《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong 经济学家》
TEXT 1 Rebuilding the American dream machine 重建美国梦机器 Jan 19th 2006 | NEW YORK From The Economist print edition FOR America's colleges, January is a month of reckoning. Most applications for the next academic year beginning in the autumn have to be made by the end of December, so a university's popularity is put to an objective standard: how many people want to attend. One of the more unlikely offices to have been flooded with mail is that of the City University of New York (CUNY), a public college that lacks, among other things, a famous sports team, bucolic campuses and raucous parties (it doesn't even have dorms), and, until recently, academic credibility. 对美国的大学而言, 一月是一个清算的月份. 大多数要进入将于秋季开学的下一学年学习的申请必 须在 12 月底前完成,因此一所大学的声望就有了客观依据:申请人的多少.纽约城市大学,一所 公立学院,与其他学校相比,它没有一支声名显赫的运动队,没有田园诗一般的校园,也没有喧嚣 嘈杂的派对??甚至连宿舍都没有,而且,直到最近也没取得学术上的可信度,可就是这所大学的 办公室塞满了学生们寄来的申请函,这简直有些令人难以置信. A primary draw at CUNY is a programme for particularly clever students, launched in 20
  01. Some 1,100 of the 60,000 students at CUNY's five top schools receive a rare thing in the costly world of American colleges: free education. Those accepted by CUNY's honours programme pay no tuition fees; instead they receive a stipend of $7,500 (to help with general expenses) and a laptop computer. Applications for early admissions into next year's programme are up 70%. 城市大学主要吸引人的地方在于它为从 2001 年开始为聪明过人的学生所设立的培养计划.6 万名 城市大学的五所顶尖学院学生中,约有 1100 人能得到"免费教育" ,这在花费巨大的美国大学界可 是一件稀罕事.被纳入城市大学荣誉计划的学生无需支付学费,相反,他们还获得一份 7500 美元 的定期生活津贴(用于补助日常开销)以及一本笔记本电脑.这所学校申请尽早被批准进入下一学 年计划的学生达到了 70%. Admission has nothing to do with being an athlete, or a child of an alumnus, or having an influential sponsor, or being a member of a particularly aggrieved ethnic group?criteria that are increasingly important at America's elite colleges. Most of the students who apply to the honours programme come from relatively poor families, many of them immigrant ones. All that CUNY demands is that these students be diligent and clever. 批准与否跟学生是不是一名运动员,或者是不是校友子弟,或者有没有颇具影响力的后台,或者是 不是某个爱打抱不平的民族社团成员, 都毫无干系??而这些在美国的知名学府中已经日益成为重 要标准.申请加入荣誉计划的学生大多数来自相对贫困的家庭,其中许多人都是移民.城市大学唯 一需要的就是这些学生必须勤奋并且聪颖. Last year, the average standardised test score of this group was in the top 7% in the country. Among the rest of CUNY's students averages are lower, but they are now just breaking into the top third (compared with the bottom third in 19
  97). CUNY does not appear alongside Harvard and Stanford on lists of America's top colleges, but its recent transformation offers a neat parable of meritocracy revisited. 去年,城市大学学生的标准化考试平均分位居全美最高分的 7%之列.城市大学其他学生平均分较 低,但是他们即将冲进前三名(相比 1997 年的倒数前三名) .城市大学无法与哈佛和斯坦福这样的 美国顶尖学校比肩, 然而他们新近的转变让我清楚地领略到实力主义的再现. (这一段请高手参详) Until the 1960s, a good case could be made that the best deal in American tertiary education was to be found not in Cambridge or Palo Alto, but in Harlem, at a small public school called City College, the core of CUNY. America's first free municipal university, founded in 1847, offered its services to everyone bright enough to meet its gruelling standards. 20 世纪 60 年代以前,有一个很好的例子可以拿来说一说,那就是美国高等教育管理最好的并不在 剑桥大学或者是 Palo Alto 大学,而是在哈莱姆(黑人住宅区) ,在一所名叫城市大学的公立学校 里,也就是纽约城市大学的核心地.美国第一所市立免费大学创建于 1847 年,它为任何聪明才智 足以应付其严格入学标准的人提供服务. City's golden era came in the last century, when America's best known colleges restricted the number of Jewish students they would admit at exactly the time when New York was teeming with the bright children of poor Jewish immigrants. In 1933-54 City produced nine future Nobel laureates, including the 2005 winner for economics, Robert Aumann (who graduated in 19
  50); Hunter, its affiliated former women's college, produced two, and a sister branch in Brooklyn produced one. City educated Felix Frankfurter, a pivotal figure on the Supreme
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《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong 经济学家》
Court (class of 19
  02), Ira Gershwin (19
  18), Jonas Salk, the inventor of the polio vaccine (19
  34) and Robert Kahn, an architect of the internet (19
  60). A left-wing place in the 1930s and 1940s, City spawned many of the neo-conservative intellectuals who would later swing to the right, such as Irving Kristol (class of 1940, extra-curricular activity: anti-war club), Daniel Bell and Nathan Glazer. 城市大学的黄金时代开始于上个世纪, 那时美国最知名的大学都限制犹太人学生入学, 当时纽约到 处都是贫苦的犹太移民的聪明孩子.1933 年到 1954 年之间,城市大学培养出了 9 个后来获得诺贝 尔奖的人,其中包括 2005 年经济学奖获得者罗伯特奥曼(毕业于 1950 年) .城市大学前附属女子 学院则培养出两名诺贝尔奖获得者, 而其在布鲁克林的一所分校也培养出一名. 城市大学还培养出 了最高法院的关键人物费利克斯法兰克福(1902 届) ,埃拉格什温(1918 届) ,天花疫苗发明者 乔纳斯索尔克(1934 届)以及互联网设计者罗伯特卡恩(1960 届)等人.20 世纪三,四十年代, 城市大学作为左翼分子活动区, 城市大学孕育了许多新保守主义知识分子, 他们后来都转向了右翼, 比如欧文克里斯托(1940 届,校外活动积极分子,参加过反战俱乐部) ,丹尼尔贝尔和内森格 雷泽. What went wrong? Put simply, City dropped its standards. It was partly to do with demography, partly to do with earnest muddleheadedness. In the 1960s, universities across the country faced intense pressure to admit more minority students. Although City was open to all races, only a small number of black and Hispanic students passed the strict tests (including a future secretary of state, Colin Powell). That, critics decided, could not be squared with City's mission to "serve all the citizens of New York". At first the standards were tweaked, but this was not enough, and in 1969 massive student protests shut down City's campus for two weeks. Faced with upheaval, City scrapped its admissions standards altogether. By 1970, almost any student who graduated from New York's high schools could attend. 哪里出问题了呢?简单点说,就是城市大学降低了它的标准.这一部分与人口统计有关,一部分与 憨头憨脑的热忱有关.20 世纪 60 年代,全美的大学都面临着招收少数民族学生的强大压力.尽管 城市大学对各色人种都敞开校门, 但也只有少数黑人和拉丁美洲裔学生能通过严格的测试 (其中包 括后来成为国务卿的科林鲍威尔) .持批评意见的人士断定,这不符合城市大学"服务于全纽约市 民"的宗旨.起初,入学标准作了调整,但仍不够.1969 年,学生大规模的抗议让城市大学停课 两周.面对突如其来的变化,城市大学彻底废除了所有入学标准.到 1970 年,几乎所有纽约高等 中学毕业的学生都可以进入城市大学学习. The quality of education collapsed. At first, with no barrier to entry, enrolment climbed, but in 1976 the city of New York, which was then in effect bankrupt, forced CUNY to impose tuition fees. An era of free education was over, and a university which had once served such a distinct purpose joined the muddle of America's lower-end education. 可是,教育质量却因此骤然下降.一开始,由于没有入学限制,报名上学的人数不断攀升,但到了 1976 年,实际上已经陷入破产困境的纽约市,逼迫城市大学征收学费.免费教育的时代终结了, 一所曾经有如此独特办学取向的大学从此成了美国低端教育的乌合之众. By 1997, seven out of ten first-year students in the CUNY system were failing at least one remedial test in reading, writing or maths (meaning that they had not learnt it to high-school standard). A report commissioned by the city in 1999 concluded that "Central to CUNY's historic mission is a commitment to provide broad access, but its students' high drop-out rates and low graduation rates raise the question: 'Access to what?' " 直到 1997 年,城市大学系统的新生十之有七未能通过阅读,写作和数学中至少一门加试(亦即他 们还未达到高中标准) .1999 年纽约市府发布的一项报告总结认为, "纽约城市大学历史性使命的 核心是承担面对大众的教育义务,但是学生的高退学率和低毕业率引发了这样一个问题: '提供什 么教育?'. " Using the report as ammunition, profound reforms were pushed through by New York's then mayor, Rudolph Giuliani, and another alumnus, Herman Badillo (19
  51), America's first Puerto Rican congressman. A new head of CUNY was appointed. Matthew Goldstein, a mathematician (19
  63), has shifted the focus back towards higher standards amid considerable controversy. 纽约市当时的市长鲁道夫丘里安尼以及同样是城市大学校友(1951 届)的美国第一名波多黎各裔 议员赫尔曼巴蒂洛,利用该报告为导火索,对城市大学进行了深入改革.一名新校长上任,他叫 马修高德斯坦,是一名数学家.他把争议的焦点重新引回到了更高的入学标准之上. For instance, by 2001, all of CUNY's 11 "senior" colleges (ie, ones that offer full four-year courses) had stopped offering remedial education. This prompted howls from the teaching faculty, who said it would "create a ghetto-like separation between levels of colleges", keeping black and Hispanic students out of the best schools. In fact, the racial
Page 2 of 55
《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong 经济学家》
composition of the senior schools, monitored obsessively by critics, has remained largely unchanged: one in four students at the senior colleges is black, one in five is Latino. A third have ties to Puerto Rico, Jamaica, China and the Dominican Republic. 例如,到 2001 年,所有城市大学的"高级学院" (亦即提供全部四年培养课程的学院)停止提供加 试教育,随即引起了教师们的强烈不满,他们认为这将"造成学院不同水平学生之间如犹太人区一 般的分裂" ,并将黑人和拉丁美裔学生拒之门外.事实上,批评家们一直关注着,高级学院学生的 种族构成大部分保持不变:高级学院学生中黑人占四分之一,拉丁美裔人占五分之一,还有三分之 一是波多黎各,牙买加,中国和多米尼加人后裔. Admissions standards have been raised. Students applying to CUNY's senior colleges now need respectable scores on either a national, state or CUNY test, and the admissions criteria for the honours programme are the toughest in the university's history. Contrary to what Mr Goldstein's critics predicted, higher standards have attracted more students, not fewer: this year, enrolment at CUNY is at a record high. There are also anecdotal signs that CUNY is once again picking up bright locals, especially in science. One advanced biology class at City now has twice as many students as it did in the late 1990s. Last year, two students, both born in the Soviet Union, won Rhodes scholarships, and a Bronx native who won the much sought-after Intel Science Prize is now in the honours programme. 入学标准提高了, 申请进入城市大学高级学院学习的学生如今需要在全国, 州或者城市大学考试中 取得优异成绩, 而荣誉计划的纳入标准则成为该大学有史以来最为严厉的一项标准. 与高德斯坦先 生预期的恰恰相反,更高的入学标准吸引了更多的学生,而非更少:今年,报名人数又创新高.也 有小道消息称,城市大学正在再一次挑选聪明的当地居民,尤其是在科学方面.它的一门高级生物 学目前上课人数是 20 世纪 90 年代末期的两倍. 去年, 两名均出生于前苏联的学生荣获罗兹奖学金 (译者注: 一个获得按塞西尔罗兹的遗嘱设立的奖学金的学生, 该奖允许他在牛津大学入学攻读两 或三年的时期),一名布朗克斯区(译者注:美国纽约市的行政区,位于曼哈顿北部大陆,纽约东 南部.曾为荷兰西印
 

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