In 2004 a center in honor of the "underground railroad" opens in Cincinnati. The railroad was unusual. It sold no tickets and had no trains. Yet it carried thousands of passengers to the destination of their dreams.

The Freedom Givers
Fergus M. Bordewich
1 A gentle breeze swept the Canadian plains as I stepped outside the small two-story house. Alongside me was a slender woman in a black dress, my guide back to a time when the surrounding settlement in Dresden, Ontario, was home to a hero in American history. As we walked toward a plain gray church, Barbara Carter spoke proudly of her great-great-grandfather, Josiah Henson. "He was confident that the Creator intended all men to be created equal. And he never gave up struggling for that freedom."

2 Carter's devotion to her ancestor is about more than personal pride: it is about family honor. For Josiah Henson has lived on through the character in American fiction that he helped inspire: Uncle Tom, the long-suffering slave in Harriet Beecher Stowe's Uncle Tom's Cabin. Ironically, that character has come to symbolize everything Henson was not. A racial sellout unwilling to stand up for himself? Carter gets angry at the thought. "Josiah Henson was a man of principle," she said firmly.

3 I had traveled here to Henson's last home -- now a historic site that Carter formerly directed -- to learn more about a man who was, in many ways, an African-American Moses. After winning his own freedom from slavery, Henson secretly helped hundreds of other slaves to escape north to Canada -- and liberty. Many settled here in Dresden with him.

4 Yet this stop was only part of a much larger mission for me. Josiah Henson is but one name on a long list of courageous men and women who together forged the Underground Railroad, a secret web of escape routes and safe houses that they used to liberate slaves from the American South. Between 1820 and 1860, as many as 100,000 slaves traveled the Railroad to freedom.

5 In October 2000, President Clinton authorized $16 million for the National Underground Railroad Freedom Center to honor this first great civil-rights struggle in the U. S. The center is scheduled to open in 2004 in Cincinnati. And it's about time. For the heroes of the Underground Railroad remain too little remembered, their exploits still largely unsung. I was intent on telling their stories. 2000年10月,克林顿总统批准拨款1600万美元建造全国“地下铁路”自由中心,以此纪念美国历史上第一次伟大的民权斗争。中心计划于2004年在辛辛那提州建成。真是该建立这样一个中心的时候了。因为地下铁路的英雄们依然默默无闻,他们的业绩依然少人颂扬。我要讲述他们的故事。

6 John Parker tensed when he heard the soft knock. Peering out his door into the night, he recognized the face of a trusted neighbor. "There's a party of escaped slaves hiding in the woods in Kentucky, twenty miles from the river," the man whispered urgently. Parker didn't hesitate. "I'll go," he said, pushing a pair of pistols into his pockets.

7 Born a slave two decades before, in the 1820s, Parker had been taken from his mother at age eight and forced to walk in chains from Virginia to Alabama, where he was sold on the slave market. Determined to live free someday, he managed to get trained in iron molding. Eventually he saved enough money working at this trade on the side to buy his freedom. Now, by day, Parker worked in an iron foundry in the Ohio port of Ripley. By night he was a "conductor" on the Underground Railroad, helping people slip by the slave hunters. In Kentucky, where he was now headed, there was a $1000 reward for his capture, dead or alive.

8 Crossing the Ohio River on that chilly night, Parker found ten fugitives frozen with fear. "Get your bundles and follow me, " he told them, leading the eight men and two women toward the river. They had almost reached shore when a watchman spotted them and raced off to spread the news.

9 Parker saw a small boat and, with a shout, pushed the escaping slaves into it. There was room for all but two. As the boat slid across the river, Parker watched helplessly as the pursuers closed in around the men he was forced to leave behind.

10 The others made it to the Ohio shore, where Parker hurriedly arranged for a wagon to take them to the next "station" on the Underground Railroad -- the first leg of their journey to safety in Canada. Over the course of his life, John Parker guided more than 400 slaves to safety.

11 While black conductors were often motivated by their own painful experiences, whites were commonly driven by religious convictions. Levi Coffin, a Quaker raised in North Carolina, explained, "The Bible, in bidding us to feed the hungry and clothe the naked, said nothing about color."

12 In the 1820s Coffin moved west to Newport (now Fountain City), Indiana, where he opened a store. Word spread that fleeing slaves could always find refuge at the Coffin home. At times he sheltered as many as 17 fugitives at once, and he kept a team and wagon ready to convey them on the next leg of their journey. Eventually three principal routes converged at the Coffin house, which came to be the Grand Central Terminal of the Underground Railroad.

13 For his efforts, Coffin received frequent death threats and warnings that his store and home would be burned. Nearly every conductor faced similar risks -- or worse. In the North, a magistrate might have imposed a fine or a brief jail sentence for aiding those escaping. In the Southern states, whites were sentenced to months or even years in jail. One courageous Methodist minister, Calvin Fairbank, was imprisoned for more than 17 years in Kentucky, where he kept a log of his beatings: 35,105 stripes with the whip.

14 As for the slaves, escape meant a journey of hundreds of miles through unknown country, where they were usually easy to recognize. With no road signs and few maps, they had to put their trust in directions passed by word of mouth and in secret signs -- nails driven into trees, for example -- that conductors used to mark the route north.

15 Many slaves traveled under cover of night, their faces sometimes caked with white powder. Quakers often dressed their "passengers," both male and female, in gray dresses, deep bonnets and full veils. On one occasion, Levi Coffin was transporting so many runaway slaves that he disguised them as a funeral procession.

16 Canada was the primary destination for many fugitives. Slavery had been abolished there in 1833, and Canadian authorities encouraged the runaways to settle their vast virgin land. Among them was Josiah Henson.

17 As a boy in Maryland, Henson watched as his entire family was sold to different buyers, and he saw his mother harshly beaten when she tried to keep him with her. Making the best of his lot, Henson worked diligently and rose far in his owner's regard.

18 Money problems eventually compelled his master to send Henson



   In 2004 a center in honor of the "underground railroad" opens in Cincinnati. The railroad was unusual. It sold no tickets and had no trains. Yet it carried thousands of passengers to the destination of their dreams. 2004年,一个纪念“地下铁路”的中心将 ...


   第一册 UNIT 1 苏珊因车祸失去了双腿。有一段时间,她真不知如何面对自己再也不能行走的事实。 一天,苏珊在浏览书籍时,被一个真实故事吸引住了。那个故事生动地描写了一个残疾 (disabled)姑娘是如何成为一位作家的。苏珊读后深受鼓舞,决心尽可能多读书,而且,她 还想写关于自己童年的故事。苏珊开始相信,她最终也会成为一个有用的人生活下去。 UNIT 2 和远方的朋友保持联系不是一件容易的事。对我来说,情形就是这样。 离开旧街区和那里的朋友们已有几年了。 我一直打算给他们写信, 可是总有这 ...


   大学体验英语综合教程 2(第二版) (第二版) Unit1A(P16) ( ) 1 任何年满 18 岁的人都有资格投票(vote)。(be eligible to) Anyone over the age of 18 is eligible to vote. 2.每学期开学前, 这些奖学金的申请表格就会由学校发给每一个学生。 (apply for, scholarship) A form to apply for these scholarships is sent by the unive ...


   Unit 6 Part i Pre-Reading Task Script for the recording: The song you are about to hear was first performed at a concert given to raise money to fight against poverty in Africa. Its message is simple, "There are people dying and it is time to ...


   Unit 5 Giving Thanks Text A Content Questions He wrote them on a ship on the way to the island of Tulagi in the South Pacific on Thanksgiving Day, 1943. 2. Preparing a traditional Thanksgiving dinner featuring roast turkey made the writer extremely ...


   Unit 6 The Human Touch Text A Content Questions(P.172) ( ) They found their tastes in art, chicory salad and bishop sleeves so much in tune that they set up a joint studio. 2. Johnsy would be able to recover from pneumonia if she wanted to live. 3. ...


   全新版大学英语综合教程课后习题答案 Appendix I Key to Exercises (Units 1-8) 参考译文 第一单元 Unit 1 生活方式的改变 课文 A 在美国, 不少人对乡村生活怀有浪漫的情感。 许多居住在城镇的人梦想着自己办个农场, 梦想着靠土地为生。很少有人真去把梦想变为现实。或许这也没有什么不好,因为,正如吉 姆? 多尔蒂当初开始其写作和农场经营双重生涯时所体验到的那样, 农耕生活远非轻松自在。 但他写道,自己并不后悔,对自己作出的改变生活方式的决定仍热情不减。 ...


   UNIT1 1. Because of the heavy snow, the passengers had to wait at the airport until midnight when the snow stopped. 2. Twenty minutes after the train started, the two boys found that they had got on a train heading for Hangzhou instead of their hom ...


   Unit 1 Roll over, Beethoven! 《新视野大学英语视听说教程》Book III 教案 新视野大学英语视听说教程》 林龙凤 Teaching Aims (教学目标) : 教学目标) 1. Help the students master the expressions of expressing likes and dislikes. (帮助学生掌握喜欢与不喜 欢的表达法。 ) 2. Help the students master the expressions of ...


   II Keys Unit 1 Vocabulary 1. 1) insert 2) on occasion 3) investigate 4) In retrospect 5) initial 6) phenomena 7) attached 8) make up for 9) is awaiting 10) exception 11) not … in the least 12) promote 13) working on 14) in due course 15) emerged 2. ...



   考研名师任丽卿详解考研英语翻译法则 (已经本人编辑过) 英译汉考试的重点是测试学生对英语的理解能力及汉语表达能力. 在教育部制定的硕士 学位研究生英语教学大纲中,规定了硕士生入学时应达到的英语水平标准,有关翻译部分的规 定是"能将一般难度的英语短文译成汉语,理解基本正确,译文达意" .这就需要考生既要 有比较好的英语基础,还要有扎实的汉语功底.翻译是一项对综合能力要求比较高的题型, 它不仅要求学生对词汇,语法,语篇以及文化等有较好的掌握,还要求学生有着很强的组词 成句,组 ...


   2011 最完整的考研英语高频词汇 1. abide by by(=be faithful to ; obey)忠于;遵守。 2. be absent from…. 缺席,不在 from… 3. absence ormind( ormind(=being absent-minded) 心不在焉 4. absorb absorb(=take up the attention of) 吸引… 的注意力( 被动语态):be absorbed in 全神贯注于… 近:be engrossed in ...


   重点单词 考纲单词 standard, admit, foolish, clap, indeed, anxious, pile, level, stick 新课标单词 abundant, occupy, instruct, data, patience, acquire, secure, adopt, appreciate 重点词组 leave alone, in want of, for want of sth., be badly off, close up, have an eye f ...


   Miss Chen 2010 年高二英语水平测试复习 词汇天天练 年高二英语水平测试复习词汇天天练 Units 2~4 Module 2 1. Jim works very hard, so he dto get a high salary. 2. He is a young pianist. (有前途的) 3. As an adult, you should take full r for your actions. 4. These toys are a real b at such l ...


   第二单元练习 牛津 8A 第二单元练习 一、用所给词的适当形式填空:(共 10 个空格,每个空格 0.5 分,满分 5 分) 1. In a (mix) school, boys and girls have lessons together. (two) a month. 2. Lin Tao goes to the country to see his grandparents 3. Simon has (little) orange juice than Millie. 4. His ...