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栏目导航 网站首页>>英语学习>>词汇语法 >>语法知识
发表日期:2003年4月24日 已经有719位读者读过此文


非谓语动词

非谓语动词指不定式,动名词和分词(现在分词和过去分词)。他们具有名词和形容词的某些特征,因而可以做主语,表语,宾语,定语和状语。
I 动词不定式
动词不定式是由“to + 动词原形”构成,如to laugh, to shout,
在句中可作主语、表语、宾语、定语、状语等。

  1.动词不定式的形式
时态主动态被动态
一般式to do to be done
进行式to be doing
完成式to have done to have been done
完成进行式to have been doing

  1:John said that he had run in order to catch the bus.
(一般式的主动态)

  2:He hated to be misunderstood by others. (一般式的被动态)

  3:He pretended to be listening attentively. (进行式)

  4:He intended to have told you that. (完成式主动态)

  5:This work of art seemed to have been created several
centuries ago. (完成式的被动态)

  6:We’re happy to have been working with you. (完成进行式)

  2.动词不定式在句中充当的成分
(
  1)作主语。例如:
To see you is always a pleasure.
To see once is better than to hear a hundred times.
To make money is not the only purpose of our life.
在很多情况下,常用it 来充当动词不定式的形式主语。例如:
It feels good to be out here for a while.
It’s difficult for me to recall his name.
(
  2)作动词的宾语,常用在以下动词后:
afford, agree, ask, attempt, bet, bother, begin, cease,
claim, decline, demand, desire, dislike, expect, hasten,
hate, hope, learn, decide, seem, intend, try, hesitate,
permit, refuse, manage, order, compel, persuade, tend,
fail, consent, choose, forget, mean, pledge, pretend,
promise, seek, refuse, struggle, threaten, venture,
volunteer, wait, wish 等。例如:
He managed to pass the exam.
He persuaded me to accept the invitation.
He promised to be here at nine.
I didn’t expect to see you here.
在某些复合宾语中,常先用it代表不定式,而把不定式放到后面去。例如:
He considered it better to leave now.
I found it impossible to finish the work on time.
(
  3)作定语(常置于名词之后)。
由only, last, next 序数词或形容词最高级修饰的名词常用不定式做定语;
不定式还可用作名词或代词的的宾语 (ability, ambition, anything, attempt,
capability, chance, curiosity, desire, decision,
determination, effort, failure, intention, need,
nothing, opportunity, place, plan, promise, reason,
right, something, tendency, time, way, wish) 例如:
She is always the first student to arrive at school.
He is always the last one to leave the office.
I don’t think he is the best man to do the job.
I have no desire to travel.
You’ll find something to interest you here.
There is no need to bother him with such trifles.
注:动词不定式to后所接动词若是不及物动词,而不定式与其修饰的动词之间有动宾关系,这个不定式后就应有必要的介词。例如:
I haven’t decided which hotel to stay at.
I found no one to play with.
(
  4)作状语。例如:
I walked slowly on the ice in order not to fall down.
(so as to, in order to 表目的)
He tried only to fail. (表结果)
They lifted a rock only to drop it on their own feet.
She was happy to hear the news. (表原因)
不定式常用于修饰下列形容词: able, afraid, angry, anxious, apt,
careful, careless, certain, clever, considerate,
delighted, difficult, eager, easy, fit, frightened ,
happy, interesting, likely, lucky, quick, ready,
reluctant , right, sorry, surprised, sure, thoughtful,
thoughtless, unable, unwilling, wrong etc.
Water is unfit to drink.
French is difficult to learn.
He is reluctant to agree with me.
I’m sorry to interrupt you, but I have to.

  6)作独立副词成分。例如:
To do him justice, he is an honest man.
To speak frankly, I don’t like your attitude.
(
  7)与疑问词连用。疑问代词who, what, which和疑问副词when, where,
how等后加动词不定式,构成不定式短语,可在句子中作主语、宾语、表语等成分。例如:
When to start has not been decided.
The problem is how to get there on time.
How to begin is more difficult than where to stop.
The difficulty was which way to choose.
在有些动词后常用疑问词 + 动词不定式的结构。这类动词有:know, ask, tell, show,
wonder, consider, understand, learn, instruct, guess,
see, explain, discover, imagine, think, hear 等。例如:
He didn’t know what to do next.
I haven’t decided whether to go to Japan.

  3.不定式的复合结构
(
  1)由for + 名词或代词 + 动词不定式构成的复合结构在句中可作主语、表语、宾语、状语等。例如:
It is important for the accounts to be ready by Friday.
His idea is for us to travel in different cars.
(
  2)还有一种由of 引出的不定式复合结构,经常与以下形容词连用:bold, brave, careless,
civil, clever, courageous, foolish, good, honest, kind,
nice, rash, right, rude, stupid, silly, thoughtful,
thoughtless, wrong, wise等。例如:
It’s kind of you to say so.
It’s brave of you to go into the burning building to
save the baby!

  4.不带to 的动词不定式
(
  1)在有些使役动词及感官动词后可用省略to的动词不定式,如let, make, have, hear,
see, feel, smell, hear, watch等。例如:
The teacher makes me rewrite the composition.
I heard her say that she was fed up.
(
  2)在下列结构后常用不带to的动词不定式:had better, would rather, would
sooner, would just as soon, might as well, can not but,
cannot help, do nothing but等。例如:
I’d better go now, or I’ll miss the train.
I would just as soon as go with him.
They can not but accept his terms.
(
  3)在except, but 之前有动词do作实义动词,则except, but
后一般接不带to的动词不定式,反之则接带to 的动词不定式。例如:
There’s nothing to do except wait.
We have no choice but to wait.
I have no alternative but to leave.
There is no choice but to go there.
There is nothing to do but to (to 可省略) read a book.
(
  4) rather than, sooner than置于句首时,其后的不定式不带to.例如:
Rather than leave the child behind, he brought the child
with him.
出现在句中其他位置时,通常也不带to,但有时为了保持前后一致也有带to的情况。例如:
He decided to write rather than telephone.
The manager believes it important to invest in new
machinery rather than to increase wages.

  5)在why, why not结构中,紧接其后的动词不定式不带to,例如:
Why argue with him?
Why not send those books back?
II 动名词
动名词是由动词原形 + ing构成,在句中可作宾语、表语、同位语等。

  1.动名词的形式
时态主动态 被 动 态
一般式doing being done
完成式having donehaving been done


  1:I am sure of his coming in time. (一般式主动态) (= I am
sure that he will come in time)

  2:He is proud of being selected as monitor. (一般式被动态) (=
He is proud that he is selected as monitor.)

  3:I’m confident of his having passed the exam. (完成式主动态)
(= I am confident that he have passed the exam.)

  4:He complained of having been wronged by others.
(完成式被动态)

  2.动名词在句中充当的成分
(
  1)作主语。例如:
Asking for help is sometimes necessary.
Eating too much is not good for your health.
Teaching offers something besides money and power.
(
  2)作补语、表语。例如:
Seeing is believing.
We call such an act cheating.
The difficulty is getting to understand each other
really.
(
  3)作以下及物动词及词组的的宾语:admit, acknowledge, anticipate,
appreciate, avoid can’t help, consider, defer, delay,
deny, dislike, ensure, enjoy, escape, excuse, favor,
finish, give up, keep on, mind, miss, postpone,
practice, put off, resent, risk, stop, suggest, look
forward to, object to, be accustomed to, be used to
doing, succeed in, look like, feel like, insist on,
stick to, persist in, etc. 例如:
Some people do not enjoy smoking.
Because of the bad weather, we postpone holding the
 

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