大学自考英语(二)
本课主要单词

  1. successful adj. 成功的
He is a successful writer. (他是一个有成就的作家。 ) He hopes he will be successful this time. (他希望他这次能够成功。 ) success n. 成功 Their film is a great success.(他们的影片很成功。 ) We are sure of success. (我们一定能成功。 ) succeed v. 成功 I succeeded in getting the job. (我成功地得到了这份工作。 ) She succeeded in passing the exam. (她考试及格了。 )
  2. adult adj. & n. 成年的,成熟的;成年人 These adult films are not suitable for children.(这些成人电影,儿童不宜观看。 ) Don't worry too much about him, he is an adult now.(别为他过分担心,他是成年人了。 )
  3. disagree vi. 有分歧,不同意;不符,不一致 agree vi. 同意 I disagree with you about this.〔对于这件事,我跟你的意见不同。 〕 These figures disagree with last week's results.(这些数据与上周的结果不符。 ) I agree with what you said. (我同意你所说的。 ) She agreed to the plan.(她赞成这个计划。 ) We haven't agreed on the date of the meeting.(我们还没商定会议的日期。 ) agreement n. 同意;协议 disagreement n. 不同意 We haven't reached an agreement yet.(我们还没达成协议。 ) There was no disagreement, and the proposal was accepted. 没有不同意见, 这个建议被接 ( 受了。 ) 前缀 dis-通常可以加在动词, 名词, 形容词前面, 构成反意词。 例如: dissatisfy, (请注意: disorder, disable. 后缀-ment 加在动词的后面, 构成名词。 例如: arrangement, argument 等。 )
  4. statement n. 声明,陈述 (由动词 state 加名词后缀-ment 构成) Very soon he made his first public statement about the affair. (他很快就此事件首次发表公 开声明。 ) Do you believe the witness's statement? (你相信证人的陈述吗?) (请注意动词与名词的搭配:issue a statement, make a statement)
  5. guarantee n. & v. 保证,担保,保修 He gave his guarantee that he would repay the money as soon as he could. 他保证他会尽快 ( 还钱。 ) The washing machine is guaranteed for five years.(这台洗衣机保用 5 年。 ) guarantee sth., guarantee that, guarantee against / from ) (请注意 guarantee 做动词的用法:
  6. intelligent adj. 聪明的,明智的 He made an intelligent decision.(他做出了明智的决定。 ) Human beings are much more intelligent than animals.(人类远比动物聪明。 ) Intelligence n. 聪明,智力
She prided herself on her intelligence.(她为自己的聪明感到自豪。 ) Intelligently adv. 聪明地,明智地 They dealt with the problem intelligently.(他们明智地处理了这个问题。 )
  7. conversely adv. 相反地 Some are wealthy but unhappy; conversely, others are happy but not wealthy.
(有的人富有但不快乐,相反,另一些人快乐但不富有。 )
converse adj. 相反的 I hold the converse opinion.(我的观点相反。 ) converse v. 交谈,谈话 He felt it difficult to converse with Helen in English.(他觉得跟海伦用英语交谈很困难。 )
  8. similar adj. 相似的,类似的 The two animals are similar to each other in appearance.(这两只动物外表很相似。 ) similarity n. 相似,类似 Their differences are more noticeable than their similarities.(他们的不同之处比相同之处 更明显。 )
  9. independent adj. 独立的,自主的 在 加上 -ence (这个词的词根是 depend, depend 的后面加上后缀 -ent 可以构成形容词, 则可以构成名词;在 dependent,dependence 前面加上前缀 in- 又可以构成反义词。 ) depend v. 依靠,依赖 dependence n. 依靠,依赖 dependent adj. 依靠的,依赖的 independence n. 独立,自主 India won its independence in 19
  47.(印度于 1947 年赢得了独立。 )
  10. clue n. 线索,提示 The police searched all the houses but found no clues.(警察搜索了所有的房屋,但是没有 发现任何线索。 ) (注意用法:find /give a clue to sth.)
  11. conclusion n. 结论,推论 conclude v. 断定,决定 come to a conclusion, jump at a conclusion, draw a conclusion, reach a conclusion) (注意用法: What conclusions did you come to?(你得出了什么结论?)
  12. communicate v. 交流,交际,通讯 communication n. 交流,通讯 communicative adj. 爱说话的 To communicate with him is no easy job, as he is not a communicative person.(他是一个不爱说 话的人,与他交流可不容易。 ) Speech and writing are man's most important methods of communication.(说和写是人类最重要 的交流方式。 )
  13. inexact adj. 不正确的,不精确的 与 independent 一样,该词是由形容词 exact 加前缀 in- 构成的。

  14. incomplete adj. 不完整的 complete adj.& v. 完整的;完成 This is an incomplete sentence, please add the omitted part and make it complete. 〔这是一个不完整的句子,请加上省略的成分使其完整。 〕
I don't think I can complete the work in 2 hours. 〔我想我在两小时内干不完这活。 〕
  15. purpose n. 目的,意图,用途 purposeful adj. 有目的的,有意图的 purposefully adv. 有目的地,蓄意地 The purpose of the meeting was to discuss his proposal.〔会议的目的是讨论他的建议。 〕 He let out the information purposefully to you.〔他有意向你透露了这个消息。 〕

  16. regularly adv. 经常地,定期地
regular adj. 经常的,定期的 irregular adj. 不规则的,无规律的 If you review your lessons regularly, you will do well on tests. 〔如果你定期复习功课,就能在考试中取得好成绩。 〕

  17. technique n. 技术,技巧,手艺
Good study techniques help him to be one of the straight A students in his class. 〔良好的学习技巧使他成为班上的全优生之一。 〕

  18. outline v.& n. 概括;大纲,提纲;轮廓
He listened carefully as I outlined my reasons.〔在我简述我的原因时,他认真地听着。 〕 The English teacher asked us to write a brief outline of the story. 〔英语老师让我们写这篇故事的概要。 〕 He saw the outline of the house in the moonlight. 在月光下,他看到了那座屋子的轮廓。 ( ) 本课主要词缀

  1. 名词后缀 -ment
agreement, statement

  2. 名词后缀 -ation, -ion, -sion
communication, completion, conclusion

  3. 名词后缀 -ity
similarity, regularity

  4. 名词后缀 -ence
intelligence, independence

  5. 形容词后缀 -ful
successful, purposeful

  6. 副词后缀 -ly
conversely, regularly, purposefully

  7. 反义词前缀 in
inexact, incomplete, independent

  8. 反义词前缀 dis
disagree, discover 本课简介 How to Be a Successful Language Learner 是一篇典型的说明文。此类文章通常以逻辑顺 序安排材料,作者要回答 HOW 或 WHY 方面的问题。在说明文的阅读与写作中,要注意抓 主题句以及使文章内容启承转合的常用词句。 本课中,作者从一句引言入手,先谈了人们对语言学习的看法,然后阐述了自己对学好 语言的看法。文章条理十分清楚,对我们学写说明文很有帮助。
本课语言点

  1. Learning a language is easy.
这是一个 主语+动词+表语 (SVP)句型。句中 learning a language 为动名词短语, 在句子中 做主语。再如: Forgetting the past means betrayal.(忘记过去就意味着背叛。 ) 请翻译下面的句子:

  1) 阅读英语比讲英语容易。 (Reading English is easier than speaking it.)
  2) 集邮是我弟弟的爱好。 Collecting stamps is my little brother's hobby.) (
  2. Even a child can do it.
,连 ” even 在句中作副词用,加强语气,表示“甚至 …也) (…都)。如:He even didn't ( trust his best friend.(他甚至不信任他最好的朋友。 ) 请注意 even 与 even if / though 的区别并翻译下面的句子:

  1) 这个我连听都没听过。 I haven't even heard of it.) (
  2) 即使花了数天时间复习, 他也没能考好。 He didn't do well in the exam even though he ( spent days reviewing.)
  3. Most adults who are learning a second language would disagree with this statement.
句中 who are learning a second language 为定语从句,修饰先行词 most adults,再如: The man who wrote this book is a teacher.(写这本书的人是一位教师。 ) 请翻译下面的句子:

  1) 穿蓝色夹克的那个男孩是我们的班长。 (The boy who is in a blue jacket is our monitor.)
  2) 你昨天借给我的那本书很有趣。 (The book that you lent me yesterday is very interesting.) 。例如: 句中的 would 是助动词,表示“可能”“ 将)会” ,( A picnic without you wouldn't be fun.(野餐没你参加会很没意思。 )
助动词 would 的用法很多,概括起来主要有如下几种: 表示过去将来时:I felt confident that everything would be all right. 表示意愿:I asked him not to do it, but he wouldn't listen to me. 表示习惯性:Every evening, we would go for a walk along the river. 表示虚拟,假设,条件:If you had come earlier, you would have seen him. 表示婉转地请求或建议:Would you look after my cat while I am away?
  4. They need hundreds of hours of study and practice, and even this will not guarantee success for every adult language learner.

  1)
  2)
  3)
  4)
  5)
注意句中 hundreds of hours 的用法,阅读课本第六页注解
  2。 请翻译下面的词组:

  1) 十个学生 ten students
数十个学生 tens of students

  2) 五百年 five hundred years
数百年 hundreds of years

  3) 两千年 two thousand years
数千年 thousands of years

  4) 三百万美元 three million dollars
数百万美元 millions of dollars

  5. Language learning is different from other kinds of learning.
句中 be different from 意为“与…不同” ,如:My opinion is different from yours.(我的 观点与你的观点不同。 ) 请注意下面三个句子中所用的词组: Man is different from all the other animals in his ability to learn and use a language. Man differs from all the other animals in his ability to learn and use a language. The greatest difference between man and all the other animals is his ability to learn and use a language. 从上面的句子中可以看出 differ 是动词,different 是形容词,difference 是名词。

  6. … find it difficult to succeed in language learning.
… find it difficult to succeed in other fields. , 是不定式 to succeed in language 句中的 it 是形式宾语 formal object)真正的宾语 real object) ( ( learning,此类用法在英语中很常见,请注意掌握。如:At first I found it difficult to remember all these new words.(开始我感到记住这些单词很难。 ) 请翻译下面的句子:

  1) 外面的噪音使我无法继续工作。 (The noise outside made it difficult for me to go on with my work.)
  2) 他们觉得再争论下去是浪费时间。 (They consider it a waste of time to argue any further.)
  3) 她认为把真相告诉小王是对的。 (She thought it right to tell Xiao Wang the truth.)
  7. Language teachers often offer advice to language learners.
本句中注意掌握动词 offer 的用法,请看下面的例句:

  1) He offered me a cup of tea after I sat down. (我坐下后他给我端来一杯茶。 )
  2) What suggestions would you like to offer to those young teachers? (对这些新教师你有什么 建议要提吗?)
  3) This shop offers all kinds of stationery.(这家商店供应各种文具。 )
  4) The old man offered me 100 yuan for the used bike. (那个老人向我出价 100 元买这辆旧自行车。 )
  5) She offered to help me with my English.(她表示愿意帮我学英语。 ) 句中的 advice 为不可数名词,其后不加 s,正如课本第六页注解 3 所说,有许多东西在汉语
中是可数的,在英语中却是不可数的。如 news, information, paper 等,若要表示“一个”这 类概念,就必须加 a piece of 这类定语,例如: a piece of news a piece of advice a sum of money a piece of bread

  8. Read as much as you can.
句中的 much 是副词,用副词作同等比较时,可以用 as … as 和 so … as 这种结构,如:

  1) Read as much as you can and your vocabulary will be enlarged.(尽量多阅读,你的词汇量就 会扩大。 )
  2) We must arrange everything as well as we can.(我们要把一切尽可能地安排好。 )
  3) Please give me a call as soon as possible.(请尽早给我打电话。 )
  4) I don't speak English so well as you.(我英语讲得没你好。 )

  9. Practice speaking the language every day.
practice 在美国英语中可以做动词也可以做名词,而在英国英语中,practice 是名词, 动词的拼写则是 practise。 作动词用时, 其后只能跟动名词, 不能跟不定式。 It is really no fun to practice running 如: in such hot weather.(在这样炎热的天气里练跑步可真不是好玩的。 )

  10. Language learning research shows that successful language learners are similar in many ways.
that successful language learners are similar in many way
 

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