第二节:写作中的词汇运用 第二节:
原则 一 基本正确 简单安全 二 准确得体 通顺多样
一 基本正确 简单安全
简单词怎么打造完美作文? 词汇量多少才够? 三种应急措施:
  1.试用笼统词 : take, have 我经历了一个极其艰苦的时代。 I experienced a terrible hard time. I had a terrible hard time.
take 百用搭配: 百用搭配: Do you understand my meaning, sir? = Do you take my meaning, sir? I will preside over the meeting. = I will take the meeting. I will subscribe to the local newspaper. = I will take the local newspaper. They occupied the city. = They took the city.
Eg: 四级作文中难词
  00.01How I Finance My College Education 银行贷款: borrow money from the bank bank loan

  2.联想有关词汇?同义词和反义词
  1)同义词 I had a nightmare last night. = I had a bad dream last night. I don‘t understand this word. = I don’t know this word.
Practice: They discontinued the work at five. His temper is nasty. stop terrible

  2)反义词。 He is stubborn. = He is not tame. The knife is blunt. = The knife is not sharp. This is expensive. = This is not cheap. She is talkative. = She is never quiet.
3 扬长避短--试用解释性语句 He is a dumb. = He is a person who can not speak. I‘ve never seen such a stubborn person. = I’ve never seen such a person who never listens to other‘s advice.
例文分析?简单词汇的运用 Examination is a common headache to students all over the world. They all detest it, but all being dominated by it. It represents a trial. dislike/hate controlled is/means
Nowadays, examination has become a popular form of testing. It almost can dominate (control) one‘s future. I am not exaggerating (telling the truth); for you all know it is true. If we want to obtain a diploma (get a graduation paper), we must first pass the exams. If we do not have a diploma, we may not find a job easily. That is the reason why all students are nervous and pale when they are sitting for an important examination which may concern (have something to do with) their future.
But as long as examination is on its peak (highest point) of power, we must be philosophical of (have a calm attitude to )it. If we do not have exams, we may indulge ourselves (spend our time on) in other things instead of books. Exams have to always drive us on. What is wrong for learning more and thoroughly (deeply)?
原则 一 基本正确 简单安全 二 准确得体 通顺多样
  2.1用词准确?5C
  2.2闪光词汇
  2.3语言通顺
  2.4词汇多样

  2.1用词准确?5C
1 “C” : connotation(内涵)
  1)避免中式英语 To be a three good student is always a symbol of achievement for the Chinese students. all-round student

  2) 区别近义词
problem:需要解决的现实问题 Measures have been taken to solve traffic problems in big cities. issue:常指国家政策或外交问题;争论; They have published a lot of new books on international issues. question可获得解释或回答的疑问 So there arises the question: what should we do to get rid of the wrong attitudes towards the migrant workers?
2 “C”: collocation 搭配 apply for: I am a Chinese student who wishes to apply for admission into your prestigious university. apply to:apply a theory to practice come :come to the party participate/join: participate/join in extracurricular activities
3 “C”:context(上下文)。 书面语:论说文 正式的书信 06年6 08年12 月 口头语:04年6月,05年1月,07年6 书面语:
  1)避免使用缩写形式,比如 do not不要写 成don’t,it is不要写成it’s。

  2)避免使用非标准化的表述方式,比如 gonna, wanna之类的口语。
  1. Many college students are gonna take part in CET-
  4.
  2. Many college students would like to take part in CET-
  4.
Spoken English think more and more most of love/like compare…with… see
书面语 Written English maintain/hold booming/in growing numbers/increasingly the vast majority of enthusiasm to weigh…and… witness

  1.现在越来越多的人开始认识到一个简单而 又强有力的真理:我们互相需要。我们还必 须互相关怀。 Now people in growing numbers are coming to recognize a simple but powerful truth: we need each other. And we must care for one another

  2.无热情成就不了伟业 Nothing great was ever achieved without enthusiasm ――Emerson Football is my great enthusiasm
say show explain never
assume reveal/disclose/unfold/expo se/indicate shed light on /throw light on on no account/in no case/ under no circumstances confront recognize/be aware of/be conscious of make…necessary
face know entail
make…worse go on get away many about because of deep
worsen continue escape multitudes of concerning owing to/thanks to profound
4 “C”: conviction(可信度) 限定词:many, generally ,typically等 Typically, people prefer to say “yes” when they should say “no”。人们在该拒绝的时候常常点头。 4类限定词语
  1)可能性的:may, perhaps, probably, mainly, safely. We may safely draw the conclusion that doing part-time jobs benefit college students. There are mainly two reasons. 我们可以得出这个结论,做兼 职大学生可以受益。这主要有2个原因。

  2)概括性的:generally/in general, commonly, personally. comparatively In general, young people seem more prone to job-hopping.
  3)频率的usually, sometimes, often, most, mostly, nearly, almost, at least, at most, may as well Sometimes ,reality is far from satisfactory.
  4)表示客观观点的to some extent, to some degree I don’t agree with the first argument to some extent.
5“C”:culture(文化)

  2.2闪光词汇
1使用动态词汇:避免使用语意弱的“be”动词。
  1)把句中的表语转换为不同的修饰语。例如: The trees are bare. The grass is brown. The landscape seems drab. The brown grass and bare trees form a drab landscape. (转换为前置定语)
  2)将作表语用的形容词或名词变为行为动词。例 如: The team members are good players. The team members play well.

  3)在以“here”或“there”开头的句子中,把“be” 动词后的名词或代词变成改写句的主语。 There are various/ different answers among different groups of people.= Answers vary/differ among different groups of people. There were a lot of great changes in the 2008s.= The 2008s saw/witnessed a lot of great changes. There is no opportunity for promotion.= No opportunity for promotion exists.
2 多用语意具体的动词 The work for improving our environment needs more efforts. The work for improving our environment calls for more efforts. My supervisor went past my desk. My supervisor sauntered (=walked slowly) past my desk. She is a careful shopper. She compares prices and quality.
“动词连用”要不得 eg: 做兼职可以赚钱,也可以长经验。 Take a part-time job can provide college students experience as well as money. Taking a part-time job can provide college students experience as well as money。

  2.3 语言通顺

  2.4 词汇多样:
“我从灵魂深处感到,一定要反叛一切,走我自 己的道路。” 惠特曼 广泛积累,多样表达

  2.4 词汇多样:

  2.
  4.1动词替换
  2.
  4.2形容词替换
  2.
  4.3 名词替换

  2.
  4.1动词替换 1 动词的准确性:具体词汇替代一般词 汇
Usually I will read the newspaper very quickly and try to find some interesting stories. flip over
2 动词的程度差异性 increase: 普通增长increase,ascend, climb, rise, go up,mount: Prices are mounting. 急速增长 soar,surge, jump: Oil prices surge to highest levels in decade 上一层次 level up
普通下降decrease, descend ,drop, decline, fall , go down 急速下降 collapse 下一层次level off
涨跌平波急缓顶底 2002年6月: Student Use of Computers. You should write at least 120 words, and base your composition on the chart and the outline given below: 1上图所示为某校大学生平均每周使用计算机的时 间: 1990 : 1990年(2 hours 2 hours)、1995年(4 hours) 2002 1995 (4 hours)、2002 年(14 hours),请描述其变化;
  2. 请说明发生这些变化的原因(可从计算机的用 途、价格或社会发展等方面加以说明);
  3. 你认为目前大学生在计算机使用中有什么困难 或问题。
Students tend to use computers more and more nowadays. Reading this chart, we can find that the average number of hours that a student spends on the computer per week has increased sharply/dramatically/immensely/noticeably . In 1990, it was less than 2 hours; and in 1995, it increased/went up/rose to almost 4 hours; while in 2000, the number soared to 20 hours.
sharply/dramatically/immensely/noticeably
逐渐地 gradually 不紧不慢地 gently,moderately

  2. 请说明发生这些变化的原因(可从计算机的用 途、价格或社会发展等方面加以说明); Obviously computers are becoming increasingly popular for students. A multitude of factors could account for the rise. In the first place, computers facilitate us in more aspects of life. Also, the rapid development of the internet enlarges our demands for using computers. We can easily contact friends in remote places through the internet. In addition, the prices of computers are getting lower and lower, which enable more students to purchase them.

  3. 你认为目前大学生在计算机使用中有什 么困难或问题。 However, there still exist some problems, such as, poor quality, out-of-date designs and so on. And how to balance the time between using computers and study is also (also remains) a serious problem. Anyhow, we will benefit a lot from computers as long as we use them properly.

  2.
  4.2形容词替换
1 具体词汇替代一般词汇 Good: kind ,honest, generous, sympathetic, warm-hearted, selfless, honorable, qualified
高频词汇 ?正确与错误 reasonable 合理的 rational 理性的 logical 有逻辑的 feasible 可行的 beneficial 获益的 acceptable 可接受的 unreasonable irrational illogical unfeasible harmful unacceptable
2形容词程度化 …but since dinner that cold winter wind brought with it clouds so somber, and a rain so penetrating,that further outdoor exercise was now out of the question. Jane Eyre Charlotte Bront
A(被描述词汇) is so X(形容词) that it can V(动 词)。 The rain is so…that it can penetrate our skin. The price is so high that it cannot be afforded. The unaffordable price imposes much pressure on parents and college students。 The plan is so feasible that it can save much money. The money-saving plan ...
换词练习: 1 By reading books we can get all kinds of knowledge. 2 Not all the books can do good to us. 3 I’m sure you will soon find a good candidate for the position. acquire, benefit,qualified
3 同义替代 With the coming of the Teacher’s Day, all the students are eager to express their respect to their teachers .So it is of importance for me to show my esteem to my dearest teacher ,Mr wang. (2005年6月)
conferencemeeting individuals, characters, folkspeople,persons reap huge fruits get many benefits for my part ,from my own perspective in my opinion. shopper, client, consumer, purchasercustomer facet, dimension, sphereaspect interactioncommunication
作业: My View on Examination Cheating 1 作弊现象在校园里屡禁不止 2 你认为是什么原因造成了这种现象 3 我们应该如何面对和解决这个问题
 

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