controversy: n. a lot of discussion and argument about sth., often involving strong feelings of anger or disapproval (followed by over / about) This is a question that has given rise to much controversy. 他的书的出版引起了激烈的争议。 他的书的出版引起了激烈的争议。 There is a bitter / heated /fierce controversy over the publishing of his books. Collocation: beyond / without controversy 无可争议, 无疑, 无可争议, 无疑,不消说 controversial adj. 有争议的,引起争议的 /a controversial figure/ 有争议性的人物
surround
be or go all around (sth. or sb.)
e.g. The village was surrounded by desert. So the villagers had to abandon it and move to other areas.
to be closely connected with sth/sb 围绕动物智能的争论
the controversy that surrounds animal intelligence
围绕丑闻的新闻报道 report/publicity surrounding the scandal
surrounding adj. near or around (定) Shanghai and the surrounding area 上海及其周边地区 surroundings n. environment
consciousness
conscience
良心,良知 to have a clear/guilty conscience 问心无愧/有愧
n.
consciousness
  1.意识
  2.知觉 develop competition consciousness 树立竞争意识 lose consciousness 失去知觉 conscious 意识到,注意到 be conscious of 意识到, She’s very conscious of the problems involved.
adj.
conscientious 认真地,一丝不苟的 认真地, a conscientious student
explore: vt.
  1) examine thoroughly; learn about 工程师们已经对在这条河上建桥的可能 性做了仔细探察。 性做了仔细探察。 The engineers have already explored the possibility of building a bridge over the river. The repairman explored my car and said he would fix it tomorrow.

  2) travel over (a region, area, etc.) for the purpose of discovery 不论大人还是孩子都认为探索太空一定非常刺激。 不论大人还是孩子都认为探索太空一定非常刺激。 Both adults and children think that it must be extremely exciting to explore space. The man will explore the Sahara Desert on foot.
purpose
这些试验毫无用处。(serve… purpose)
The experiments serve no useful purpose.
该次会议的召开是为了任命一位新主席(for the purpose of)
This meeting was called for the purpose of appointing a new chairman.
他明知会激怒他,却故意那么做。 (on purpose)
He did it on purpose (intentionally, deliberately), knowing it would annoy her.
convince: vt. make (sb.) feel certain; cause (sb.) to realize 我深信他的诚实。 我深信他的诚实。 I’m convinced of his honesty. We finally convinced the police of our innocence. His parents managed to convince him that teaching was the most suitable profession for him. Pattern: be convinced of be convinced that convince sb. of sth. 确信,承认 确信, 确信, 确信,承认 使某人相信某事
形容词
convinced convincing
萨姆点了点头,可他看起来并没有信服。
Sam nodded but he didn’t look(convinced ).
我觉得他的话很有说服力。
She sounded very (convincing ) to me.
dominant: adj. ruling; stronger, more powerful, or more noticeable than other people or things 查理?卓别林是美国电影工业上极有影响 查理 卓别林是美国电影工业上极有影响 力的人物。 力的人物。 Charlie Chaplin was a dominant figure in the American film industry. He is a dominant person in the company. dominate v. control, influence e.g. As a child he was dominated by his father.
suspicious
be suspicious (of/about sb./sth.)
e.g. They became suspicious of his behavior and contacted the police. suspicion n.
他因涉嫌谋杀而被捕。 他因涉嫌谋杀而被捕。(on suspicion of) He was arrested on suspicion of murder.
only to…
only to (do sth.) is often used to indicate that sb. did sth. with a disappointing or surprising result.
  1. Scott arrived at the South Pole on January 18th, 结果 发现已有人在他之前到达那里。(p1
  81.structure.
  1.
  1.) only to find that someone had got there before him.
  2. I got to the theater 却发现将票忘记在家中了。 (p1
  81.structure.
  1.
  3.) only to find that I had left the ticket at home.
reveal: vt.
  1) bring to view; show His worn jacket revealed his elbows.
  2) make known (sth. concealed or secret) 一项关于中国人饮食的调查披露越来越多的城市儿童过重。 一项关于中国人饮食的调查披露越来越多的城市儿童过重。 A survey of the Chinese diet has revealed that a growing number of children in cities are overweight.
The document provided a revealing (披露真 相的)insight into the government’s priorities.
revealing adj.
a revealing (暴露的) dress
relieve: vt. free (sb.) from pain, anxiety, etc. 听说你已安全到达,我们就放心了。 听说你已安全到达,我们就放心了。 We are relieved to hear that you have arrived safely. Pattern: relieve sb. of sth. Taking a part-time job would relieve you of the financial burden.
relief n.
令我非常庆幸的是车并没有损坏。 Much to my relief the car was not damaged.
undertake: vt. carry out; take upon oneself (a task, etc.) 如果我们要承担更多的工作的话,我们就得再多招些人。 如果我们要承担更多的工作的话,我们就得再多招些人。 We’ll have to employ more staff if we’re to undertake more work. The United Nations is supposed to undertake the role of global peace-keeper.
figure out: understand; reason out 我想不出那位戴墨镜的女士是谁。 我想不出那位戴墨镜的女士是谁。 I couldn’t figure out who the lady with the sunglasses was. I can’t figure her out, one minute happy, the next sad.
extend: v.
  1) (cause to ) stretch or reach Rain is expected to extend to all parts of the country by this evening.
  2) make larger or longer 我们把厨房扩大出一块吃饭的区域。 我们把厨房扩大出一块吃饭的区域。 We’ve extended the kitchen to give us room for a dining area.
Collocation: extend for extend from extend out extend over extend through... 延续… 距离) 延续…(距离) 从…伸出来 伸出 延续… 时间),遍布 延续…(时间),遍布 ), 贯穿… 达到整个… 贯穿…,达到整个…的长度
辨析
extension: n.
延长, 延长,分机
e.g. He’s been granted an ( extension ) of the contract for another year. e.g. His knowledge of music is ( extensive ).
extensive: adj.
广阔的, 广阔的,广大的
extent: n.
程度, 程度,限度
e.g. He has changed to such an ( extent ) that I no longer recognized him. e.g. What’s your ( extension ) number?
expand: v.
  1) (cause to) grow larger (in size, number or amount) The small pocket dictionary was expanded into a larger volume. 这个公司已从一个小公司发展到拥有12个分公司了。 这个公司已从一个小公司发展到拥有12个分公司了。 12个分公司了 The business has expanded from having one office to having twelve.
  2) speak or write at length or in detail The professor will expand on a hot topic in his lecture.
virtuous
virtue n. 美德,优点
The company has a ( virtual ) monopoly n this area of trade. He is a wise and ( virtuous ) man. Patience is one of his ( virtues ).
virtuous adj. moral
virtual adj.
  1. 几乎的,事实的
  2. 模拟的,虚拟的
envy:
  1. vt. wish that you had a quality or possession that another person has I don’t envy you for your journey in this bad weather. 他突然成了百万富翁,许多人都羡慕他的好运。 他突然成了百万富翁,许多人都羡慕他的好运。 He became a millionaire overnight. Many people envied him for his good luck. Pattern: envy sb. / sth. envy sb. sth. envy sb. for sth.

  2. n.
  1) feeling of disappointment and resentment (at another’s better fortune) She was filled with envy at her sister’s success.
  2) object of such feeling 他那部豪华的新车是他所有的朋友羡慕的东西。 他那部豪华的新车是他所有的朋友羡慕的东西。 His splendid new car was the envy of all his friends. Collocation: lost in envy 非常嫉妒
in one’s interest (s): for or to one’s advantage The local government has to abandon the plan for a new chemical plant because it is not in the public interest. 尽管这项工作很难,但你承担下来对你是会有利的。 尽管这项工作很难,但你承担下来对你是会有利的。 It would be in your interests to undertake this task although it’s very difficult. Collocation: lose interest take interest in with interest 失去兴趣 对…产生兴趣 有兴趣地
近义词组:
for sb’s benefit
e.g. Don’t go to any trouble for my benefit! 别为我费工夫!
for or to sb.'s advantage
参加这次会议会对你有利 It would be to your advantage to attend this meeting.
go far
help very much; achieve much success e.g. Your suggestion will go far towards solving our
present housing problem.
你的建议对解决我们现在的住房问题有帮助。 Translate: 他们从政府获得的财政帮助并未解决问题。(p1
  77.I.
  3) (go far toward) The financial help they got from the government didn’t go far toward solving the problem.
judgment: n.
  1) opinion about sth. 在你看来是什么导致学生们考试不及格? 在你看来是什么导致学生们考试不及格? In your judgment, what has caused the students’ failure in the examination? The manager made an unfair judgment of his new secretary’s work.

  2) ability to form valuable opinions and make good decisions He showed excellent judgment in choosing the wine. 我很钦佩爸爸的判断力,每件事都听他的建议。 我很钦佩爸爸的判断力,每件事都听他的建议。 I respect my father’s judgment and always follow any advice he gives me.
go wrong: stop working properly; experience trouble I didn’t watch the live opening ceremony of the World Cup yesterday because my television went wrong again. All their plans went wrong. Something suddenly went wrong with my computer when I was in the middle of writing the essay.
size up: carefully examine (a situation or person ) in order to make a judgment 父亲审查我男朋友的方式让我感到难堪。 父亲审查我男朋友的方式让我感到难堪。 I felt embarrassed by the way my father sized up my boyfriend. I don’t like the way the sales assistants in that shop size you up as you walk through the door.
release: vt.
  1) free from sth. that binds, fastens, or holds back; let go 动物园的一些动物被从笼里放 了出来。 了出来。 Some animals in the zoo had been released from their cages. Death finally released him from the cancer torture.

  2) allow (news) to be known or published; allow (a film) to be exhibited or (goods) to be placed on sale 昨天我买了一些迈克尔? 昨天我买了一些迈克尔?杰克逊最新出 的唱片。 的唱片。 I bought some recently released discs of Michael Jackson yesterday. His new novel about September 11 terrorist attack was released last week.
deceive: vt. try to make (sb.) believe sth. that is false You deceived me, and I can’t forgive you. 他们欺骗老人,让他在文件上签字。 他们欺骗老人,让他在文件上签字。 They deceived the old man into signing the papers. He that once deceives is ever suspected. 骗人一次,受疑一世。 [谚]骗人一次,受疑一世。 Pattern: deceive sb. deceive sb. into (doing) sth.
look sb. in the eye: look directly and steadily at sb. because you are not embarrassed or ashamed I couldn’t look him in the eye afterwards, knowing that I had lost all that money. 你能看着我说不是你打破玻璃吗? 你能看着我说不是你打破玻璃吗? Can you look me in the eye and say you didn’t break the window?
Collocation: look about look after look down on look forward to look into look up to 环视 照料,照顾, 照料,照顾,照管 看不起, 看不起,轻视 盼望, 盼望,期待 朝…里面看;调查,观察 里面看;调查, 尊敬, 尊敬,钦佩
original: adj.
  1) first or earliest 原先的计划优于我们所执行的计划。 原先的计划优于我们所执行的计划。 The original plan was better than the plan we followed. The land was returned to the original owner. Later models of the car retained many of the original features.
  2) newly formed or created; not copied or imitated 他新买的衬衫是范思哲的原创。 他新买的衬衫是范思哲的原创。 His newly bought shirt is an original design of Versace.
survive: v.
  1) remain alive A few were killed but most survived in the earthquake.
  2) continue to live or exist after 她在车祸中幸存下来。 她在车祸中幸存下来。 She survived the accident. CF: survive, outlive & outlast 都含有“比别的人或别的物存在的时间长”的意思。 都含有“比别的人或别的物存在的时间长”的意思。 survive 指“幸存”,也可以用于指比另一物活得更久。 幸存” 也可以用于指比另一物活得更久。 例如: 例如: Ten of them survived the shipwreck. 他们中有10人在海难中幸存下来。 他们中有10人在海难中幸存下来。 10人在海难中幸存下来
wipe out: get rid of or destroy 银行同意将他们的债务一笔勾销。 银行同意将他们的债务一笔勾销。 The bank
 

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