2005 年全国硕士研究生入学统一考试英语试题 Section I: Use of English Directions: Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark [A], [B], [C] or [D] on ANSWER SHEET 1 (10 points) The human nose is an underrated tool. Humans are often thought to be insensitive smellers compared with animals, __1__ this is largely because, __2__ animals, we stand upright. This means that our noses are __3__ to perceiving those smells which float through the air, __4__ the majority of smells which stick to surfaces. In fact, __5__, we are extremely sensitive to smells, __6__ we do not generally realize it. Our noses are capable of __7__ human smells even when these are __8__ to far below one part in one million. Strangely, some people find that they can smell one type of flower but not another, __9__ others are sensitive to the smells of both flowers. This may be because some people do not have the genes necessary to generate __10__ smell receptors in the nose. These receptors are the cells which sense smells and send __11__ to the brain. However, it has been found that even people insensitive to a certain smell __12__ can suddenly become sensitive to it when __13__ to it often enough. The explanation for insensitivity to smell seems to be that brain finds it __14__ to keep all smell receptors working all the time but can __15__ new receptors if necessary. This may __16__ explain why we are not usually sensitive to our own smells we simply do not need to be. We are not __17__ of the usual smell of our own house but we __18__ new smells when we visit someone else’s. The brain finds it best to keep smell receptors __19__ for unfamiliar and emergency signals __20__ the smell of smoke, which might indicate the danger of fire.
  1. A] although [B] as [C] but [D] while
  2. [A] above [B] unlike [C] excluding [D] besides
  3. [A] limited [B] committed [C] dedicated [D] confined
  4. [A] catching [B] ignoring [C] missing [D] tracking
  5. [A] anyway [B] though [C] instead [D] therefore
  6. [A] even if [B] if only [C] only if [D] as if
  7. [A] distinguishing [B] discovering [C] determining [D] detecting Section II: Reading Comprehension Part A
  13. [A] subjected [B] left [C] drawn [D] exposed
  14. [A] ineffective [B] incompetent [C] inefficient [D] insufficient
  8. [A] diluted [B] dissolved [C] determining [D] diffused
  9. [A] when [B] since [C] for [D] whereas
  10. [A] unusual [B] particular [C] unique [D] typical
  11. [A] signs [B] stimuli [C] messages [D] impulses
  12. [A] at first [B] at all [C] at large [D] at times
  15. [A] introduce [B] summon [C] trigger [D] create
  16. [A] still [B] also [C] otherwise [D] nevertheless
  17. [A] sure [B] sick [C] aware [D] tired
  18. [A] tolerate [B] repel [C] neglect [D] notice
  19. [A] available [B] reliable [C] identifiable [D] suitable
  20. [A] similar to [B] such as [C] along with [D] aside from
Directions: Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing [A], [B], [C] or D. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1 (40 points) Text 1 Everybody loves a fat pay rise. Yet pleasure at your own can vanish if you learn that a colleague has been given a bigger one. Indeed, if he has a reputation for slacking, you might even be outraged. Such behaviour is regarded as “all too human,” with the underlying assumption that other animals would not be capable of this finely developed sense of grievance. But a study by Sarah Brosnan and Frans de Waal of Emory University in Atlanta, Georgia, which has just been published in Nature, suggests that it all too monkey, as well. The researchers studied the behaviour of female brown capuchin monkeys. They look cute. They are good-natured, cooperative creatures, and they share their food tardily. Above all, like their female human counterparts, they tend to pay much closer attention to the value of “goods and services” than males. Such characteristics make them perfect candidates for Dr. Brosnan’s and Dr. de waal’s study. The researchers spent two years teaching their monkeys to exchange tokens for food. Normally, the monkeys were happy enough to exchange pieces of rock for slices of cucumber. However, when two monkeys were placed in separate but adjoining chambers, so that each could observe what the other was getting in return for its rock, their behaviour became markedly different. In the world of capuchins grapes are luxury goods (and much preferable to cucumbers). So when one monkey was handed a grape in exchange for her token, the second was reluctant to hand hers over for a mere piece of cucumber. And if one received a grape without having to provide her token in exchange at all, the other either tossed her own token at the researcher or out of the chamber, or refused to accept the slice of cucumber. Indeed, the mere presence of a grape in the other chamber (without an actual monkey to eat it) was enough to reduce resentment in a female capuchin. The researches suggest that capuchin monkeys, like humans, are guided by social emotions. In the wild, they are a cooperative, group living species. Such cooperation is likely to be stable only when each animal feels it is not being cheated. Feelings of righteous indignation, it seems, are not the preserve of people alone. Refusing a lesser reward completely makes these feelings abundantly clear to other members of the group. However, whether such a sense of fairness evolved independently in capuchins and humans, or whether it stems from the common ancestor that the species had 35 million years ago, is, as yet, an unanswered question.
  21. In the opening paragraph, the author introduces his topic by . [A] posing a contrast [B] justifying an assumption [C] making a comparison [D] explaining a phenomenon
  22. The statement “it is all too monkey” (Last line, paragraph l) implies that . [A] monkeys are also outraged by slack rivals [B] resenting unfairness is also monkeys’ nature [C] monkeys, like humans, tend to be jealous of each other [D] no animals other than monkeys can develop such emotions
  23. Female capuchin monkeys were chosen for the research most probably because they are . [A] more inclined to weigh what they get [B] attentive to researchers’ instructions [C] nice in both appearance and temperament [D] more generous than their male companions
  24. Dr. Brosnan and Dr. de Waal have eventually found in their study that the monkeys . [A] prefer grapes to cucumbers [B] can be taught to exchange things [C] will not be cooperative if feeling cheated [D] are unhappy when separated from others
  25. What can we infer from the last paragraph? [A] Monkeys can be trained to develop social emotions. [B] Human indignation evolved from an uncertain source. [C] Animals usually show their feelings openly as humans do.
[D] Cooperation among monkeys remains stable only in the wild. Text 2 Do you remember all those years when scientists argued that smoking would kill us but the doubters insisted that we didn’t know for sure? That the evidence was inconclusive, the science uncertain? That the antismoking lobby was out to destroy our way of life and the government should stay out of the way? Lots of Americans bought that nonsense, and over three decades, some 10 million smokers went to early graves. There are upsetting parallels today, as scientists in one wave after another try to awaken us to the growing threat of global warming. The latest was a panel from the National Academy of Sciences, enlisted by the White House, to tell us that the Earth’s atmosphere is definitely warming and that the problem is largely man-made. The clear message is that we should get moving to protect ourselves. The president of the National Academy, Bruce Alberts, added this key point in the preface to the panel’s report: “Science never has all the answers. But science does provide us with the best available guide to the future, and it is critical that out nation and the world base important policies on the best judgments that science can provide concerning the future consequences of present actions.” Just as on smoking, voices now come from many quarters insisting that the science about global warming is incomplete, that it’s Ok to keep pouring fumes into the air until we know for sure. This is a dangerous game: by the 100 percent of the evidence is in, it may be too late. With the risks obvious and growing, a prudent people would take out an insurance policy now. Fortunately, the White House is starting to pay attention. But it’s obvious that a majority of the president’s advisers still don’t take global warming seriously. Instead of a plan of action, they continue to press for more research -- a classic case of “paralysis by analysis”. To serve as responsible stewards of the planet, we must press forward on deeper atmospheric and oceanic research. But research alone is inadequate. If the Administration won’t take the legislative initiative, Congress should help to begin fashioning conservation measures. A bill by Democratic Senator Robert Byrd of West Virginia, which would offer financial incentives for private industry, is a promising start. Many see that the country is getting ready to build lots of new power plants to meet our energy needs. If we are ever going to protect the atmosphere, it is crucial that those new plants be environmentally sound.
  26. An argument made by supporters of smoking was that . [A] there was no scientific evidence of the correlation between smoking and death [B] the number of early deaths of smokers in the past decades was insignificant [C] people had the freedom to choose their own way of life [D] antismoking people were usually talking nonsense
  27. According to Bruce Alberts, science can serve as . [A] a protector [B] a judge [C] a critic [D] a guide
  28. What does the author mean by “paralysis by analysis” (Last line, paragraph
  4)? [A] Endless studies kill action. [B] Careful investigation reveals truth. [C] Prudent planning hinders progress. [D] Extensive research helps decision-making.
  29. According to the author, what should the Administration do about global warming? [A] Offer aid to build cleaner power plants. [B] Raise public awareness of conservation. [C] Press for further scientific research. [D] Take some legislative measures.
  30. The author associates the issue of global warming with that of smoking because . [A] they both suffered from the government’s negligence [B] a lesson from the latter is applicable to the former [C] the outcome of the latter aggravates the former [D] both of them have turned from bad to worse Text 3 Of all the components of a good night’s sleep, dreams seem to be least within our control. In dreams, a window opens into a world
where logic is suspended and dead people speak. A century ago, Freud formulated his revolutionary theory that dreams were the disguised shadows of our unconscious desires and fears; by the late 1970s, neurologists had switched to thinking of them as just “mental noise” -- the random byproducts of the neural-repair work that goes on during sleep. Now researchers suspect that dreams are part of the mind’s emotional thermostat, regulating moods while the brain is “off-line.” And one leading authority says that these intensely powerful mental events can be not only harnessed but actually brought under conscious control, to help us sleep and feel better, “It’s your dream,” says Rosalind Cartwright, chair of psychology at Chicago’s Medical Center. “If you don’t like it, change it.” Evidence from brain imaging supports this view. The brain is as active during REM (rapid eye movement) sleep -- when most vivid dreams occur -- as it is when fully awake, says Dr, Eric Nofzinger at the University of Pittsburgh. But not all parts of the brain are equally involved; the limbic system (the “emotional brain”) is especially active, while the prefrontal cortex (the center of intellect and reasoning) is relatively quiet. “We wake up from dreams happy or depressed, and those feelings can stay with us all day.” says Stanford sleep researcher Dr. William Dement. The link between dreams and emotions show up among the patients in Cartwright’s clinic. Most people seem to have more bad dreams early in the night, progressing toward happier ones before awakening, suggesting that they are working through negative feelings generated during the day. Because our conscious mind is occupied with daily life we don’t always think about the emotional significance of the day’s events -- until, it appears, we begin to dream. And this process need not be left to the unconscious. Cartwright believes one can exercise conscious control over recurring bad dreams. As soon as you awaken, identify what is upsetting about the dream. Visualize how you would like it to end instead; the next time is occurs, try to wake up just enough to control its course. With much practice people can learn to, literally, do it in their sleep. At the end of the day, there’s probably little reason to pay attention to our dreams at all unless they keep us from sleeping or “we waken up in a panic,” Cartwright says. Terrorism, economic uncertainties and general feelings of insecurity have increased people’s anxiety. Those suffering from persistent nightmares should seek help from a therapist. For the rest of us, the brain has its ways of working through bad
 

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