阅 读 理 解

  1、解题指导 、 阅读理解题是一种综合性的技能测试, 它不仅要求考生具有较强的理解能力, 还要求考生 要有一定的阅读速度。 而通常影响阅读理解的主要有三大因素: 词汇量、 语法知识、 背景知识。 学生有时反映最大困难是词汇量太少,其直接后果是感觉时间太紧,答不完试卷。对于后两项 也是弱项的考生来说就更困难了。考生要在这一项上取得高分,除了要在词汇量、语法知识、 背景知识三个方面多下功夫外, 还必须学会掌握一些最基本的阅读技能, 了解这部分试题的基 本设计思路及解题方法和技巧。阅读理解一般包括三篇短文,总阅读量不超过 900 个词。每篇 短文后设 5 个问题,每题 2 分,共 30 分。所选短文内容包括人物传记、热门话题、社会、文 化、日常知识、科普常识等。阅读理解题要求考生读后能掌握文章的主旨大意,了解说明主旨 大意的事实和细节,并根据所读内容进行一定的判断和推论。
  2、阅读技巧 、 根据不同的阅读目的,可以采用不同的阅读方法,或称阅读技巧。一般来说,阅读方法有 略读、寻读和细读三种。 (
  1)略读(Skimming) “略读”又称“浏览” ,是指跳过细节,跳过不重要的描述与例子,进行快速阅读以求抓 住文章的大意和主题思想的方法。阅读时速度要快,一般来说,250 字左右的短文应在二、三 分钟之内看完。略读时精力必须十分集中,不要去记忆细节,遇到个别生词或难懂的词句均可 略过,以求对全文总体意思的了解。为了更好地抓住全文的中心思想,略读时要特别注意文章 的起始段和结束段以及文章中每一段的首句和结尾句,因为它们往往是对文章内容最好的概 括。 (
  2)寻读(Scanning) 寻读是快速寻找某一特殊信息的阅读方法。它的目的非常明确,即找到所需要的信息。日 常生活中我们对这一方法并不陌生。 例如从人群中找出你认识的朋友, 从货架上找出你想购买 的商品,在书架上寻找一本你要找的书,从一本指南中找出某个单位的地址等,都是利用这种 方法。在寻读时,目光要自上而下,一目数行地寻视与答题相关的词句,与此无关的内容要很 快掠过。当回答 who,when,where 等有关文章细节时,我们用这种方法很快就能找到答案。 (
  3)细读(Reading for full understanding) 细读是在找到文章中的有关部分以后,在此范围内逐句阅读,特别要对关键词、句仔细琢 磨,以便对其有比较深刻、准确的理解。不仅要理解其字面意思,还要通过推理和判断,弄清 文章中字里行间所隐含的意思。在细读的过程中,对没有学过的生词,可根据上下文的背景知 识来推测其词义;对难以看懂的长句,可借助语法手段,对其加以分析,以达到正确理解的目 的。 总之,在阅读一篇文章的过程中,我们应根据不同的要求,采用不同的阅读方法,对有些 阅读理解问题知其大意即可,另一些需要寻读,而少数则需要细心推敲。在考试中我们应当充 分利用以上三种阅读方法,即用“略读”法浏览全文,以求抓住文章的大意和主题思想。在此 基础上根据问题的要求,采用寻读或细读的方法来解答问题。
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  3、主要测试题型及答题技巧 、

  1)主题思想题 ) 在考试中出现的频率较高,因为这类题可考查考生抓主要信息的能力,而能够抓住文章的 主要信息又是阅读能力的一个极为重要的方面。这类题在设题时常会用到 title,subject,main idea,topic,theme 等词。常见的提问形式有以下几种: What is the main idea of the passage? Which of the following would be the best title? What’s the best title for the passage? The main idea of the passage is that . This passage tells us . Which of the following statements best expresses the main idea of the passage? What does the passage mainly discuss? 做这类题时常用略读法,把注意力放在抓主要信息上,不去过分注意细节事实,否则会造 成“只见树木,不见森林”的结果。通常的办法是,快速阅读文章时注意找出各段主题句。英 文文章各段主题句常放在段首,有时也放在段尾或段落中间,有时不明确写出,通读文章后把 各段主题句联系起来,一般就能得出文章主题。 就整篇文章来讲,首段和尾段一般对于解这类题更为重要。例如: How often one hears children wishing they were grown up, and old people wishing they were young again. Each age has its pleasures and its pains, and the happiest person is the one who enjoys what each age gives him without wasting his time in useless regrets. Childhood is a time when there are few responsibilities to make life difficult. If a child has good parents, he is fed, looked after and loved, whatever he may do. It is impossible that he will ever again in his life be given so much without having to do anything in return. In addition, life is always presenting new things to the child?things that have lost their interest for older people because they are too well-known. But a child has his pains: he is not so free to do what he wishes to do; he is continually being told not to do things, or being punished for what he has done wrong. When the young man starts to earn his own living, he can no longer expect others to pay for his food, his clothes, and his room, but has to work if he wants to live comfortably. If he spends most of his time playing about in the way that he used to as a child, he will go hungry. And if he breaks the laws of society as he used to break the laws of his parents, he may go to prison. If however, he works hard, keeps out of trouble and has good health, he can have the great happiness of building up for himself his own position in society. 文章后面第四个问题是: The main idea of the passage is that . A. life is not enjoyable since each age has some pains B. young men can have the greatest happiness if they work hard C. childhood is the most enjoyable time in one’s life D. one is the happiest if he can make good use of each age in his life
2
文章的第一段讲的是人们常听说孩子们盼着长大成人, 老年人则希望返老还童。 人生的每 个阶段总是欢乐伴着苦恼, 而最幸福的人则是那些既享受人生每一阶段所带来的欢乐, 又没有 因虚度年华而终生后悔的人。 第二段讲述了一个人儿童时代的欢乐与苦恼, 第三段则告诉读者 青年人的责任与义务,机遇和挑战。从以上三段文字来看,第一段中第二句即是主题句,所以 我们应选 D 为正确答案。 (
  2)主要事实和细节题 ) 就是我们平时所说的由 who,what,where,when,why,which,how 引出的问题。这是 极为常见的阅读理解题。 这类题主要是针对论证支持主题的事实或例证设题, 可能涉及数学计 算、概念理解以及是非判断等。 这类题的方法一般是先用寻读法找出与问题相关的词语或句子,再对相关部分进行细读, 找出问题答案。 这类题提问的形式多种多样,常见的有以下几种: Which of the following (statements) is Not mentioned in the passage? According to the passage,which of the following statements is true? According to the passage, all of the following are true except . How many…? What…? Why…? 解这类题时, 审题是关键, 首先一定得看清问题。 比如一句结论性的话后边到底是…is true, 还是 is not true。另外,由于细节题比较容易,有时为了增加测试难度,命题人员在题干或选 项中要增加一些文字或意义上的干扰。所以考生很少能在原文中找到一模一样的现成答案。 例如: On November 19, 1863, Abraham Lincoln went to Gettysburg in Pennsylvania to speak at the National Soldiers Cemetery. The Civil War was still going on. There was much criticism of President Lincoln at the time. He was not at all popular. He had been invited to speak at Gettysburg only out of politeness. The principal speaker was to be Edward Everett, a famous statesman and speaker of the day. Everett was a handsome man and very popular everywhere. It is said that Lincoln prepared his speech on the train while going to Gettysburg. Late that night, alone in his hotel room and tired out, he again worked briefly on the speech. The next day Everett spoke first. He spoke for an hour and 57 minutes. His speech was a perfect example of the rich oratory of the day. Then Lincoln rose. The crowd of 15,000 people at first paid little attention to him. He spoke for only nine minutes. At the end there was little applause. Lincoln turned to a friend and remarked, “I have failed again.” On the train back to Washington, he said sadly, “That speech was a flat failure, and the people are disappointed.” Some newspapers at first criticized the speech. But little by little as people read the speech they began to understand better. They began to appreciate its simplicity and its deep meaning. It was a speech which only Abraham Lincoln could have made. Today, every American school child learns Lincoln’s Gettysburg Address by heart. Now
3
everyone thinks of it as one of the greatest speeches ever given in American history. 文章的最后一题是: Which of the following statements is NOT true according to the passage? A. Lincoln’s Gettysburg Address has deep meaning. B. Lincoln’s Gettysburg Address is simple in style. C. Lincoln’s Gettysburg Address is memorized by every American schoolchild. D. Lincoln’s Gettysburg Address is the greatest speech ever delivered in the United States. 答案可以在文章的第三段和第四段找到。 “他的演讲含义深刻、风格简朴;如今美国所有 的在校的学生都能背诵他的演讲” 文章中他谈到: ; “现在所有的人都认为他的演讲是美国历史 上最好的演讲之一。 ”而不是美国最好的演讲。所以 D 是错误的。 (
  3)推理性试题 ) 大多含有 infer, imply, suggest, conclude,(most)probably 等关键词。以下是一些常见的提 问方式: It can be inferred from the passage that . The passage implies that . The passage suggests that . What is implied in the passage? The paragraph following (proceeding) this passage probably will discuss (discusses) . 推理性试题不能从文章中直接找到答案。 解这类题需要考生在正确理解原文语言字面意义 的基础上, 运用逻辑推理的方法去理解文章字里行间的意义。 对原文中找到的所有相关信息要 进行仔细分析,摸清它们相互之间时间、方位、因果、对比等逻辑关系,在此基础上进行综合 推理,选定答案。 例如: On November 19, 1863, Abraham Lincoln went to Gettysburg in Pennsylvania to speak at the National Soldiers Cemetery. The Civil War was still going on. There was much criticism of President Lincoln at the time. He was not at all popular. He had been invited to speak at Gettysburg only out of politeness. The principal speaker was to be Edward Everett, a famous statesman and speaker of the day. Everett was a handsome man and very popular everywhere. It is said that Lincoln prepared his speech on the train while going to Gettysburg. Late that night alone in his hotel room and tired out, he again worked briefly on the speech. The next day Everett spoke first. He spoke for an hour and 57 minutes. His speech was a perfect example of the rich oratory of the day. Then Lincoln rose. The crowd of 15,000 people at first paid little attention to him. He spoke for only nine minutes. At the end there was little applause. Lincoln turned to a friend and remarked, “I have failed again.” On the train back to Washington, he said sadly, “That speech was a flat failure, and the people are disappointed.” Some newspapers at first criticized the speech. But little by little as people read the speech they began to understand better. They began to appreciate its simplicity and its deep meaning. It was a speech which only Abraham Lincoln could have made.
4
Today, every American school child learns Lincoln’s Gettysburg Address by heart. Now everyone thinks of it as one of the greatest speeches ever given in American history. 文章后面的第五题就是一个推理性试题。 It can be inferred from the text that . A. Lincoln prepared his speech very carefully before he went to Gettysburg B. Lincoln was very busy at the time and didn't have much time to prepare his speech C. Lincoln’s speech was full of rich words D. Lincoln’s speech was very long 文章的第二段有这样的话: It is said that Lincoln prepared his speech on the train while going “ to Gettysburg. Late that night, alone in his hotel room and tired out, he again worked briefly on the speech.” “据说林肯是在去葛底斯堡的火车上准备他的演讲的。那天深夜,在宾馆的房间里, 他既孤独又疲倦,只是又简单准备了一下。 ”所
 

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