Part II Text A
lexf Organization
": ........................ ■■■■ ............................... ■■ -
Parts
Part One
Paragraphs'
Paras 1-2
' Main Ideas
Introduction ? Both Napoleon's and Hitler's military campaigns failed because of the severity of the Russian winter. Napoleon's military campaign against Russia Hitler's military campaign against the Soviet Union Conclusion?The elements of nature must be reckoned with in any military campaign.
Part Two Part Three Part Four
Paras 3-11 Paras 12-20 Para 21

  2. Sections Section One Section Two Section Three Vocabulary I.
  1.
  1) alliance
  3) stroke
  5) minus
  7) declarations
  2) heroic
  4) limp
  6) regions
  8) siege Paragraphs Paras 12-13 Paras 14-18 Paras 19-20
Main Ideas
Hitler's blitzkrieg against Russia and Stalin's scorched earth policy the battles fought at Leningrad, Moscow and Stalingrad the Russian counter-offensive and the outcome of the war
Appendix
I
- $9

  9) raw
  10) retreat
  11) have taken their toll
  12) In the case of
  13) campaign
  14) at the cost of
  15) has been brought to a halt
  2.
  1) is faced with
  2) get bogged down
  3) is pressing on / pressed on
  4) drag on
  5) picking up
  6) falling apart
  7) cut back
  8) take over
  3.
  1) The rapid advance in gene therapy may lead to the conquest of cancer in the near future.
  2) The border dispute between the two countries resulted in thousands of casualties.
  3) Sara has made up her mind that her leisure interests will/should never get in the way of her career.
  4) Obviously the reporter's question caught the foreign minister off guard.
  5) The introduction of the electronic calculator has rendered the slide rule out of date / obsolete.
  4.
  1) At that time, the enemy forces were much superior to ours, so we had to give up the occupation of big cities and retreat to the rural and mountainous regions to build up our bases.
  2) Unity is crucial to the efficient operation of an organization. Failure to reckon with this problem will weaken its strength. In many cases, work may be brought to a halt by constant internal struggle in an organization.
  3) The Red Army fought a heroic battle at Stalingrad and won the decisive victory against the Germans. In fact, this battle turned the tide in the Second World War. During this famous battle, the Soviet troops withstood the German siege and weakened the German army by launching a series of counterattacks. II. More Synonyms in Context
  1) During the First World War, battles occurred here and there over vast areas. Some of the most dramatic fighting took place in the gloomy trenches of France and Belgium and in the no-man's-land between the trenches.
  2) Elizabeth made careful preparations for the interview and her efforts / homework paid off.
  3)1 spent hours trying to talk him into accepting the settlement, but he turned a deaf ear to all my words.
  4) Pneumonia had severely weakened her body, and I wondered how her fragile body could withstand the harsh weather.
- 90 -
Appendix I
III. Usage
  1) But often it is not until we fall ill that we finally learn to appreciate good health.
  2) A rich old lady lay dead at home for two weeks?and nobody knew anything about it.
  3) It's said he dropped dead from a heart attack when he was at work
  4) Don't sit too close to the fire to keep warm?you could easily get burned, especially if you fall asleep.
  5) In those days people believed in marrying young and having children early.
  6) Little Tom was unable to sit still for longer than a few minutes.

Structure
  1.
  1) To his great delight, Dr. Deng discovered two genes in wild rice that can increase the yield by 30 percent.
  2) To her great relief, her daughter had left the building before it collapsed.
  3) To our disappointment, our women's team lost out to the North Koreans.
  4) We think, much to our regret, that we will not be able to visit you during the coming Christmas.
  2.
  1) These birds nest in the vast swamps (which lie to the) east of the Nile.
  2) By 1948, the People's Liberation Army had gained control of the vast areas north of the Yangtze River.
  3) Michelle was born in a small village in the north of France, but came to live in the United States at the age of four.
  4) The Columbia River rises in western Canada and continues/runs through the United States for about 1,900 kilometers west of the Rocky Mountains.

Comprehensive Exercises I. Cloze (A)
  1. invasion
  3. Conquest
  5. launching
  7. campaign
  9. reckon with
  11. bringing...to a halt

  2.
  4.
  6.
  8.
  10.
stand in the way catching... off his guard declaration drag on die from
Appendix I (B)
  1. In
  3. the
  5. it
  7. of/about
  9. to
  11. to
  13. buried
  15. than
  17. from
  19. down
- 91 -

  2.
  4.
  6.
  8.
  10.
  12.
  14.
  16.
  18.
since and that/wh o across lost with in between to
II. Translation The offensive had already lasted three days, but we had not gained much ground. Our troops engaging the enemy at the front were faced with strong/fierce/stiff resistance. The division commander instructed our battalion to get around to the rear of the enemy and launch a surprise attack. To do so, however, we had to cross a marshland and many of us were afraid we might get bogged down in the mud. Our battalion commander decided to take a gamble. We started under cover of darkness and pressed on in spite of great difficulties. By a stroke of luck, the temperature at night suddenly dropped to minus 20 degrees Celsius and the marsh froze over. Thanks to the cold weather, we arrived at our destination before dawn and began attacking the enemy from the rear. This turned the tide of the battle. The enemy, caught off guard, soon surrendered.
Part III TextB
. -
Comprehension Check
  1. d
  3. b
  2. d
  4. a
- 92 -
Appendix I
Translation
(#JE Appendix III)
Language Practice

  1. boast
  3. was concerned
  5. paid off
  7. are contesting
  9. holdout
  11. responsible for
  13. favorable
  15. on the eve of
  17. complications
  19. withstand
  2. obstacles
  4. call ...off
  6. was pinned down
  8. prior to
  10. objective
  12. in case
  14. due to
  16. cancel
  18. stiff
  20. absent

Part IV Theme-Related Language Learning Tasks
Writing Strategy Tick which of the following is more convincing: It was reported that General Eisenhower, though indecisive sometimes, had no hesitation in ordering the assault on Normandy. √ Eisenhower's chief of staff, Brigadier General Water Bedell Smith, later wrote: "... He sat there ... tense, weighing every consideration. Finally he looked up, and the tension was gone from his face. He said briskly, 'well, we'll go." Model Paper Can Man Triumph over Nature? When people talk of man triumphing over nature, many things come to mind. One thinks of successes in medicine in the fight against disease, such as the invention of antibiotics and the promise held out by advances in biogenetic engineering. On a broader scale, one thinks of man's success in harnessing new forms of energy from steam power through oil to nuclear power. Yet, nature has often hit back in unexpected ways to these attempts to tame it. New forms of
Appendix
I
- 98 -
disease that are resistant to antibiotics are constantly developing. Burning fossil fuels has led to fears of global warming; while nuclear power has produced dangerous waste that will remain a hazard for generations to come. However, perhaps to talk of man triumphing over nature is the wrong way to look at the matter. We need to find ways to work with nature rather than forever fighting against it. (154 words)
Unit 2

Part I
Pre-Reading Task
Script for the recording: What will the world be like in five hundred years' time? A thousand years' time? Or more? Some people are optimistic, looking forward to a better world. Others are pessimistic, and fear that things can only get worse. The writer of the song you are about to listen to takes the pessimistic view. Looking further and further into the future things seem to him to get worse and worse. By 3535, he foresees all our thoughts and feelings will be shaped by drugs. Looking further still into the future he foretells that our bodies will waste away as machines do everything for us. Family life as we know it will fade away as children are bred artificially, chosen, in the words of the song, "from the bottom of a long black tube." Given that man seems to pay so little attention to taking care of the planet and avoiding using up all its resources, he ends by wondering whether man will still be around in the future. It's enough, as he says, to make even God shake his head. Here is the song:
In the Year 2525
Zager & Evans
In the year 2525 If man is still alive If woman can survive They may find
- 9^ -
Appendix
I In the year 3535 Ain't gonna need* to tell the truth, tell no lies Everything you think, do, or say Is in the pill you took today In the year 4545 Ain't gonna need your teeth, won't need your eyes You won't rind a thing to do Nobody's gonna look at you In the year 5555 Your arms are hanging limp at your sides Your legs not nothing to do Some machine is doing that for you
In the year 6565 Ain't gonna need no husband, won't need no wife You'll pick your son, pick your daughter .too From the bottom of a long black tube :
. In the year, 7510 . If God's a-comin' he ought to make it by then Maybe he'll look around himself and say Guess it's time for the Judgment Day In the year 8510 God's gonna shake his mighty head down and start again In the year 9595 I'm kinda wondering if man's gonna be alive He's taken everything this old earth can give And he ain't put back nothing . He'll either say I'm pleased where man has been Or tear it
1
; .
1
the Judgment Day: the end of the world, the time of God's final judgment of all people
Appendix Now it's been 10,000 years Man has cried a billion tears For what he never knew Now man's reign is through But through the eternal night The twinkling of starlight So very far away Maybe it's only yesterday
I
- 95
'
Part II Text A
l
Text Organization
Parts
Part One Part Two
Paragraphs Paras 1-3 Paras 4-9
Main Ideas New technology will have a dramatic impact on cars and highways in the 21st century. With the aid of advanced technology, smart cars will be so designed that they can help eliminate traffic accidents, determine their own precise locations and warn of traffic jams. GPS and "telematics" will make it possible to build smart highways, which will benefit us in more than one way.
Part Three
Paras 10-13

  1) Smart cars can see, hear, feel, smell, talk, and act
  2) They can eliminate most car accidents;
  3) They can alert the police and provide precise location if stolen;
  4) They can monitor one's driving and the driving conditions nearby;
  5) They can alert the driver who feels drowsy;
  6) They can locate your car precisely and warn of traffic jams.

Vocabulary I.
  1.
  1) expansion
  3) vapor
  2) manufacturing
  4) take control of
:.j
-96-
Appendix 1

  5) hazards
  6) satellite
  7) convert
  8) magnetic
  9) bunched
  10)in the air
  11) got/was stuck
  12)approximately
  13) in application
  14)monotonous
  15) mounted
  2.
  1) send out
  2)stand up for from
  4)making up for
  3) result
  5) starting up
  6)play up play up
  7) give up
  8)take on take on
  3.
  1) With regard to the recent flood of corporate scandals, some professors from Stanford and Harvard say they will incorporate Enron's real-world lessons into their classroom work.
  2) Our vacation was a disaster: the food was terrible, and the weather was awful as well. 3 As a Special Administrative Region (SAR), Macao is permitted to retain its lucrative gambling ) industry although gambling remains illegal on the Chinese mainland. Manufacturers usually begin by building the prototype of a new model before they set up a factory to 4 make the cars. ) Medical evidence shows that smoking and lung cancer are correlated. Expanded use of computer technology, development of stronger and lighter materials, and research in/into pollution control will produce better, and "smarter" automobiles. In the 1980s the notion that a car would "talk" to its driver was science fiction; by the 1990s it had become a reality, more or less. Presently automobile companies such as GM and Nissan are poised to launch new advertising campaigns for their smart cars. Sounds are
  2) produced by objects that vibrate in the air at a rate that the ear can detect. This rate is called frequency and is measured in hertz, or vibrations per second. Reflective devices 3 are more visible at night and are used in some locations to mark lanes and other significant places on the road. What's more, automated vehicle-control technologies are presently under development to improve highway safety. These devices are mounted in the vehicle and can alert a driver to an impending hazard or, in an emergency, override the actions of the driver. II. Word Formation Clipped Words kilo kilogram memo memorandum gym gymnasium Blends Medicare email comsat
kilogram memorandum gymnasium
medical care electronic mail communications satellite
Appendix
1
- 9? -
lib doc vet prep auto
liberation doctor veterinarian preparatory automobile
newscast autopilot Eurodollar brunch telecast
news broadcast automatic pilot European dollar breakfast lunch television broadcast
III. Usage
  1. swimming pool
  3. enriched Middle English
  5. fully developed prototype
  7. working population

  2.
  4.
  6.
  8.
drawing board disturbing change Canned foods puzzling differences
Struct-ure
1
  1) Thanksgiving in the U.S.A., like Spring Festival in China, brings families back together from across th
 

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