新概念英语第一册143-144 课文详解及练习答案_新概念英语学习网

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  • 课文详注 Further notes on the text

     

    1.I live in a very old town which is surrounded by beautiful woods. 我住在一个由美丽的树林环绕的古老的小镇上。

     

         这是一个主从复合句,which is surrounded by ... 为定语从句,修饰town。which 指代 town 。从句用的是被动语态,“被......所包围”,如果将从句独立为一个句子,则为:My town is  surrounded by beautiful woods.

     

    2.  on Sundays 是泛指“在星期天”,而不是指在某个星期天。

     

    3.hundreds of people,数以百计的(游)人。

     

         hundreds of people 复数形式表概数,“数以......计的”与 of 连用,作名词的修饰语,其后面的名词必然是复数形式。

     

    4.  . . . to see our town and to walk through the woods. 来参观我们的小镇并在树林中散步。

     

         to  see our town and to walk through the woods 为不定式短语作目的状语。

     

         这里用 and 连接的两个动词不定式。介词through,“穿过”,强调纵深向,如:walk through the forest  穿过森林:而 across 强调横向,如:

     

         walk across the street  横穿街道

     

    5.Visitors have been asked to keep the woods clean and tidy.游客已被告知要保持树林的整洁。

     

         现在完成时的被动语态,说明需求的行为应为游客所知。(句中 have been asked是被动语态的完成时结构。详见本课语法部分。)to keep the woods clean and tidy 是动词不定式短语,作主语visitors的补足语。clean and tidy 是宾语 the woods 的宾语补足语。

     

         clean and tidy 表示“整洁的,清洁的”这是英语中的常用结构,其它常见的类似结构还有:black and blue 青一块紫一块;happy and gay 高高兴兴

    heart and soul 全心全意,一心一意

     

    6.go for a walk,去散步。

     

    7.What I saw made me very sad.我所见到的一切使我非常难过。

     

         句中的主语 What I saw 是 what 引导的名词性从句(主语从句)。例如:

     

         What the little boy did surprised his mother. 那个小男孩所做的一切使他母亲十分惊讶。

     

         What you do makes me happy. 你所做的是我愉快。

     

    8.  The litter baskets were empty and ground was covered with pieces of paper,cigarette ends,old tyres,empty bottles and 

        

         rusty tins.

     

         句中 and 连接的并列句,“the litter baskets were empty” 与“groun was ... 分别为两个并列分句,be covered with ... 被 ...... 覆盖。如:

     

         The desks are covered with dust. 桌子上布满了灰尘。

     

         The ground was covered with snow. 地上覆盖着雪。

     

    9.  Anyone who leaves litter in these woods will be prosecuted!凡在此树林里丢垃圾者,将依法处置。

     

         这是一个主从复合句,who 引导定语从句,修饰先行词anyone 。will be prosecuted 为将来时的被动语态。

     

         Anyone who comes to the party is welcome. 该晚会来者不拒。

     

         Anyone who breaks the traffic regulations will be fined. 任何违反交通规则的人都会被罚款。

     

    语法 Grammar in use

     

    被动语态(2)

     

    上一次介绍了被动语态的一般现在时和一般过去时形式,这里介绍其现在完成时和一般将来时形式:

     

    (1)现在完成时形式: has/have + been + 过去分词:

     

           The basket has already been emptied.&
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  • 2016-04-19