一、法律英语常用词汇
Otherwise
  1.in this Act,unless the context otherwise requires,........ 除非(本法案上下文)文义另有所措
  2.any person who by threats, persuasion or otherwise.... 任何人通过威胁、说服或者其他手段
  3.No contract shall be revoked otherwise than 除非有....,合同不能撤销 Provided that
  1.Provided that there is a breach by the seller, the buyer shall be entitled to a damage of US$4
  00. 如果=if 卖方违约,卖方应向买方给付 400 美元的损害赔偿。
  2.for the purpose of paragraph(
  4)only, the term "beneficial owner" means......., provided that ... 仅就第四段而言, “受益所有人”是指...,但是=but... For the purpose(s) of
  1. For the purpose of protecting the rights of the seller,... 为了保护卖方的权利
  2. For the purpose of Article 3, Party A may send the notification to Party B for approval. 为履行第三条,甲方可以向乙方寄送通知以核准
  3.For the purposes of this contract, "China" means ... 就本合同而言,中国的意思是... Notwithstanding Notwithstanding any practice to the contrary, ..... 尽管实践中存在相反做法,.... 尽管 Where
  1.Where a defendant is fined and the same is not paid, the court may order an auction of certain property 凡是被告被罚款,而没有给付罚金,法院可拍卖被告的某些财产
  2.In any of the following cases, damage shall be awared where: (a).... (b).... 不译(省略) 有下列情形之一的,可授予损害赔偿金 Subject to Subject to this section, an appeal shall be brought in such manner,and shall be subject to such conditions as described in Art.3 在符合本节规定的条件下,....受到第三条中规定条件的约束(制约,限制)
Without prejudice to
  1.Without prejudice to section 24, the following shall be treated as properly executed. 在不影响第 24 节规定的情况下, 在不违反第 24 节规定的情况下,
  2.without prejudice to your own discretions, I hereby authorizeyou to take the following actions,... 在不损害、影响贵方的自由裁量权的情况下,本方在此授权贵方采取以下行动...... In respect of =with respect to The licensor shall conduct all legal proceedings in respect of any infrigement of the licensed trademark. 授权人必须对一切授权商标的侵权行为采取所有的司法程序 “就...而言”“对于” , Save/except as provided... Save as is provided in this Act, .... 除非本法另有规定
二、法律英语背景知识
Source of law 法律渊源 Constitution Statute Act: single statute 单行法 Code:comprehensive statute 法典 Bill:legislative proposal 法案,立法草案 Case Law 法院必须执行制定法,制定法可以改变甚至废除普通法规则 但是解释法律时就是指定法律,任何制定法必须合宪 Administrative regulation 行政立法 Court system-three tiered 三层法院系统 Trial court 初审法院 诉讼第一站,陪审团、法院审理,决定法律问题和事实问题 Appellate court 上诉法院 只审查法律问题,而不审查事实问题 判决结果 Affirm 维持原判 Reverse 撤销原判 Remand 发回重审(上诉法院将案件发还给初审法院,要求初审法院按其指示对案件进行有
限制的重审或完全重新审理或采取其他进一步措施)
Jurisdiction 管辖权 一个法院对一个案子进行审理并作出判决的权利 Original .../Appellate ... Federal Jurisdiction 联邦管辖权 联邦法,宪法,海商法 诉美国联邦政府或其官员;诉大使或者外国代表;一州诉另一州或者另一州的公民,另 一州的政府 诉外国政府 一州国民诉另一州国民或其政府 联邦法院系统 联邦法院系统 District Court 联邦地区法院 一州范围内, Circuit Courts of Appeals 联邦巡回上诉法院 中间上诉法院 Supreme Court 最高法院 大部分是上诉审,仅对如下案件有一审审判权:美国一个州诉其他州,涉及大使或其 他官员 Writ of certiorari 联邦最高法院签发给下级法院要求其将某一案件的诉讼记录移交 给其审查的一种特别令状,是它选择复审案件的工具 Certificate 法院签发给另一法院的说明在本法院中发生的事项或所采取的措施的 书面通知 Authority 法律根据 Type of authority Primary Secondary Mandatory
有管辖权(jurisdiction)时 除非被立法采纳,从来不是 没有管辖权时 通常是
persuasive
Primary Authority Case reporter 判例汇编 商业(west group);官方(美国联邦法院系统、州法院系统) Citation A v. B, 327 N.W. 2d 457, 460
当事人姓名 判例汇编卷号 法院判例汇编的缩写 版次 起始页
( wis.
19
  80)
终止页 pinpoint citation 作成年份
Statute,code,bill Administrative regulations,Consititution Secondary resource Legal encyclopedias Legal periodicals American Law Reports Restatements Uniform Law and Model Acts
Stare decisis 先例拘束力原则 To preserve the harmony and stability Like case, like treatment 垂直型先例拘束力原则,水平性先例拘束力原则 Distinguish:下级法院基于一些虚拟的不同点,注重于两者的区别,而不适用先例 ......他州先例可能被选择适用,但是并非先例拘束力原则的表现,因为他州先例没有拘 束力 一致意见(concurring opinion)一般是其后相类似案例的先例, 但是, 同意意见(concurring opinion)不是先例,因为虽然同意多数法官作出的判决,但对判决依据提出了不同理由 Procedures 诉讼程序 Complaint 诉状 原告提出,说明诉讼理由,对事实作出肯定性陈述 Demurrer/Motion to dismiss 被告主张在法律上不足以支持原告的诉讼请求,提出抗辩,即便事实是真的 Motion for smmary judgment 当事人对案件的主要事实不存在真正的争议或案件仅涉及法律问题时, 动议要求法院不 经过审理而及早解决案件的一种方式。要经过的程序:诉答(pleadings)/披露(discovery) Answer 答辩状 Appellate Procedure 上诉审 上诉理由: 法官在法律问题上犯了错误 陪审团判的损害赔偿金过高,败诉方要求法官重新审理,或者对损害赔偿部分重 新审理
三、怎样读案例
The Composition of Case The caption: basic information of plaintiff and defendant; The Case Citation: source of the case; The author of the opinion: J., C., C.J., V.J., per curiam The facts of the Case: no set rules; usually legally important facts presented; The law of the Case: from general principles to application thereof to the particular facts; ConstitutionStatutesCommon law; public policystatutecommon law Holding and dicta: the core of the case; The Disposition: affirm v. reverse follow v. distinguish v. overrule find v. hold dismiss v. remand rule v. say argue v. stipulate Concurring and/or dissenting Opinions: very important and basis for appeal. What to Look For When Reading a Case A careful understanding of facts: issue-spotting skills; the starting point for any legal reasoning; An understanding of the arguments of the two parties: the role of the court is a passive and neutral
arbiter; the leading role of lawyers in a case; An understanding of the result and reasoning of the majority opinion: a critical mind and no hurry to jump to conclusion; an evaluation of all related facts; The possible effect and scope of the court’s decision: the problems of a rule; the ambiguity and vagueness of case decision: to know what you do not know and learn to judge problems. How to Speed Read a Case Step 1: Read the case name. Step 2: Read the first paragraph or two to understand who the parties are and the issue that brought them to court. Most cases will give the procedural history, parties and issues in the first two paragraphs. Step 3: Read the first sentence of each paragraph. By reading every topic sentence of every paragraph you should get an idea of the structure and general direction that the case is going towards. Step 4: Read the last paragraph or two so that you understand the holding and disposition of the case. THE ELEMENTS OF BRIEFING Procedural History Legal Issue 一个法院要回答的问题,这样法院才能解决好争议。 一句话即可,必须是法律问题和关键事实的结合 EX:Was D's action an battery? Was there a valid contract between A and B Subissue Facts of Case 相当重要,要找出最相关,对双方各自有利的事实,Rule 不能脱离 Facts 适用 Statement of Rule 对规则的总结,规定、禁止、允许某一特定行为的规则 Policy Dicta(obiter dicta) 对判决无关,也没有拘束力的法官的观点 Reasoning Rationale for a decision Authoitiesfactsfollowing infulence to the futurepolicy consideration Holding 对 ISSUE 的回答。 一般利用先例解决问题了,判决也就有了 原被告双方律师的目的是否得到了解决? Concurrence Dissents
SAMPLE BRIEF Gray (cop) v. Martino (crime victim)
Procedural History ? Cop sues for reward money. ? District court awards money to the cop. ? Defendant appeals. Issue ? At the time the contract was formed, was the plaintiff acting as a police officer charged with a legal duty to catch criminals without further reward? Facts ? Plaintiff makes a verbal(口头的) contract with defendant. In return for $500, plaintiff will find defendant's stolen jewels. ? Plaintiff had knowledge of whereabouts of jewels at contract formation. ? Plaintiff is a special police officer and has dealings with prosecutor's(起诉 人,原告) office. ? Defendant published advertisement for reward. ? Plaintiff finds stolen goods and arranges return. Rule of Law ? A public officer cannot demand or receive remuneration or a reward for carrying out the duty of his job as a matter of public policy and morality ? However, it is not against public policy for a police officer to receive a reward in performance of his legal duty if the legislature passes a statute giving the reward to the public at large(自由的,无目地的) in furtherance of (推动, 促进) some public policy - such as preventing treason against the US. Reasoning ? Court finds sufficient evidence to characterize this fellow as a public official. ? His interaction with the prosecutor's office weighed in as a factor in suggesting he had a legal duty. ? Since he is characterized within the rule as a public official, he cannot, as a matter of law, receive a reward for the performance of his duties. Holding ? Court reverses decision of lower court in favor of the plaintiff since he was characterized as a public official. Comments: ? Does Chinese police have the same obligation in theory? What about the real world situation? Compare to the Chinese law.
 

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