fresh vegetables. B)Its soil may not be very suitable for corn. D)Raising potatoes will be more profitable. D)Profits

  23. A)It is only forty miles form where they live. C)It was a large garden with fresh vegetables
  24. A)Growing potatoes will involve less labor C)It may not be big enough for raising corn.
  25. A)Finances Section B B)Equipmen C)Labor
Directions: In this section, you will hear 3 short passages. At the end of each passage, you will hear some questions. Both the passage and the questions will be spoken only once. After you hear a question, you must choose the best answer from the four choices marked [A], [B], [C] and [D]. Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre. 3
Passage One Questions 26 to 29 are based on the passage you have just heard. 26 A) To introduce the chief of the city's police force B)To comment on a talk by a distinguished guest
C)To address the issue of community security D)To explain the functions of the city council 27 A)He has distinguished himself in city management C)He completed his higher education abroad 28 A)To coordinate work among police departments B)He is head of the International Police Force D)He holds a master's degree in criminology B)To get police officers closer to the local people
C)To help the residents in times of emergency D)To enable the police to take prompt action 29 A)Popular B)discouraging C)effective D)controversial Passage Two Questions 30 to 32 are based on the passage you have just heard. 30 A)people differ greatly in their ability to communicate C)Most public languages are inherently vague 31 A)it is a sign of human intelligence C)it is something we are born with 32 A)how private languages are developed C)how people create their languages Passage Three Questions 33 to 35 are based on the passage you have just heard. 33 A)she was a tailor B)she was an engineer D)she was a public speaker B) Including interesting examples in them D) Focusing on the latest progress in space science B) How spacesuits protect s
 

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