大学英语四六级考试语法精要(一) 大学英语四六级考试语法精要
动名词

  1. 某些动词后要接动名词
某些及物动词后能用动名词而不能用不定式作宾语,其中最常用动词的有 admit, avoid, appreciate, complete, consider, delay, deny, dislike, enjoy, escape, excuse, fancy, finish, forgive, involve, imagine, can’t help, mind, miss, postpone, practise, prevent, quit, resent, risk, resist, suggest 等。 She suggested spending another day in the mountain area. There’s no way to escape doing the work.
Note: ①

在 need、want、require、deserve 等动词后的动名词相当于不定式的被动式 The clock needs/wants repairing. (=The clock needs/wants to be repaired) The disabled deserve respecting. (=The disabled deserve to be respected.)
② 在 like、hate、prefer 等动词后,,如果表示一般倾向,则用动名词作宾语;如果指具体的某次发生在将 来的行动,则要用不定式。 I like reading books of this kind, but I don’t like to read that book. She prefers walking to cycling. I prefer to stay at home today. ③ 在 remember、forget、regret 等动词后,如果用动名词作宾语,则表示该宾语的动作发生在动词谓语 的动作之前;如果用不定式作宾语,则表示宾语的动作发生在动词谓语的动作之后 I remembered locking the door. (=I remembered that I had locked the door.) I remembered to lock the door (=I remembered that I was to lock the door.) I regret telling you about it. (=I regret that I told you about it.) I regret to tell you he has fallen ill. (=I regret that I am to tell you he has fallen ill.)

  2. 动名词作介词的宾语
动名词可作介词的宾语,与介词一起构成介词短语,在句中作定语、状语或表语。 His dream of becoming a successful writer has come true. She left without saying goodbye to us. 动名词作介词的宾语常用在某些词组后面。这类常用的词组主要有:be accustomed to, believe in, confess to, dream of, feel like, give up, insist on, be interested in, look forward to, object to, have an (no) objection to, pay attention to, put off, be responsible for, succeed in, be tired of, be (get) used to, worry about,等。 He is used to living on his own.
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He has made up his mind to give up smoking.

  3. 带逻辑主语的动名词
动名词可以有逻辑主语,其构成形式为“名词或代词的所有格+动名词”。带逻辑主语的动名词又称为 动名词的复合结构,在句中用作主语,宾语,表语和介词的宾语。在非正式语体中,如果动名词的复合结构在 句中作宾语,也可以宾格来充当动名词的逻辑主语。但考生需注意的是,在各种英语测试中,专家们仍坚持 在正式语体中用代词的所有格来作动名词的逻辑主语。 Your driving a car to New York took longer than I expected. of education. I appreciated her devoting herself to the cause
Your mother will be astonished at your coming home so late.
What we felt uneasy about was Li Ming’s having too much confidence in himself.
大学英语四六级考试语法精要 二 大学英语四六级考试语法精要(二) 精要
不定式

  1. 某些动词后要接不定式
某些及物动词后只能接不定式作宾语,其中最常用的动词有 agree, afford, arrange, appear, ask, attempt,
care, choose, continue, decide, demand, desire, determine, expect, fail, fear, forget, hate, hesitate, hope, intend, learn, like, love, manage, mean, neglect, offer, plan, prefer, prepare, pretend, promise, refuse, regret, remember, seek,tend, try, volunteer, want, wish 等。 What do you plan to do tomorrow? She hated to move from such a nice village.
In class teachers should try to get feedback from their students

  2. 不定式的被动式
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不定式有被动式,当不定式的逻辑主语是这个不定式所表示的动作的承受者,不定式要用被动式,在句中可 作主语,宾语,定语,状语,复合宾语等。作定语时,通常表示在谓语动作后将要发生的动作。 The last question to be discussed today is how to do the job more efficiently. She preferred to be given more difficult work to do.

  3. 不定式的完成式
当不定式的动作发生在谓语动词的动作之前, 不定式要用完成式, 在句中可作宾语, 状语以及构成复合宾语, 复合谓语。 She seemed to have heard about the news already. He was believed to have been a very rich man.
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  4. 不定式的完成被动式
当不定式的逻辑主语是这个不定式所表示的动作的承受者,且不定式的动作发生在谓语动词的动作之前,不 定式要用完成被动式,在句中可作主语,宾语或构成复合宾语,复合谓语。 The forest fire is reported to have been put out last night. It is supposed to have been finished without referring to any reference books.

  5. 带逻辑主语的不定式短语
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不定式可以有逻辑主语,其构成形式为“for +代词的宾格(或名词) +不定式”。 带逻辑主语的不定 式短语可在句子中作主语、宾语、表语或状语等。 It is not easy for you to catch up with them in a short time. I think it better for you to see the doctor.
What we want is for you to understand the matter clearly. I sent him some pictures for him to see what Paris is like.

  6. 带疑问词的不定式短语
不定式前可以加某些疑问代词,如 who、what、which,或疑问副词,如 when、where、how、why 等,构 成一种特殊的不定式短语,可在句子中作主语、宾语、表语或状语等。 How to improve English is often discussed among the students. We haven’t decided when to visit the place. The most difficult thing in learning English is how to speak the language well. You haven’t answered my question where to get these books.

  7. 某些动词后的不定式作宾语补足语时, 某些动词后的不定式作宾语补足语时, 不定式不带 to, 这些动词是 feel, have, hear, ,
let, make, notice, see, watch 等。 Suddenly I felt the atmosphere in the room become tense. I often hear them sing this song.
大学英语四六级考试语法精要(三 大学英语四六级考试语法精要 三)
分词

  1. 现在分词与过去分词的区别
现在分词与过去分词的区别主要体现在时间和语态上。现在分词表示正在进行的动作并表示主动的意 义,而过去分词表示已经完成的动作并表示被动的意义。比较: a changing world(一个变化着的世界);a changed world( 一个已经起变化的世界) surprising news(令人惊讶的消息);surprised people(感到惊讶的人们)

  2. 分词作状语
作状语时,表示时间、原因、方式、结果、条件、让步和伴随情况等。另外,作状语时,它的逻辑主语
应与句子的主语一致。 Hearing the news, he heaved a sigh of relief. Given another chance, I’ll do it much better.

  3. 分词作定语
分词常用来修饰名词或代词作定语。单个的分词作定语时,通常放在被修饰词之前;分词短语作定语 时,通常放在被修饰词之后。但有些单个的过去分词作定语时,也可放在被修饰词之后。 The man standing over there is our new English teacher. Where are we to get the material needed?

  4. 分词作宾语补足语
分词可在感觉动词和使役动词后作宾语补足语。常用的感觉动词主要有:see, hear, notice, watch, find, observe, smell 等。 常用的使役动词主要有: have, keep, leave, set, make, let 等。 get, 此外, 分词还可在 want, like, wish, order 等表示希望、要求、命令等意义的动词后作宾语补足语。 She watched her baby sleeping. I got my hair cut. I don’t want you worrying about me.

  5. 分词与连词的连用
分词可与各种连词 (如: when, while, once, until, if, unless, though, although, even if, as, as if, as though 等) 连用。连词+分词(短语)的结构在句中作状语,相当于状语从句。 She’ll get nervous when speaking in public. He went on talking, though continually interrupted.

  6. 分词的独立结构
分词作状语时,其逻辑主语与句子的主语应该一致;否则,分词应有自己的逻辑主语,构成分词的独 立结构。独立结构一般位于句首,作伴随状语以及在科技文章中表示附加说明时,它常位于句末。分词的 独立结构由名词、代词+分词构成,可以表示时间、原因、条件、方式或伴随情况等。 Weather permitting, the football match will be played on Wednesday. Her son having been sent to school, she began to do some shopping. He returned three days later, his face covered with mud and his clothes torn into pieces. There were two parties yesterday evening, each attended by some students
大学英语四六级考试语法精要(四 大学英语四六级考试语法精要 四)
时态
  1. 哪些动词不能用于进行时

  1) 表示状态的动词,如 be, seem, appear, become, get 等。 表示状态的动词, He is being a used-car dealer.(误) She is seeming always about to smile.(误) The medicine is tasting bitter. (误) I was seeing a car passing by our house. (误) He is owning a luxurious car. (误) The book is belonging to her. (误) He is a used-car dealer.(正) She seems always about to smile.(正) The medicine tastes bitter. (正) I saw a car passing by our house. (正) He owns a luxurious car. (正) The book belongs to her.(正)

  2) 表示感官感觉的动词,如 see(看见), hear(听见),feel(感觉出), taste(尝出),smell(闻到)等。 表示感官感觉的动词,

  3) 表示拥有的动词,如 have, own, possess, belong, contain, hold 等。 表示拥有的动词,

  4) 表示思想状况、 表示思想状况、 态度的动词, believe, think, know, understand, agree, approve, consider, expect, forget, 如 态度的动词, guess, hesitate, hope, imagine, mean, realize, remember, suppose, trust, want, wish 等。 I’m thinking that he is right. (误) He is loving his daughter very much. (误) I’m regretting to say we cannot come. (误) I think that he is right. (正) He loves his daughter very much. (正) I regret to say we cannot come. (正)
  5) 表示情感、愿望的动词,如 admire, appreciate, care, enjoy, like, love, hate, detest, regret 等。 表示情感、愿望的动词,

  2. 时态的呼应
时态的呼应又称时态一致 时态一致(Sequence of Tenses), 指的是某些从句里的动词谓语时态必须和主句里的 时态保持一致。如果主句里的谓语动词是过去时态(过去时或过去完成时),那么从句的谓语动词时态也相 应地要用过去时。时态的呼应主要发生在间接引语和宾语从句中,但其他从句有时也存在时态一致的问题。

--He explained that he had learned Chinese for many years.(现在完成时变为过去完成时) --He said he had been collecting materials on that subject for a long time.(过去进行时变为过去完成进行时) --He told me that they would have completed that project by the end of the year. (将来完成时变为过去将来完
成时) 虽然主句用了过去时等,如果从句表示的是科学真理、客观事实或某人(物)的经常性特点时,其时态 可以不必遵守时态呼应的规则而仍用一般现在时。 --Galileo proved that the earth revolves round the sun.--The teacher told the students that knowledge is power. 如果从句中有一个表示绝对过去时间的状语,就不必把一般过去时变为过去完成时。
虚拟语气

  1. 表示现在 过去/将来情况的虚拟条件句 表示现在/过去 将来情况的虚拟条件句 过去
虚拟条件句主要有三种结构:

  1) 表示与现在情况相反:主句谓语用“would / could / might +动词原形” 表示与现在情况相反: ,从句谓语用“动词的一
般过去时” (动词 be 的过去式一律用 were) 。 If I were you, I would not accept his offer. If I had time, I would certainly go to the cinema with you. 成时。 If I had got up a little earlier, I wouldn’t have missed the train. If I had been more careful, I might have passed that exam.

  2) 表示与过去情况相反:主句谓语用“would / could / might + have +过去分词” 表示与过去情况相反: ,从句谓语用过去完

  3) 表示与将来情况相反:主句谓语用“would / could / might +动词原形” 表示与将来情况相反: ,从句谓语用“were +动词
不定式”或“should +动词原形” 。 If I were to do the job, I would not be able to have enough time to study. If it should rain tomorrow, I would not go out with you.

  2. 虚拟条件句连接词 if 的省略
如果虚拟条件句的从句中含有 were, had, should, could 等词时,可以省略连接词 if,但这时必须把 were, had, should, could 等词移到主语前面,形成倒装。这种句型主要用于书面形式。 Were I to do the job, I would finish doing it within two weeks. Had it not been for his help, we couldn’t have arrived there on time. Should it rain tomorrow, I would
 

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