五年专注考研专业课辅导
对外经济贸易大学2000年考研国际贸易学专业英语试题一

  1.The Battle to Be Your Online Bill Collector Bankers hope cyberbilling can give them a toehold on the Net Every year,American business sends out 29 billion bills.And by any measure,the exercise isn't much fun.For companies,printing,processing and posting a tipical consumer bill runs about
  90.And for recipients ,there's not only a demand for payment,there 's a wad of solicitations that nearly everyone throws away.But for banks trying to make it on the Internet,bills are cool .Bankers see bills as surefire eyeball-grabbers in an environment where it's tough to command consumer attention??and a key to protecting their existing business managing cash for big companies.Increasingly,banks are battling high-tech competitors for control of Internet billing,or electronic-bill presentment,as it is called. To be sure,this is a fight over a business that is in its infancy.Few bills are now sent via the Net,and online payment systems often involve a paper check. But the technology exists to send bills from business to customers and route payments back on the Net.By the end of next year,industry analysts estimate upwards of
  4.5 million households will be receiving bills online .What's more, sending and handling bills over the Net should be about 40% cheaper than paper delivery, says the Gartner Group, a research firm in Stamford, Conn. The question is who will become the bill collector on the Net.Bankers reckon that if they can turn their Web sites into mailboxes for electronic bills ,they can become key entry points on the Net-portals,even.That would enable them to sell other financial services online. The fear is that existing portals,such as Yahoo! or even American Online,will become centers of bill payment and , in turn ,siphon off existing bank business . banks have been slow to get into this, says Kenneth J.Kerr,a Garter analyst in Durham,N.C. But they realize there is a threat here and they need to get aboard . Banks have their advantages.They can offer custumers simultaneous access to their bills and their money. Banks have long relationships with the billers,such as utilities and retailers,and centuries of experience in protecting people's money. Big banks also are worried that technology companies offering bill presentment could muscle into one of their fastest-growing business-managing cash for big companies. After all ,distributing and collecting bills is a close cousin to cash management.
五年专注考研专业课辅导
At this point,predicting how the industry will shake out is premature . Banks and technology companies already have formed several alliances aimed a delivering bills on the net. More combinations are likely . What's clear, though , is the banks know they are running out of time to get their Internet billing act together. From Business Week/July 19,1999
  2.Principles of Regulation The following quotation describes the scope of regulation and how it affects individuals and businesses participating in a market. All market and transactions are in practice regulated by some kind of government laws or regulations , and without regulations of any kind,most markets and types of transactions would cease to exist.Without laws, the terms of many types of agreement and transaction between individuals would be unenforceable and would cease. The choice facing individuals and society is not between regulation and no regulation ; it is how much regulation and what kinds of regulation are desirable. This description portrays regulation as fully encompassing the systems of government and law with the power to control all markets and transactions . Economists and politicians would typically take a much narrower view of regulation,concentrating more on the targets of regulatory action or the regulatory process itself. An economist, focusing on the targets of regulatory action, might describe regulation as government policy that exerts control over a firm to elicit a desired behavior as a producer of goods or employer of labor. An economist or politician focusing on regulatoty process, however, might express a view similar to the following: Through regulation,society attempts to substitute the decidion-making process of a regulatory commission for the action of the market mechanism……It is clear that the'process' of regulation is to substitute administrative judgment for market-place judgement. In effect, an economic environment of legal rules and regulations is used as a surrogate for the free market,and economic decisions are made by a political process. The above description portrays regulation as a political process, substituting asministrative judgement for marketplace judgement. The description identifies the important interaction between regulation and the market and raised an important issue:when, if at all, should marketplace judgment be replaced with as ministrative judgement? Various answers to this question have been proposed. Of primary importance is the market being considered. Different market require different amounts and types
五年专注考研专业课辅导
of regulation. From The Regulation of Insurance
 

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