新课标人教版高三英语第二轮复习专题讲座六:阅读理解的解题技巧_高考网

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  •   高考阅读理解的解题技巧

      阅读理解作为考查考生语言能力的重点,《考试大纲》提出了明确的要求:“要求考生读懂熟悉的有关日常生活话题的简短文字材料。考生应能:理解主旨要义;理解文中具体信息;根据上下文推断生词的词义;作出简单判断和推理;理解文章的基本结构;理解作者的意图和态度。”高考英语阅读理解也围绕这一要求来命题,基本上可分为五类:1.细节判断题;

      2.猜测词义题;3.主旨大意题;4.推理引申题;5.篇章结构题。下面以2004、2005、2006年全国统一高考英语科试题为例来分析上述五种试题的命题特点、具体要求以及解题技巧和方法。

      第一节 细节判断题解题技巧

      《普通高中英语课程标准》中达到英语学科的高中毕业要求为七级,其有关阅读最基本的要求是:“能从一般性文章中获取和处理主要信息”。对这种“获取和处理主要信息”能力的考查,主要采用的方式就是:细节判断。这类题在高考阅读理解题中占一定的比例,做好这类题是确保基础分的关键。同时,弄清细节,正确获取信息,也是把握文章主旨的前提。因此,要特别重视做好这类题。

      细节判断题题干常见的问句形式多种多样。如:

      Which of the following is NOT mentioned in the passage?

      Which of the following statements is NOT true?

      Which of the following statements is correct according to the passage?

      Which of the following is NOT considered as …?

      According to the passage, which of the following is NOT mentioned as one of the reasons for … ?

      How many … … ?

      What/who/when/where/how/why … … ?

      做这类题的一般方法是通过skimming把握文章中心后,再通过寻读法(scanning)快速确定该细节在文中的出处(信息源),对照选项进行“三对一错或三错一对”的判断。若该信息句是长句或难句,要学会找出其主干部分、分析句子结构,正确理解信息句的意义。

      命题者在出这类题时惯用“偷梁换柱、张冠李戴”的手法来迷惑考生,即对原句细微处做改动,截取原文词语或结构进行改造,因果倒置,把A的观点说成B的观点等。所以正确理解题干和信息句的意义是关键。

      这类细节性问题所涉及的面很广,有的需要经过简单的数学运算确定时间、距离、次数、数量等;有的涉及正误判断;有的询问事实、原因、结果、目的等。例如:(注:本书例题练习中选用全国各地高考题均保留原题号)

      (05全国卷II B篇)The days of elderly women doing nothing but cooking huge meals on holidays are gone. Enter the Red Hat Society -a group holding the belief that old ladies should have fun.

      “My grandmothers didn’t do anything but keep house and serve everybody. They were programmed to do that,” said Emily Comette, head of a chapter of the 7-year-old Red Hat Society.

      While men have long spent their time fishing and playing golf, women have sometimes seemed to become unnoticed as they age. But the generation now turning 50 is the baby boomers(生育高峰期出生的人), and the same people who refused their parents’ way of being young are now trying a new way of growing old.

      If you take into consideration feminism(女权主义), a bit of spare money, and better health for most elderly, the Red Hat Society looks almost inevitable(必然的). In this society, women over 50 wear red hats and purple(紫色的) clothes, while the women under 50 wear pink hats and light purple clothing.

      “The organization took the idea from a poem by Jenny Joseph that begins: When I am an old woman, I shall wear purple. With a red hat which doesn’t go.” said Ellen Cooper, who founded the Red Hat Society in 1998. When the ladies started to wear the red hats, they attracted lots of attention.

      “The point of this is that we need a rest from always doing something for someone else,” Cooper said. “Women feel so ashamed and sorry when they do something for themselves.” This is why chapters are discouraged from raising money or doing anything useful. “We’re a ladies’ play group. It couldn&rsqu
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  • 2016-04-14