Unit One
Text I "Never Give In, Never,
Never, Never"
by Winston Churchill
An Integrated English Course Book 3
PrePre-reading Questions
Do you know when and how World War II broke out? What else do you know about it? What do you know of Winston Churchill?
Listening and Speaking
Listen to a passage about Winston Churchill and discuss the following question: What had Winston Churchill achieved in his lifetime as a statesman. an artist, a writer and a soldier?
For your reference
Winston Churchill (1874-19
  65) (1874-
Greatest modern British statesman: He was a direct descendant from the first Duke of Marlborough, the son of Lord Randolph Churchill. After an early career as an army officer and war correspondent he became a Conservative member of Parliament, in 1901, changing to the Liberals in 19
  05.
He was home secretary (内政大臣) (1910(内政大臣 (1910内政大臣)
  11), a dynamic first lord of the admiralty (海军大臣) (1911-
  15), and held various 海军大臣) (1911government posts (1917-
  22). (1917 He was Conservative chancellor of the exchequer (财政大臣) (1924-
  29), but in the (财政大臣 (1924财政大臣) 1930s his unpopular demands for war preparedness kept him from power.
In World War II he was first lord of the admiralty (1939-
  40) and prime minister (1939(1940(1940-
  45). As such he became one of the great war leaders, leading Great Britain through World War II; his outstanding oratory maintained Britain's morale, and he was one of the main shapers of Allied (同盟国 (同盟国 的) strategy working closely with American President Roosevelt. renowned for his courage, imagination, oratory and intellect
A postwar reaction cost his party the 1945 election, but he was again prime minister later (1951(1951-
  55). In his later years, he spent much time writing history of the EnglishEnglishspeaking people and painting. Churchill published several works, including The Second World War (1948-19
  53), (1948a combination of and won the 1953 Nobel soldier, writer, Prize for literature. orator, artist and statesman
Text Comprehension
What is Churchill's purpose of making the speech? To encourage people to hold on in the stern situation.
Structural Analysis
Part I (Paragraph
  1) opening remarks: Churchill summarized the great events that had happened in the world with Great Britain in particular and then talked about the purpose of his visit to encourage the whole nation to fight against the Nazis.
Part II (Paragraphs 2-
  5) body of the speech: 2Churchill analyzed the world situation and how other countries looked at Britain and then called on the British people not to give in. Part III (Paragraphs 6-
  8) closing remarks: 6By changing a word in the additional verse of the school song, Churchill expressed his conviction that this nation was determined to fight for the victory of this great war.
Paragraph Analysis
Opening Remarks: Paragraph 1
Q: What was Churchill's intention of singing some of their songs? A: At the initial stage of the Second World War, Great Britain was fighting in isolation against Nazi Fascists. Some British people doubted whether their nation could win the war with their own efforts. Churchill wanted to convey the conviction of the government to the British people through these songs and encourage them not to give in.
Language Work
Paragraph 1

  1. at your Head Master's kind invitation 受你们校长的好心邀请 at prep. in accord with, following Other examples: at one's request 依照/应…的请求 依照/ E.g. We came at your mother's request. request. at one's disposal 听凭…自由处理,由…做主, 由… 听凭…自由处理, 做主, 随意支配, 随意支配,使用 E.g. I put/left/placed my car at his disposal. disposal.
at one's command 由…支配; 听…吩咐, 奉…之命 支配; 吩咐, E.g. He offered me all the money at his command. command. It was done at the queen's command. command. I'm at your command. 我随时听候您的吩咐. command. 我随时听候您的吩咐. at one's service 随时供…使用; 随时为…提供服 随时供…使用; 随时为… 务/效劳 E.g. My car is at your service. service. If you need any help, I am at your service. 随时为您服务/效劳; service. 随时为您服务/效劳;请随时吩咐
at one's pleasure: as one wishes or pleasure: desires 随…的意愿; 随意,请便 的意愿; 随意, E.g. You may go or stay at your pleasure. pleasure. at one's convenience 在…方便时 E.g. Please do it at your convenience. convenience. Please send the goods at your earliest convenience. 从速, convenience. 从速,尽快

  2. Synonyms: disaster, calamity, catastrophe (referring to an event having fatal or ruinous results "灾难") "灾难 灾难" disaster: generally implies great destruction, hardship, or loss of life; life; 尤指"不可预测的意外事件所造成的灾难或不幸" 尤指"不可预测的意外事件所造成的灾难或不幸" ( (e.g. natural disasters: a great flood or fire, an earthquake; a serious defeat in war; the loss of a large sum of money) adj. disastrous
calamity: emphasizes distress, grief, or the sense of loss E.g. "the heaviest calamity in English history, the breach with America" (James George Frazer). "英国历史上最沉重的灾难,是和美国关系的破裂 英国历史上最沉重的灾难, 詹姆斯乔治弗雷泽). " (詹姆斯乔治弗雷泽). adj. calamitous catastrophe: especially stresses the sense of catastrophe: a tragic final outcome 突然而来造成极大苦难及毁灭的大灾难" 指"突然而来造成极大苦难及毁灭的大灾难"或 异常的灾祸" 最终结局无法补偿之意" "异常的灾祸", 含"最终结局无法补偿之意" adj. catastrophic

  3. ups and downs: alternating periods of good and bad fortune or spirits. 高低起伏; 沉浮, 兴衰, 顺逆, 荣枯: 高低起伏; 沉浮, 兴衰, 顺逆, 荣枯:好运和坏运 或好心情和坏心情) (或好心情和坏心情)的交替变换的时期 E.g. With constant ups and downs as well as numerous turns and twists along the range of hills it sits on, Badaling looks very much like a dragon with imposing magnificence. 八达岭高低起伏,曲折绵廷,宛若苍龙,气势磅礴. 八达岭高低起伏,曲折绵廷,宛若苍龙,气势磅礴. The ups and downs of pitch makes speaking Chinese sound like singing. 声调的抑扬起伏使中国人说话像唱歌. 声调的抑扬起伏使中国人说话像唱歌.
Translate: 邓小平一生中经历过"三落三起" 邓小平一生中经历过"三落三起" . Deng Xiaoping experienced three ups and downs in his life. 我感到很幸运,人生无论得意失意, 总有你相伴在身旁. 我感到很幸运,人生无论得意失意, 总有你相伴在身旁. I feel lucky to have you that stay together with me through life's ups and downs. downs. 回首过去的一百年,两国关系跌宕起伏. 回首过去的一百年,两国关系跌宕起伏. The past century has seen ups and downs of the relationship between the two countries.

  4. the unmeasured menace of the enemy: the immense or immeasurable threat or danger of the enemy attack unmeasured adj.
  1) not measured
  2) beyond measure; without limits E.g. the unmeasured vastness of solar system The reduced efficiency in feed utilization can produce unmeasured economic losses. 饲料利用率降低可造成了不可估量的经济损失. 饲料利用率降低可造成了不可估量的经济损失.
Synonyms: unlimited, limitless, boundless, endless, measureless, immeasurable, infinite, immense, vast

  5. lull n. a relatively calm interval; an interval of interval; lessened activity 暂停,间歇,稍止 暂停,间歇, E.g. a lull in sales / wind / conversation Translate: Translate: 这只是暴风雨前的暂时平静. 这只是暴风雨前的暂时平静. This is just the lull before the storm. 经过两星期的间歇以后,地面战斗又突然爆发了. 经过两星期的间歇以后,地面战斗又突然爆发了. Ground fighting flared up again after a twotwo-week lull. lull.
v.
  1) cause to sleep or rest E.g. lull someone to sleep Translate: 我们花了一整夜时间才把婴儿哄睡着. 我们花了一整夜时间才把婴儿哄睡着. It took us all night to lull the baby to sleep. sleep.
  2) make or become calm or less active 使平静,使平息; 消除, 使平静,使平息; 消除,缓和 E.g. The sea lulled / was lulled. 海浪平息了. lulled. 海浪平息了. lull sb.'s fears (suspicious) 消除某人恐惧(猜疑) 消除某人恐惧(猜疑) Translate: 时间和空间上的远距离有一种奇妙的力 可以使人的心灵平静. 量,可以使人的心灵平静. Great distance in either time or space has wonderful power to lull the human mind.

  3) deceive (into trustfulness, etc.) 哄骗; 麻痹(斗志等) 哄骗; 麻痹(斗志等) E.g. Nor will I allow yesterday's success to lull me into today's complacency, for this is the great foundation of failure. 我也不因昨日的成功而满足,因为这是失败的先兆. 我也不因昨日的成功而满足,因为这是失败的先兆. Translate: 这会使他们产生一种虚假的安全感. 这会使他们产生一种虚假的安全感. This will lull them into a false sense of security. lullaby n. 催眠曲, 摇篮曲 催眠曲,

  6. turn up
  1) make one's appearance, arrive 露面, 来到 露面, Translate: 我们请她吃饭她都不露面. 我们请她吃饭她都不露面. We invited her to dinner but she didn't even bother to turn up / show up. up.
  2) be found (东西)被找到 (东西 东西) Translate: 我担保你的手表准有一天能找到. 我担保你的手表准有一天能找到. I'm sure your watch will turn up one of these days.
  3) (of an opportunity, ect.) happen unexpectedly Translate: Just look carefully and be patient, and something will turn up. up. 只要仔细观察,有耐心,你就总会有所收获. 只要仔细观察,有耐心,你就总会有所收获.
Paragraph Analysis
Body of the Speech: Paragraphs 2-5 2 In this part, Churchill concentrated on the purpose of his speech, i.e. to inspire the people all over the country, men and women, old and young, to maintain the relentless spirit of this nation and to fight for the final victory of this great war.
Q1: What did Churchill mean by saying "we must learn to be equally good at what is short and sharp and what is long and tough"? A1: By saying this he meant to make the British people fully aware that they should not only be able to fight and win short and quick battles but also be ready to fight and win hard and enduring wars.
Q2: Why did Churchill quote Kipling as saying "treat those two impostors just the same"? A2: Because he tried to enlighten the British people from another perspective by implying that they should treat triumphs and disasters of the war in the same way. Sometimes triumphs were just overt phenomena, which could mislead people to a wrong conception. And disasters were not as frightening as they seemed to be, and we should not feel discouraged. The massive air force of Nazi Fascists was strong in appearance, but it could be defeated sooner or later.
Q3: What lesson had they learnt in the past ten months? A3: The lesson learnt throughout the past ten months was that when facing great difficulties, one should never give in. With the reasonable combination of imagination and courage, the British people could overcome any kind of difficulties and smash any attack of the mighty enemy.
Q4: What is the change in the widespread mood referred to in Paragraph 5? A4: Ten months ago, Hitler's air forces struck Britain and the whole nation was thrown into disorder and unease. Many other nations thought that this nation would be conquered soon just as what had happened to France. But when they gathered in the same school ten months later, they had accumulated, in addition to better armament, sufficient strength and confidence to fight against the Nazi troops.
Language Work
Paragraphs 2-5
  21. put through
  1) make … pass (through…); bring to a successful end 使穿过,通过; 做成 使穿过,通过; E.g. put the string through the hole in the handle of the brush put through a number of new laws / put the law through the parliament put though a business deal 完成一桩交易

  2) cause to undergo 使经历;使经受,遭受 使经历;使经受, E.g. The trainees were put through an exhausting assault course. 受训的队员参加了令人筋疲力尽的突击课程. 受训的队员参加了令人筋疲力尽的突击课程. Translate: 你让你全家受了不少苦. 你让你全家受了不少苦. You have put your family through much suffering.
  3) make a telephone connection for 接通电话 线 E.g. Please put me / this call through to 5543322, extension 2
  01. 请给我接5543322转201分机 请给我接5543322转201分机

  2. throw one's mind back to: recollect, recall to mind, bring to memory E.g. Please throw your mind back to 1945, when people all over the world were engaged in a great and cruel war against the Fascists. Translate: 他的故事使我想起另一个故事. 他的故事使我想起另一个故事. His story threw my mind back to another.
Synonyms: remember, recall, recollect (shared meaning: "to bring an image or a thought back to the mind") remember系常用词, 指过去的事情仍在记忆中, 不 remember系常用词 指过去的事情仍在记忆中, 系常用词, 必费劲就能想起: "
 

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