从句
I 定语从句

  1. 先行词为 all, anything, something, nothing, everything, much, little, none 等不定代词时, that, which。 可以省略. 等不定代词时,关系代词一般只用 that,不用 which。在大多数情况下 that 可以省略.
Please tell me everything (that) you know about the matter.
That’s all (that) we can do at the moment.

  2. as 引出的限制性定语从句
在 such … as 的结构中 as 可作关系代词,引出限制性定语从句。有时和 same 连用, 在从句中可作主语、宾语或表语等。
Such people as were recommended by him were reliable.
I’ve never seen such a talented young man as he is.
I have the same trouble as you (have).

  3. as 引出的非限制性定语从句
as 可作关系代词引出非限制性定语从句, 代替整个主句, 通常译为 (正) “ 如…一样” , “(正)象…一样”等。as 引导的从句一般用逗号与主句隔开,可以位于主句的前面、中 间或后面.
I live a long way from work, as you know.
She did not, as her friend had feared, break down.
As is generally accepted, economic growth is determined by the smooth development of production.

  4. 分隔式定语从句
定语从句一般紧跟在先行词之后, 但有时会被其他句子成分与先行词隔开, 从而构成分 隔式定语从句。
The days are gone when power politics worked.
A new teacher will come tomorrow who will teach you French.

  5.介词+关系代词(
  5.介词+关系代词(which/whom 等)引出的定语从句 介词
如果关系代词(which/whom 等)在定语从句中作介词的宾语,那么这个介词可以提到 从句前,构成“介词+关系代词(which/whom 等)+定语从句”。在这种结构中关系代词不
可以用 that。
This is a subject about which we might argue for a long while.
The four travelers with whom I shared the room were pleasant people.

  6.关系代词在限制性定语从句中常可以省略,一般有以下几种情况:
  6.关系代词在限制性定语从句中常可以省略,一般有以下几种情况: 关系代词在限制性定语从句中常可以省略

  1) 关系代词在从句中作直接宾语时,在大多数情况下可以省略。
This is something (that) you must always keep in mind.
The man (whom) you just met is our manager.
关系代词作介词宾语时, 介词位于句尾时关系代词可以省略; 介词位于关系代词之前时 则关系代词不能省略。
This is the room (which) Churchill was born in.
This is the room in which Churchill was born.(which 不可省略)

  2)
关系代词作主语时一般不能省略, 但如果关系代词在由 there … be 存在句构
成的定语从句中作主语时常可省略。
This is the only book (that) there is on this subject.
The old professor made full use of the time (that) there was left to him to continue his research.

  3)
在 way 后面的定语从句中 in which 或 that 通常省略。
That’s the way (that/in which) I look at it.
I don’t like the way (that/in which) you laugh at her.

  7.非限制性定语从句
  7.非限制性定语从句
非限制性定语从句修饰先行词或整个主句,起补充说明的作用,如果省略掉,原句句意 仍保持完整。非限制性定语从句要用逗号与主句隔开,其引导词不能用 that。非限制性定 语从句属于正式语体。经常考到的非限制性定语从句有以下三种。

  1)
由 which、as 引导的非限制性定语从句。which、as 代表整个主句。
He said that he had never seen her before, which was not true.
China is still a developing country, which is known to all of us.

  2)
由 “介词+关系代词”引导的非限制性定语从句。
He sent her a letter, in which he said that he was sorry for what he had done to her.
He failed to pass the exam, because of which his parents scolded him.

  4)
由 “数词、代词或名词+of +关系代词”引导的非限制性定语从句。
He had three sons, one of whom was my son’s classmate.
There are about twenty students in this course, most of whom are freshmen.
They are two different words, the spellings of which are easily confused.
Ⅱ 状语从句

  1. 状语从句中以下四种从句考得较多,这里给予简单介绍。

  1)
时间状语从句
时间状语从句主要由以下连词引导:when, whenever, as, while, since, until, till, before, after, as soon as, once, hardly (scarcely) … when, no sooner … than。
I will discuss the matter with you when we meet tomorrow.
He didn’t go to sleep until he finished doing his homework.
You have changed a lot since we met last time.
时间状语从句还可由某些可充当连词的名词(the moment, the instant, every time,
等)和副词(instantly, directly 等)引导:
I will tell you the news the instant I know.
Directly the teacher came in everyone was quiet.
Note:

before 除了可表示 “在…之前”外,还可用来强调主句所表达的时间、距离
很长或花费的力量相比较大,可译为“…才”。(“not … before” 可用来强调主句所表 达的时间、距离很短或花费的力量相比较小,可译为“…就”)。
It was a long time before I got to sleep again.
They had not been married a month before they quarreled.

如果位于 when 引导的分句之前的主句使用过去进行时、过去完成时或
“was/were about to, was/were on the point of”等结构时,when 表示突然发生某事, 可译为“正在…突然”或“刚…就”等。这时,不能够用 as 或 while 来代替 when。
I was walking on the street when I ran into my old friend John.
She had just fallen asleep when the telephone rang.
We were about to leave when it began to rain.

  2)
条件状语从句
条件状语从句主要由以下连词引导:if, unless, providing/provided (that), suppose/supposing (that), on condition (that), as/so long as, in case 等。
So long as you work hard, you will surely achieve good results in examinations.
I shall return next Thursday unless something unexpected happens.
I will go provided that you go with me.
Please give this letter to John in case he comes.

  3)
让步状语从句
让步状语从句主要由以下连词引导:though, although, even if, even though, whatever, however, whoever, wherever, no matter how/ what/ where/ when 等。以下 介绍几种较特殊的让步状语从句。
(
  1)
while 引导的让步状语从句多放在句首,while 相当于 although,表示“尽管”,
“虽然”。
While I admit I did it, I didn’t intend to.
While I understand what you say, I can’t agree with you.
(
  2) 短语 “even now/then/so” 相当于 “though it is/was true” 表示 , “尽管如此” , “尽管这样”。
The fire was out, but even so, the smell of smoke was strong.
I’ve tried my best, but even now/then she is not satisfied.
(
  3)
as 引导的让步状语从句要倒装。
Child as he was, he could speak four languages.
Hard as she tried, she failed to get the job.

  4)
比较状语从句
比较状语从句主要由以下连词引导:(not) as … as, (not) the same as, (not) such … as, not so … as, than, the + 比较级…, the +比较级…等。
We have had a lot more rainfall this year than we had last year.
She can speak English as fluently as her teacher (can).
Ⅲ 宾语从句

  1)
及物动词后的宾语从句
有些动词的宾语从句前还可有一个间接宾语。 I remember that we have learned this word before. I don’t understand what you have said. She asked the teacher how she could learn English well.
  2) 介词的宾语从句
It depends on whether you want to do it or not There is disagreement among economists about what money is and how money is measured. Note: 在介词 in 后面跟 that 引导的宾语从句中,in that 可看成是一个固定的搭配, 表示“因为”或“在…方面”。 The evidence is invalid in that it was obtained through illegal means. A turtle differs from all other reptiles in that it has its body encased in a protective shell of its own.
 

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