4-1975 recessions. All this leads some people to argue that the Japanese system is not all that different from the American system. During recessions Japanese corporations lay off temporary workers and give less business to subcontractors. In the United States, corporations lay off those workers with the least seniority(资历). The difference then is probably less than the term "lifetime employment" suggests, but there still is a difference. And this difference cannot be understood without looking at the values of Japanese society. The relationship between employer and employee cannot be explained in purely contractual(合同的) terms. Firms hold on to the employees and employees stay with one firm. There are also practical reasons for not jumping from job to job. Most retirement benefits come from the employer. Changing jobs means losing these benefits. Also, teamwork is an essential part of Japanese production. Moving to a new firm means adapting to a different team and at least temporarily, possessing lower productivity and lower pay.
  61.It is stated in the second paragraph that . A. defenders themselves do not appreciate the system B. about 90% of "irregular workers" are employed in agriculture C. the business cycle occurs more often in Japan and in the U.S. D. not all employees can benefit from the policy
  62. During recessions those who are to be fired first in the U.S. corporations are . A. regular employees B. part-time workers C. junior employees D. temporary workers
  63. According to the passage, Japanese firms are remarkably different from American firms in that the former . A. use subcontractors in larger amount B. are less flexible in terms of lifetime employment C. hold on to the values of society D. are more efficient in competition than the latter
  64. Which of the following does NOT account for the fact that a Japanese worker is unwilling to
6
change his job? A. He will probably be low-paid. B. He will not be able to possess some job benefits. C. He has got used to the teamwork. D. He will be looked down upon by his prospective employer.
  65. Which of the following can be the best title for this passage? A. The guarantee of employment in Japan B. The consequence of the Japanese system C. The advantages of lifetime employment in Japan D. The expectations of capitalism C Fear can be a wonderful feeling in our lives, protecting us from dangerous situations and keeping us safe. But fear can also limit our lives significantly. While it may not be conscious, fear may make us think we are unacceptable or that what we have to offer isn't valuable. Fear may make us feel that we are not safe being ourselves. To avoid feeling fear, we may limit our lives greatly, living in tiny boxes. Living this way gives us the illusion(假象) of safety but leaves us with an unfulfilling life of no passion. If we shine a light on many of our fears, we see they have a very limited view of what is "safe" and how to "protect" us. Many of our fears are concerned only with protecting us from humiliation(羞辱) and failure. While these fears are doing their jobs incredibly well, they are doing so with faulty and outdated programming. Many fears we have as adults are trying to protect us as they protected us when we were children. Indeed, many of our current, automatic reactions to fear were actually formed when we were children. Even so, it's important not to judge ourselves for feeling these types of fears. If we judge ourselves, we will bury our fears or disguise them. By denying our fears, however, we also deny our energy, creativity and passion. So what do we do with fear? We recognize the fear for what it is a feeling we've experienced many times in the past and a feeling we will experience many times in the future. We become very familiar with our own particular brand of fears and how we allow them to control our lives. It is especially beneficial for each of us to become aware of the particular behavior patterns we've adopted when we feel fear, so we can look at our reactions with a sense of humor and compassion. Then, if we wish, we can choose a different response, which can be a scary yet very exciting experience. .
  66. According to the first paragraph, fear sometimes A. protect us when we've made mistakes B. makes sure our feelings are not hurt C. brings great change to our everyday life D. makes us lose confidence in ourselves
  67. It can be inferred from the passage that the author . A. thinks it difficult to control our fear B. believes fears protect us negatively C. thinks it's good to criticize ourselves D. values the advantages of feeling fear .
  68. According to the author, the ways we react to fear
7
A. vary from person to person B. have been formed since childhood C. develop during our growth D. will not change until we get old
  69.The last paragraph mainly tells us A. what is the essence of fears B. usual reactions we have when feeling fear C. how to deal with fears reasonably D. the importance of humor and compassion
  70.What would be the best title for the passage? A. Is fear managing your life? B. Be calm when feeling fear C. What do you fear most? D. Passion, chance and fear
.
PART FOUR WRITING SECTION A Directions: Read the following passage. Complete the diagram by using the information from the passage. Write NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS for each answer. One of the definitions of a symbol is that it is "something that stands for something else. " We can divide symbols into three kinds: the conventional, the accidental, and the universal symbol. The conventional symbol is the best known in everyday language., The letters t-a-b-1-e stand for the thing "table" we see, touch, and use. But there is no inherent (内在的) relationship between the meaning and its letters or sound. The only reason the word symbolizes the thing is the convention of calling this particular thing by a name. After being repeated over and over, the word is accepted in the language. Besides words, pictures also act as symbols. A flag, for instance, may stand for a specific country, and yet there is no inherent connection between the specific colors and the country for which they stand. It has been accepted after repeated uses. The opposite to the conventional symbol is the accidental symbol. Supposing that someone has had a saddening experience in a city, he will easily connect the name with a mood of sadness when hearing its name, just as he would connect it with a mood of joy had his experience been a happy one. Obviously, there is nothing in the nature of the city that is either sad or joyful. It is the individual experience connected with the city that makes it a symbol of a mood. The connection between the symbol and the experience symbolized is entirely accidental. The universal symbol is one in which there is an inherent relationship between the symbol and the symbolized. Take, for instance, the symbol of fire. Fire gives us the impression of power, of energy, and of lightness. When we use fire as a symbol, we describe the inner experience characterized by the same elements the mood of energy, lightness, movement, etc. The universal symbol is the only one in which the relationship between the symbol and that which is symbolized is not coincidental (巧合的), but inherent. It can be called universal because it is shared by all men, in contrast not only to the accidental symbol, which is entirely personal, but also to the conventional symbol, which is shared by the people of the same convention.
8
Title. major points 74 72 Conventional Symbols t-a-b-l-e ↓ the thing "table" a flag ↓ 75
71 Connections between Symbols and the Symbolized
79 people of the same convention
77
Accidental Symbols
76 ↓ joy or sadness Fire ↓ power, energy, lightness
78
individual
73
inherent connection
80
SECTION B Directions: Read the following passage. Answer the questions according to the information given in the passage and the required words limit. Write your answers on your answer sheet. Motherhood may make women smarter and may help prevent dementia(痴呆) in old age by bathing the brain in protective hormones , U.S. researchers reported on Thursday. Tests on rats show that those who raise two or more litters of pups do considerably better in tests of memory and skills than rats who have no babies, and their brains show changes that suggest they may be protected against diseases such as Alzheimer's( 早 老 痴 呆 症 ). University of Richmond psychology professor Craig Kinsley believes his findings will translate into humans. "Our research shows that the hormones of pregnancy(怀孕) are protecting the brain, including estrogen(雌激素), which we know has many neuroprotective (保护神经的) effects," Kinsley said. "It's rat data but humans are mammals just like these animals are mammals," he added in a telephone interview. "They go through pregnancy and hormonal changes." Kinsley said he hoped public health officials and researchers will look to see if having had children protects a woman from Alzheimer's and other forms of age-related brain decline. "When people think about pregnancy, they think about what happens to babies and the mother from the neck down," said Kinsley, who presented his findings to the annual meeting of the Society of Neuroscience in Orlando, Florida. "They do not realize that hormones are washing on the brain. If you look at female animals who have never gone through pregnancy, they act differently toward young. But if she goes through pregnancy, she will sacrifice her life for her infant?that is a great change in her behavior that showed in genetic alterations(改变) to the brain."
  81. What is the main idea of this passage? (回答词数不超过 10 个)
  82. What can protect the brain of a woman according to the passage? (回答词数不超过 4 个)
9

  83. How do scientists know "Motherhood may make women smarter"? (回答词数不超过 8 个)
  84. "It's rat data but humans are mammals just like these animals are mammals." What does the sentence suggest? (回答词数不超过 13 个) SECTION C Write an English composition according to the instructions given below in Chinese. Directions: 近几年中小学生近视人数大幅增加,据报道多达 30%?50%的中小学生戴眼镜,而且 这一数字还在呈上升趋势.保护视力必须得到广泛重视. 你作为一名学生,请根据自身体会用英语写一篇有关保护视力的短文.词数 120 词左 右,短文的标题和开头已经给出.内容要点如下: 1,综述中小学生的视力现状. 2,分析造成学生近视 (short-sightedness) 的主要原因. 3,介绍视力保护的简便方法.(至少 2 个方法)
10
KEYS
1?5 CAAAB 6?10 CABCB 11?15 ABCAB
  16. Orange
  17. 3:00 p.m
  18.windy and rainy
  19. Bus and ferry
  20. car crash 21?25 ACBDC 26?30 BCBAC 31?35 ABDAA 36?40 BDABC 41?45 DACBD 46?47 CA
  48.report/survey/study
  49. useful
  50. But
  51. in
  52. if
  53. It
  54. which
  55. meet 56?60 B C D D B 61?65 DCADA 66~70 D B B C A
  71.Syrnbols
  72.Types
  73.Universal Symbols
  74.Examples
  75.a specific country
  76.a city's name
  77.no inherent connection
  78.accidental connection
  79.People Sharing Symbols
  80.all the people
  81. Motherhood may make women smarter and prevent old-aged dementia.
  82. The hormones of pregnancy.
  83. By testing memory and skills on rats.
  84. The results of the experiments on rats go for humans. Or:Humans and rats have lots of similarities. Or:The results of experiments on the rats are much the same on humans. Writing: In recent years more and more school students have become short-sighted. It is reported that as high as 30 to 50 percent of the students wear glasses and the numbers are still increasing. We should pay great attention to this problem. As we know, there are some different causes for short-sightedness. Students always have so much homework to do every day that they are busy doing their homework day and night. Besides, some of them watch TV too much, sitting right in front of the TV set for hours, without resting their eyes. Others play video games or chat online for a long time. All these do harm to their eyes. As students ,we must try our best to take care of our eyes. Therefore we should form a good habit of reading, do eyesight exercises regularly and never wear out our eyes.
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