大学英语议论文范文
【大学英语议论文范文】 The politics of protest(布迪厄) Pierre Bourdieu has become a leading figure in the radical movements that have swept Franc e in the last few years. He talked to Kevin Ovenden about anti-capitalism and resistance The Weight of the World was recently published in Britain. It describes through interviews in t he early 1990s the ''social suffering of contemporary society''. Why is life getting harder for mo st people? There are similarities between what has happened to people''s lives in France and in Britain. The main issue, of course, is neo-liberalism and what I call the retreat of the state. The state h as abandoned a lot of areas that it was involved in, such as healthcare, education, and social provision. When we conducted this study it was only beginning. Now it is far worse. So for example, in F rance neo-liberal philosophy has become embedded in all the social practices and policies of the state. It has become internalised in the minds of the political establishment. The minister o f education who was recently forced out of office, Claude All gh policies''--a drive for efficiency and productivity. Instead of looking very carefully at how education works, the neo-liberals opt for a very simple solution. They create competition between schools and between the directors of schools, wh o have to compete for budgets and for students. This competition is fake--it is artificially constr ucted. It does not arise spontaneously from the way the education system works. The educati on system was not perfect. I was very critical of it. But instead of correcting it and providing th e means to better it, they destroy it by introducing this capitalistic vision of education. One could say the same about healthcare. I recently read a record of a meeting between a gr oup of professors of medicine who are traditionally very conservative. They went to meet prim e minister Jospin. He did not receive them. A technocrat met them instead. The transcript of t he discussion is terrible. The people say, ''Look, I never demonstrated or participated in any st rike or protest movement. But for the first time I am forced to speak out on behalf of my patien ts.'' One gave an example of a 73 year old woman who had cancer, but her medicine was too expensive for the hospital''s budget. Another said that his hospital does not have the money t o pay anaesthetists, so there are no anaesthetists at night. He asked the technocrat, ''Would you send your wife to such a hospital?'' He replies, ''That''s a personal question which I will no t answer.'' We are seeing a blind and chaotic response to the problems of public institutions. We have ha d a very hierarchical system in healthcare for many years. But after 1968 younger people tried to change it. They tried to make the system more collective and introduce the idea of working as part of a team. Now that is being destroyed because they work under the threat of cuts an d demands for greater productivity. Centre-left parties are in government across most of Europe. They are presiding over these n eo-liberal policies. Do you see anything new in the way social democratic parties are governin g? I am very sceptical about the idea that there is this new approach called the Third Way or the Neue Mitte. We have, to varying degrees across the continent, basically neo-liberal policies dr essed up with talk of a new form of politics which is not terribly new at all. So we find social de ? re, was very similar to the one you have in Britain. He introduced into education so called ''tou
mocratic rhetoric being deployed to destroy the social democratic policies which grew up in th e period after the Second World War. In France many of those pushing this offensive hail from the 1968 generation. They became r adicalised then, but now are incorporated into the system. The failure of the Mitterrand years generated a backlash against the French Socialist Party. Of course, the great revolt of Decem ber 1995 ushered in a wave of social movements which brought the Socialists back into powe r. But the aim of the government and its technocrats is to curtail and destroy those movements. Ministers and advisers use their prestige and experience from 1968 against the movements. When students occupied the ole Normale Supieur, the government figure arguing to send the police in firmly and swiftly had himself taken part in the occupations of 19
  68. People in Germany and in Britain often tell me that it must be wonderful to live in France with t he 35 hour week and other reforms. But those gains are a result of the pressure of the move ments. They are not freely given by the government. The left government believes it can be m ore successful than the right in controlling those movements. How do your sociological ideas influence your political stance? You developed your ideas wh en structuralism was the main influence on French intellectuals. I was not a structuralist. That approach saw the world as composed of structures which strictl y determine the way people act. There was no scope for human agency. As the structuralist Marxist Louis Althusser said in the 1960s, human beings were merely the ''unconscious beare rs of objective structures''. The results of my anthropological work in Algeria in the 1950s did n ot fit into this structuralist framework. Of course people are structured by society. They are not, as free market theory holds, isolate d individuals each deciding a course of action by making individual economic calculations. I d eveloped the concept of ''habitus'' to incorporate the objective structures of society and the su bjective role of agents within it. The habitus is a set of dispositions, reflexes and forms of behaviour people acquire through a cting in society. It reflects the different positions people have in society, for example, whether they are brought up in a middle class environment or in a working class suburb. It is part of how society reproduces itself. But there is also change. Conflict is built into society . People can find that their expectations and ways of living are suddenly out of step with the n ew social position they find themselves in. This is happening in France today. Then the questi on of social agency and political intervention becomes very important. The heart of Marxism is the struggle by the working class for its own emancipation. Where do you place the struggles of the working class within the spectrum of the social movements you are involved in? Seattle brought together organised labour and various single-issue campaigns. They were oft en mobilised on different political bases, but they influenced one another. That is new. For the first time we have the possibility of aggregating these kinds of people who were very suspicio us of one another. In France we have this tradition of workerism which is anti-intellectual. The unions are very ho stile to intellectuals and the intellectuals are very distant from workers. In 1968 it was very visi ble. Now for the first time because of the failure of Soviet Marxism we are free from that. So I can speak with a CGT official as I am speaking to you. They are very open. In a sense intellec
tuals like me did not exist 20 years ago. People like Sartre and Foucault were sympathetic to t he movement, but they did not have much empirical knowledge of workers. Seattle is very important in showing how new forces are developing. The small farmers'' leade r Jos?Bov?is well informed. He expresses himself clearly without the oversimplification which you hear from politicians. He is an intellectual. But at the same time he works on his farm. I recently organised a meeting of all the leaders of the social movements in France--the unem ployed, the sans papiers immigrants, some trade unionists. You had anarchists, Trotskyists, Marxists--all types. The discussion was at a level you could not imagine. You can see the revi val of a left political culture in the huge sales of Le Monde Diplomatique. Some suspicion still r emains among those who are working together, of course. But at the end of the meeting they gave Raisons d''Agir, the group I am involved in, a mandate to issue a charter for a European social movement. We must escape nationalist division and have an international movement to fight against global capital. How can the movements generalise and how will the different ideas within them be clarified? The way the movement will develop is open. It is a process. We plan to publish an appeal for a European movement against neo-liberalism in May. We are seeking the support of the DGB union federation in Germany, the CGT in France, intellectuals, social movements and many d ifferent organisations. There will be a meeting in September of different movements to elabor ate this charter. Then we will hold a conference in Athens in March of next year to discuss tha t and try to create the foundations of a social Europe. We have many ideas, but we must work on them. The aim is to create an intellectual and practical opposition. It is not only intellectual s. One of the most important leaders of one of the main unions in Greece wants to fund the co nference. Our mission is to organise and try to help people to communicate. There is a division of labour in this developing movement. Social scientists can help to overco me difficulties. If we want an effective social movement at the level of Europe we must overco me that--otherwise we will disappear. There are powerful political obstacles between people. The main obstacles come from the so cial democratic movement. If we succeed in overcoming these it will lead to a genuine Third Way which will be much more radical. We need to build the left of the left. In the ecology mov ement you have people who are really on the left--even among the Communist Party, which h as had a deadening effect on the left in France. Many people are coming to realise that globalisation is more of a political imperative than an e conomic fact. Three quarters of the exchange of goods in Europe is internal to Europe. The s ocial democratic parties in power could implement policies to limit the free market. How will we force them? Will we require a new political party? I don''t know. It would be nice if we could force them, but I am not sure if we can. It seems to me there is a crisis of the social democratic governments. In Britain the crisis of Blairism has well and truly started. There is also the crisis of the right wing parties in much of Europe, parti cularly the CDU in Germany. The true left has always faced a false choice: you vote for the rig ht or you accept this fake left wing. We have had the same problem in France since 19
  81. Forces other than the left are trying to gain a hearing. So we see the Haider phenomenon in A ustria. But he has not gone unchallenged. The recreation of a true left wing movement will be the main instrument of the destruction of Haider. Nobody spoke about Le Pen and the Nation al Front in France during the hot winter of 1995 in France. The mass movement in defence of
pensions in Italy also marginalised the far right. Whether the revival of the left will lead to a new party is an open question. So too is how idea s will be clarified. The main thing is to build the movement. No one should doubt the radical c hanges that are happening in the way people think. I am more optimistic about the future than at any time in the last three decades, despite the seeming triumph of global capitalism
 

相关内容

大学英语议论文范文

   大学英语议论文范文 【大学英语议论文范文】 The politics of protest(布迪厄) Pierre Bourdieu has become a leading figure in the radical movements that have swept Franc e in the last few years. He talked to Kevin Ovenden about anti-capitalism and resistance The Weight of the ...

英语议论文范文

   题目:使用电脑的利弊 People can go to shop, bank and work with computer. But the danger of the computer is people are getting isolated and losing some social skills. To what extent do you agree with this opinion? 范文: The progression of computer is inevitable ...

大学英语B作文范文

   作文范文( 大学英语 B 作文范文(2008.04) ) 1. My Plan for the Spring Festival The Spring Festival is the most important festival for Chinese people. Many people will prepare many things for the Spring Festival. Now this is my plan for the Spring Festival. First, ...

大学英语B作文范文(全)

   大学英语 B 作文范文(上) 1. My Plan for the Spring Festival(我春节的计划) Spring Festival is the most important festival for Chinese people. Many people will prepare many things for the Spring Festival. Now this is my plan for the Spring Festival. First, I will vi ...

17份 英语议论文范文

   FOR USE IN NATIONAL JUNIOR COLLEGE ONLY NATIONAL JUNIOR COLLEGE GENERAL PAPER PRELIMINARY EXAMS 2008 BEST ESSAYS ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS: The Year2/ IP4 GP Teaching Team would like to thank a) the writers for agreeing to share their essays and b) the tea ...

英语议论文

   英语议论文 王为刚 赵子豪 侯东辰 " 议论文(Argumentation)叫论说文,是一种抒发己 见、分析事物、纵横事理、提主张的一种书面文 体。其基本目的是阐述作者自己的观点,说服读 者了解并接受自己的主张。一篇有说服力的议论 文必须论理严谨,逻辑紧密,分析透彻,说理充 分。据统计了从1987年9月至2008年6月的41次CET 4考试的写作题,发现大学英语四级考试短文写 作的呈现多样性,但其中以议论文写作所占的比 重最大,共考了19次,比例达到了46.3%。由此 可以看出议论文在大学 ...

¥英语议论文模版

   英语议论文模板 英语议论文模板 议论文 1. 对比观点型(论述两个对立的观点并给出自己的看法) 1) 模板一(块状比较模板) 模板一(块状比较模板) 模板 The topic of (主题) is becoming more and more popular recently. There are two sides of opinions about it. Some people say _A__ is their favorite. They hold their view for t ...

商务英语论文范文

   Information technology is significantly changing the operating practices of an increasing number of companies globally. These developments have important implications for the accounting profession and in particular accounting practices in the twent ...

英语议论文写作模板

   Recently,the problem ofhas aroused people's concern. However, different people hold different attitudes toward. A lot of people seem to think that There is no doubt that enough concern must be paid to the problem of.It does us much harm(good). I qu ...

英语议论文写作模板

   问题解决型作文模板 问题解决型模板一 TOPIC ① With the of , . ② So it is of great importance for us to . ③ On one hand, . ④ On the other hand, . ⑤ However, we have figured out many ways to . ⑥ Firstly, . ⑦ So long as . ⑧ Secondly, ⑨ Thirdly, . ⑩ In fact, . 11. That i ...

热门内容

【商务英语口语 900句】学习必备

   没事就用这些词练练你的嘴皮子~~ 没事就用这些词练练你的嘴皮子~~ ●说吧,你是想死呢还是不想活了? 说吧,你是想死呢还是不想活了? 说吧 ●好久没有人把牛皮吹的这么清新脱俗了! 好久没有人把牛皮吹的这么清新脱俗了! 好久没有人把牛皮吹的这么清新脱俗了 ●你给我滚,马不停蹄的滚…… 你给我滚,马不停蹄的滚 你给我滚 ●人人都说我丑,其实我只是美得不明显。 人人都说我丑,其实我只是美得不明显。 人人都说我丑 ●无理取闹 必有所图! 无理取闹,必有所图 无理取闹 必有所图! ●天被熬亮了。 天被 ...

七年级英语上册

   第二单元检测题 一单项选择题。 一单项选择题。 1.Is this her baseball? A.Yes,it isn’t . B.No, it is. C.Yes,it is D.No,it isn’t. 2.This is eraser and that’sgold ring. A. a, an B.an, an C.an, a D.a, a 3.this ? A.What’s ,This a computer. B.What’s, It’s C.What ,It D.What,Th ...

今2011年专业英语四级作文十大热点话题预测

   2011 年专业英语四级作文十大热点话题预测 一、低碳与环保 构思点拨 图片中一个小男孩,早已进入甜蜜的梦乡,电视却依然在播放,这时候妈妈走过来帮 他关了电视,还责备他为什么总是忘记关电视。显然,直观看来,这幅图是在告诉我们要 节约用电。但是,我们如果从更宏观,更深层次的角度去思考,这幅图正是在告诉我们一 个流行的生活理念:低碳生活。所以本文旨在倡导一种低碳环保的生活方式。因此本文的 内容和结构可如下: 第一段:描述图画;第二段:列举现象,分析影响;第三段:建议措施,展望未来。 思维拓展 环 ...

2011届高考英语4写作

   三、写作 1 山东) (2009?山东) 山东 假设你是李华,曾在美国学习半年,现已回国。 假设你是李华,曾在美国学习半年,现已回国。 你想联系你的美国老师Mr.Smith,但没有其联系方 你想联系你的美国老师 , 请根据以下要点给你的美国同学Tom写一封信: 写一封信: 式。请根据以下要点给你的美国同学 写一封信 1.感谢 感谢Tom对你英语学习的帮助; 对你英语学习的帮助; 感谢 对你英语学习的帮助 2.询问 询问Mr.Smith的近况并索要其联系方式; 的近况并索要其联系方式; 询问 ...

2007年山东省普通高等学校招生统一考试英语试卷

   2007 年普通高等学校招生全国统一考试(山东卷) 英语试卷 第Ⅰ卷(共 105 分) 第一部分 听力(共两节,满分 30 分) 该部分分为第一、第二两节。注意:回答听力部分时,请先将答案标在试卷上。听力部分结束前,你将有 两分钟的时间将你的答案转涂到客观题答题卡上。 第一节 (共 5 小题;每小题 1.5 分,满分 7.5 分) 听下面 5 段对话。每段对话后有一个小题,从题中所给的 A、B、C 三个选项中选出最佳选项,并标在 试卷的相应位置。听完每段对话后,你都有 10 秒钟的时间来回答 ...