Unit 1 Social Customs Task 1 A
  1. She wanted to see St. Paul’s Cathedral.
  2. She was so surprised because she saw so many Englishmen who looked alike.
  3. They were all wearing dark suits and bowler hats, carrying umbrellas and newspapers.
  4. Because she had often read about them and seen photographs of them, who all looked as if they were wearing a uniform.
  5. No, he didn’t.
  6. He used the English saying “It takes all kinds to make a world” to prove his opinion. B If all the seas were one sea, what a great sea it would be! And if all the trees were one tree, what a great tree it would be! And if this tree were to fall in the sea, what a great splash there would be! Task 2 A
  1. people were much busier
  2. colder than England; minus thirty degrees; last longer
  3. much more mountainous; much higher and much more rocky; more beautiful
  4. tend to be more crowded
  5. the houses; smaller B
  1. T
  2. T
  3. F
  4. F
  5. F Task 3 A
  1. In the US, people usually dance just to enjoy themselves; they don’t invite other people to watch them.
  2. Usually eight people dance together.
  3. Because people form a square in dancing with a man and a woman on each side of the square. B
  1. F
  2. T
  3. F
  4. F
  5. T C
  1. eight people form a square; on each side of the square
  2. what they should do; makes it into a song; sings it
  3. don’t have much time to think
  4. old-fashioned clothes C
  1. eight people form a square; on each side of the square
  2. what they should do; makes it into a song; sings it
  3. don’t have much time to think
  4. old-fashioned clothes
Task 4
  1. It was a time to celebrate the end of winter and the beginning of spring.
  2. They burned the picture of their kitchen god to bring good luck.
  3. The custom said the brides must wear “something old, something new, something borrowed, and something blue” to bring good luck.
  4. Because they could not eat meat, eggs or dairy products during Lent, so they tried to use up these things before Lent began.
  5. It was a straw man made by children in Czech; it was a figure of death.
  6. People brought their animals to church. And before the animals went into the church people dressed them up in flowers and ribbons. Task 5 A
  1. F
  2. T
  3. F
  4. T
  5. F
  6. T
  7. T B Life in Victorian times Advantages: Lots of servants to do the work; beautiful clothes to wear; lots of tea parties; life being slower; plenty of time to talk to each other, play the piano or play cards together Disadvantages: Terrible life for servants; very uncomfortable clothes; boring and formal tea partiesoften no men being invited; much more illness; children left with servants all day; very poor education; no freedom for women Life today Advantages: Lots of machines to help with the housework; a much better life for children; more freedom for women Disadvantages: People being always rushing, having no time to stop or enjoy themselves; too much time spent in front of the television, no talk to each other Task 6 A
  1. b
  2. a
  3. c
  4. a B
  1. family unit; process; change; used to be; the extended; the nuclear
  2. job patterns; progressed; agricultural; industrial; forced; job opportunities; split up
  3. traditional; family; expanded; other living arrangements C
  1. mother, father, children, and some other relatives, such as grandparents, living in the same house or nearby
  2. only the parents and the children
  3. previously married men and women marry again and combine the children from
former marriages into a new family Task 7 A
  1. Both
  2. Men
  3. Both
  4. Women
  5. Men
  9. Women
  10. Women
  11. Men
  12. Women B
  1. c
  2. c
  3. a
  4. b
  5. c
  6. c
  7. c

  6. Men

  7. Women

  8. Women
Task 8 A
  1. a
  2. c
  3. b
  4. c
  5. c
  6. b
  7. c
  8. b B
  1. T
  2. T
  3. F
  4. F
  5. T
  6. F
  7. F
  8. F
  9. T
  10.F Task 9 Social customs and ways of behaving change. But they do not necessarily always change for the better. Things which were considered impolite many years ago are now acceptable. Just a few years ago, it was considered impolite behaviour for a man to smoke on the street. No man who thought of himself as being a gentleman would make a fool of himself by smoking when a lady was in the room. The important thing to remember about social customs is not to do anything that might make nobleman who had a very formal dinner party. When the food was served, one f the guests started to eat his peas with a knife. Other guests were amused or shocked, but the nobleman calmly picked up his knife and began eating in the same way. It would have been bad manners to make his guest feel foolish or uncomfortable. Unit 2 Weather Task 1
  1. b
  2. a
  3. d Task 2 A
  1. T
  2. F B
  1. d
  2. c C
  1. climate
  8. dull

  3. F
  3. c
  2. reputation
  3. extraordinary
  4. unreliable
  5. dry
  6. wet
  9. hot
  10. cold
  11. bad
  12. mild
  7. clear
Task 3
  1. the country; Trees, grass, lakes and steams
  2. concrete; take in the heat during the day and throw off heat into the air at night; Warmer winters, car engines; electrical appliance

  3. air pollution may stop sunlight from reaching the earth; Ice near the North and South poles to melt; to be slowly flooded and people living in these cities to move to higher land Task 4 A
  1. b
  2. c B
  1. night
  2. delight C
  1. F
  2. T
  3. F Task 5
  1. c
  2. b

  3. morning
  4. warning
  5. gray
  6. way
  7. red

  8. head

  3. d

  4. c
  5. c
Task 6 A
  1. F
  2. T
  3. F
  4. T
  5. F
  6. T B
  1. incredible
  2. one minute
  3. one kilometer
  6. carried away
  7. killed
  8. injured

  4. destroyed

  5. lifted up
Task 7 A
  1. b
  2. a
  3. b B
  1. For today: It has been nice weather during the day, but it is going to change at night.
  2. For the weekend: Fine weather in southern Europe and not so nice in northern Europe C For today Southeast England26 degrees Celsius by mid-afternoon Southern ScotlandMaximum temperatures of around 21 degrees Brighton15 hours of lovely sunshine Midlands23 degrees Celsius by early afternoon Northwest of ScotlandLight showers around midday For the weekend Spain34 degrees Celsius Greece32 degrees Celsius FranceCloudy with rain, maximum temperatures of 22 degrees Northern IrelandHeavy rain, 17 degrees Celsius Most of EnglandCloudy but mainly dry with sunny periods, 23 degrees Celsius
Task 8 Natural Phenomena Faraway objects are more sharply focused. Birds’ calls become Sharper.
Air Pressure (Rise or Fall) Fall Fall
Causes The dust particles begin to settle to the ground in thinner air and the air clears. Instead of traveling upward and outward into the atmosphere they are bent back to the earth and their range extended. The methane is trapped in the bottom of the swamp because of the thick air. Birds prefer to fly where the air is the densest and they can get greater lift with their wings Smoke rises with thicker air. The gas in our bodies expands in lower air pressure.
Swamp doesn’t smell very strong. Bird fly high.
Rise Rise
Smoke rise high in the air Elderly people’s joints ache.
Rise Fall
Task 9 A Statements 3, 6, 7 are true. B f?c?a?d?b?e C
  1. F
  2. T
  3. F
  4. F D
  1. d
  2. b Task 10 Undoubtedly, Tibet is one of the harshest places for human existence. It is cool in summer but freezing cold in winter. In Lhasa, the mildest city in Tibet, temperatures may exceed 29 degrees Celsius in summer while plummeting to -16 degrees Celsius in winter! Sun radiation is extremely strong in Tibet. The sunlight in Lhasa is so intense that the city is called Sunlight City. The thin air can neither block off nor retain heat so that there are great temperature extremes on the same day! The average temperature in northern Tibet is subzero and winter arrives in October until the following May or June. July or August are the best time to visit the area, enjoying warm temperatures, intense sunshine, beautiful scenery and festive events. May, June and September represent the tourist season in east Tibet. In winter, roads are blocked by heavy snow. Land slides and rock falls frequently occur, which will make travel difficult. Unit 3 Task 1 Social Issues
A
  1. Stress on the job costs American companies as much as $150 billion a year in lower productivity, unnecessary employee sick leave, and higher medical costs.
  2. The most stressful professions are those that involve danger and extreme pressure and those that carry a lot of responsibility without much control.
  3. The best way to deal with stress is through relaxation, but sometimes the only answer is to fight back or walk away. B
  1. Three- quarters
  2. psychologists, doctors
  3. nervousness, anger, frequent illness, forgetfulness, mental problems Task 2 A
  1. give in so easily to hijackers’ demands a) threaten to blow up a plane, commit some other outage b) hold out against this kind of blackmail, always have terrorists, Start executing terrorists automatically c) be prepared to face the consequences of evil 2 a) It’s the lesser of two evils. Terrorists have proven often enough that they really mean business. b) Innocent lives, threatening the innocent will achieve its ends. B
  1. She implies that if the first speaker was one of the victims of terrorism, she would want the government to give in to the demands so that she wouldn’t die. Task 3 A
  1. thirty-five, natural light, a small window, hot, airless, very noisy
  2. Mexico
  3. ought to, shouldn’t B
  1. It is located in a narrow street with five-and six-storey buildings eight kilometers from downtown Los Angeles.
  2. This factory makes shirts and jeans
  3. She’s already been working for ten hours, but won’t stop for another two hours.
  4. She can’t complain about those things because she is an illegal immigrant. Task 4 A Every year the British government publishes statistics about social trends. Their findings show definite patterns in the British way of life.

  1. marked differences a) one hour more every day, three hours more every week b) 1 percent, cleaning and ironing, keep household accounts, do repairs or improvements c) 30 percent
  2. leisure activities, watching television, 20 hours a week, going for walks, Swimming, British women B
  1. Unlike the other couples, Carla has always kept her won accounts and Adrian has always done his own housework. Neither of them like watching television very much and they both like swimming. Task 5 A Topic: How a city in Japan solve the problem of garbage disposal. Supporting details: 160 million, every year, 10 percent, 10 percent, the rest, public cooperation
  1. garbage that can be easily burned, kitchen and garden trash
  2. electrical appliances, plastic tools, plastic toys
  3. are poisonous, cause pollution, batteries
  4. bottles and glass containers that can be recycled
  5. metal containers that can be recycled
  6. furniture and bicycled on different days, on request, fertilizer, to produce electricity, recycled, cleaned, repaired, resold cheaply, give away B
  1. The garbage will be taken to a center that looks like a clean new office building or hospital. Inside the center, special equipment is used to sort and process the garbage.
  2. official from cities around the world visit Machida to see whether they can use some of these ideas and techniques to solve their own garbage disposal problems. Task 6
  1. They were talking about Mrs. Carter.
  2. She was a tall, handsome woman who used to come into the shop at least twice a week.
  3. She lived alone in a large house on an old farmabout three miles from the shop.
  4. He was absolutely certain, otherwise he would never call the police. His evidence was this: First, he saw her do it; second, he found the things in her bag; third, she had done it before.
  5. Because two young people saw her. The shopkeeper believed that if they didn’t punish her, young people would think that stealing didn’t matter.

  6. The judge thought that it was difficult case from a humanitarian point of view. The excuses her found for her were: First, the woman was old and she lived aloneshe was lonely. Second, she wasn’t poorshe was well-known for her generosity to charities and she didn’t need to steal. Te items were only worth a pound or two. Third, she pleaded not guilty and she didn’t know that she had done it. Task 7 A Topic: According to the urban planner, not all modern cities are alike. There seem to be two types of modern city.
  1. a single high-density center, skyscrapers, motorways, as far as you can see
  2. the low-density multi-center city, a large collection of a number of small centers, shopping centers, factories, businesses, skyscrapers B
  1. He thinks that the second type( the Los Angeles model) is more sensible.
  2. He considers it highly likely that the kind of city we know now will completely disappear. Task 8 A
  1. He thinks that this country’s problems all come from inflation, which is the result of the Democrat’s careless spending.
  2. No, she doesn’t agree with Ned. She believes that the problem is unemployment. If the government cuts spending too much, people will fall into a vicious circle of more unemployment and fewer taxpayers to share the burden.
  3. She agrees with Barbara. She believes that unemployment is a big problem, especially in the big industrial cities. And the government isn’t doing very much to help the big industries out.
  4. He believes in the free market system rather than government regulation or protection. He thinks that without a lot of government interference everything will be okay.
  5. No, they think it’s bad for the weak, the poor and the unprotected/ it’s bad for the underprivileged. B
  1. more and more money
  2. come from somewhere
  3. higher taxes and higher prices
 

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