Appendix I
Key to Exercises (Units 1-
  8)
Unit 1
Part I Pre-Reading Task
Script for the recording: Ways of learning is the topic of this unit. It is also the topic of the song you are about to listen to, called Teach Your Children sung by Crosby, Stills and Nash.
Teach Your Children
Crosby, Stills and Nash
You, who are on the road,
Must nave a code that you can live by.
And so, become yourselr, Because the past is just a goodbye. Teach your cbildren well, Their lather's hell did slowly go by. And reed them on your dreams,
The one they picks, the one you'll mow by.
Don't you ever ash them why, ir they told you, you will cry, So just look at them and sigh and know they love you.
Appendix And you, oi tender years, Can't know the rears that your elders grew by. Ana so please help them with your youtb, They seek the truth before tbey can die. Teacb your parents well, Tbeir children's bell will slowly go by. And reed them on your dreams,
I
- 93 -
Tbe one tbey picks, tbe one you'll know by.
Don t you ever ask them why, ir tbey told you, you will cry, So just look at them and sigh and know tbey love you.
The first part of die song is about how parents can inspire their children through sharing with them their dreams, their hopes for a better life. It starts with advice on how you need a set of rules, "a code diat you can live by," to guide you on the road of life. Only then will you be able to fully realise all that is within you and "become yourself." Therefore, parents need to teach their children well. And children ? "you of tender years" ? also have something to teach their parents, for learning is not a one-way street. Children should share their own dreams with their parents so that young and old can get to understand each otiier better. That said, one should not go too far. For some things are perhaps better left unsaid between parents and children. "Don't you ever ask them why, if they told you, you will cry." At such moments all that there is left to do is to look at one another and sigh, happy in each otiier's love.
Part II
Text A
Text Organization
  1.
  1) The text begins with an anecdote/incident.
  2) His thoughts are mainly about different approaches to learning in China and the West.
  3) The end winds up the text with a suggestion in die form of a question.
Points for Comparison/Contrast
  1) ways to learn to accomplish a task
Chinese show a child how to do something, or teach by holding his hand
Americans teach children that they should rely on themselves for solutions to problems
94 -
Appendix I give greater priority to developing skills at an early age, believing creativity can be promoted over time put more emphasis on fostering creativity in young children, thinking skills can be picked up later

  2) attitudes to creativity and skills
Vocabulary
  1) insert
  2) on occasion
  3) investigate
  4) In retrospect
  5) initial
  6) phenomena
  7) attached
  8) make up for
  9) is awaiting
  10) exception
  11) not... in the least
  12) promote
  13) working on
  14) in due course
  15) emerged
  1) There is a striking contrast between the standard of living in the north of the country and the south.
  2) Natural fiber is said to be superior to synthetic fiber.
  3) The city's importance as a financial center has evolved slowly.
  4) His nationality is not relevant to whether he is a good lawyer.
  5) The poems by a little-known sixteenth-century Italian poet have found their way into some English magazines.
  3.
  1) Chinese isn't a subject that can be picked up in a month. You can't accomplish your goal of mastering the language unless you work at it for years. Well, it sounds as if I'm exaggerating the difficulties, but the fact is I'm only telling the truth.
  2) The principal is somewhat disappointed with the performance of the children. From what she has gathered, some of the teaching staff have neglected their pupils. She has just announced that strict work regulations have been made and that they apply to both Chinese and overseas teachers.
  3) The teacher-directed and the child-directed approaches to teaching art represent two extremes of opinion. Too many teacher-directed activities cannot be expected to effectively assisLchildren in learning because of the rigid structure. On the other hand, too many child-directed activities may see a curriculum that is totally unstructured and out of control. There are valid reasons to believe a teacher-guided approach would be a superior way
Appendix I
- 95 -
to guide children's development. This approach combines some form of structure with the child leading the direction. II. Confusable Words
  1.
  1) continual
  3) continual 2
  1) principal
  3) principle
  5) principal III. Usage
  1. themselves
  3. herself/by herself/on her own
  5. ourselves Structure
  1.
  1) Simon's ill ? so much so that he can't get out of bed.
  2) She herself believed in freedom, so much so that she would rather die than live without it.
  3) Piles of work have kept us busy ? so much so that we can't manage to take a holiday this year.
  4) Many contestants later failed drug tests, so much so that the race had to be rerun.
  2.
  1) Assuming (that) this painting really is a Picasso
  2) Assuming (that) the proposal is accepted
  3) assuming, of course, that she's prepared to listen
  4) Even assuming (that) smokers do see the health warnings Comprehensive Exercises I. Cloze (A)
  1. contrast
  3. priority
  5. promoting
  7. assist
  9. on occasion

  2) continuous
  4) continuous
  2) principal
  4) principles

  2. himself/herself
  4. itself
  6. yourself/by yourself/on your own

  2. exaggerating
  4. on the other hand
  6. pick up
  8. accomplish
  10. neglecting
- 96 -
Appendix I
  12. superior
  2. affect/influence
  4. each/them
  6. controlled
  8. value
  10. little
  12. but
  14. what
  16. and

  11. worthwhile (B)
  1. to
  3. others
  5. without
  7. about
  9. They
  11. right
  13. in
  15. worth
II. Translation I consider it worthwhile trying to summarize our experience in learning English. Here I would like to make three relevant points. First, wide reading should be taken as a priority in the learning process, because it is through reading that we get the most language input. Next, learning by heart as many well-written essays as possible is also very important. On the one hand, rote learning/learning by rote is indeed of little help, but on the other hand, memorization/learning by heart with a good understanding will certainly be of benefit/do good to us. With an enormous store of excellent essays in our heads, we will find it much easier to express ourselves in English. Finally, it is critical that we should put what we have learned into practice. By doing more reading, writing, listening and speaking, we will be able to accomplish the task of perfecting our English.
Part III TextB
Comprehension Check
  1. c
  3. d
  5. c Translation (#ja Appendix III)
  2. c
  4. a
  6. b
Appendix I
- 97 -
Language Practice

  1. adopt
  3. plus
  5. furthermore
  7. annual
  9. pace
  11. on demand
  13. perspective
  15. fell apart
  17. access
  19. deposit
  2. account
  4. ended up
  6. fund
  8. keeping track of
  10. intends
  12. devise
  14. undoubtedly
  16. protest
  18. resources
  20. from your point of view
Part IV Theme-Related Language Learning Tasks
Model paper How I Learn at College I went to school in a small town near Chengdu and now I am studying law at Fudan University in Shanghai. Passing from one to the other you have to get used to many new things, not the least being the different way of learning. At school I found my timetable full throughout the day. One lesson came close on the heels of another with little time to call one's own. At university, in contrast, only a few hours of each day are taken up with classes or lectures. In the time made available you are expected to learn on your own. When and where is up to you. At the same time what you are meant to learn shifts from memorizing masses of facts to developing an ability to understand theories and present arguments. There are, of course, still facts to be learned. One should not exaggerate the differences. Nevertheless, learning at university certainly teaches me greater self-reliance and to think for myself. (169 words)
- 9& -
Appendix I
Unit 2
Part I Pre-Reading Task
Script for the recording: You have heard about Abraham Lincoln, the 16th president of the United States, haven't you? He came from a poor family, but rose to become one of the most fondly remembered presidents in his country's history. There are many stories about him. Here is one of them. When Abraham Lincoln was young he worked in a store. As a clerk he proved honest and efficient. One day a woman came into the store and bought some articles. They added up to two dollars and six and a quarter cents, or the young clerk thought they did. The bill was paid, and the woman was entirely satisfied. But the young store-keeper, not feeling quite sure as to the accuracy of his calculation, added up the items once more. To his dismay he found that the sum total should have been only two dollars. "I've made her pay six and a quarter cents too much," said Abe, disturbed. It was a very small sum, and many clerks would have dismissed it as such. But Abe was too conscientious to forget about the overcharge. "The money must be paid back," he decided. This would have been easy enough had the woman lived just around the corner, but, as the young man knew, she lived two or three miles away. This, however, did not alter the matter. It was night, but he closed and locked the store, and walked to the home of his customer. Having arrived there, he explained the matter, paid over the six and a quarter cents, and returned satisfied. This anecdote won him a new name: Honest Abe.
Appendix I
- 99 -
Part II Text A
lext Organization
  1. Parts Part One Paragraphs Paras 1-4 Main Ideas The waiter was disappointed to find that the Richest Man in America led so simple a life. Being friendly, easy-going and never flashy, Walton carries on like plain folks and never wants any special treatment. With the Wal-Mart team in mind, Walton devotes himself heart and soul to making the business a great success. Details waits in line like everyone else to buy shells at the local Wal-Mart; has no reserved seat in church asks his employees to call him by his first name steers clear of reporters, dreamers, and schemers; manages to keep himself off the front page attends sales meetings, the executive pep rally set up a college scholarship fund and a disaster relief fund
Part Two
Paras 5-13
Part Three
Paras 14-22

  2. Character Traits
  1) free of self-importance
  2) friendly and easy-going
  3) never flashy
  4) hard working
  5) generous
Vocabulary I.
  1.
  1) local
  3) deserved
  5) system
  7) remote
  2) headlines
  4) folks
  6) steer clear of
  8) get away with
-100-
Appendix I

  9) open up
  10) hold to
  11) retire
  12) rally
  13) reserved
  14) qualify
  15) cultivate
  2.
  1) These serious problems deserve careful consideration in restructuring our educational systems.
  2) The college is liable to stop her scholarship because of her failure in the final examination.
  3) San Francisco is, by all accounts, a city easy to fall in love with.
  4) Snow White received such bad treatment from her step-mother that she had to flee from her home.
  5) The United States, Canada, and Mexico make up North America.
  3.
  1) The principal's daughter didn't receive special treatment from her teachers. She was rewarded for her excellent performance. When she graduated from high school in 1998, she had straight A's and scholarship offers from some of the most famous universities in the country.
  2) Our boss is fully aware that his employees feel a lot of loyalty to the company because they are treated right. Besides a handsome pay check and a stock option, he has laid down a system under which employees are granted stock for their retirement.
  3) You are liable to be offered a discount or a reduction on things you buy at the local supermarket on weekends. II. Collocation
  1. about
  3. at/on
  5. with
  7. from

  2. for
  4. into
  6. to
  8. with
III. Usage
  1. a savings account
  3. a goods train
  5. a sales tax
  7. a current affairs program

  2. arms race
  4. communications equipment
  6. a customs officer
  8. a clothes shop
Appendix I
- 101 -
Struclurc
  1.
  1) Only by rewarding success can you bring out the best in your employees.
  2) Only by working at evenings and weekends was Mary able to complete the report by the deadline.
  3) Only when I myself became a mother did I realize the value of my parents' advice.
  4) Only after they had finished watching the football game did they begin to prepare for the math examination.
  2.
  1) The young woman described to the policemen the way the man ran up to her and grabbed the bag from her hand.
  2) All the people working for Sam Walton admire the way he manages Wal-Mart and the way he treats his employees.
  3) The neighbors were disgusted at the way he talked to his old father.
  4) It's amazing the way the eight-year-old boy managed to stay so calm when he faced the emergency. Comprehensive Exercises I. Cloze (A)
  1. cheerful
  3. executive
  5. reward
  7. loyalty
  9. qualified
  11. folks (B)
  1. from
  3. spent
  5. through
  7. built
  9. led/lived
  11. millionaires
  13. answer
  15. by no'.h
  2. threw his weight around
  4. treatment
  6. cultivate
  8. stock
  10. scholarships
  12. local
  2. their
  4. away
  6. to
  8. who
  10. it
  12. then
  14. wealth
  16. character
- 102 -
Appendix I
II. Translation George was on the run since the moment he came aboard. He was always cheerful and devoted himself heart and soul to his work. Because
 

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