高二英语 Unit 10 单词及语言点讲解

  1.frightening adj. 令人惊吓的;惊恐的;可怕的,恐怖的 此词常用来说明事物所具备的特征,类似常见的形容词还有:exciting, interesting, disappointing, puzzling, surprising, moving, boring, pleasing, tiring, worrying, confusing, satisfying, shocking, encouraging, amusing 等。Frightened 为过去分词,常用来修饰人,作形 容词用,类似常见的形容词还有:excited, interested, disappointed, puzzled, surprised, moved, bored, pleased, tired, worried, confused, satisfied, shocked, encouraged, amused 等。 eg. His words were very frightening. We were frightened by what he had said. 他的话很恐怖,我们都被他所说的话吓了一跳。 Frightened children looked at the frightening tsunami with frightened eyes. 受惊的孩子们以惊恐的眼神看着那可怕的海啸。 We were deeply moved by his moving speech. We were very surprised at the surprising news.听到那惊人的消息,我们都惊讶万分。 Mr Smith, tired of the boring speech, started to read a novel. 由于厌倦了无聊的讲话,史密斯先生开始读小说。 注意:若被说明或修饰的名词是 face, look, smile, voice 等能表现出人的情感的词,通常用过 去分词修饰。 eg. There was an excited look on his face.他脸上有种兴奋的表情。 The teacher looked at the top student with a satisfied look.那老师满意地看着那优秀的学生。
  2. on end (
  1) 直立,竖着 (
  2) 连续地,继续地(right/ straight on end) eg. It makes my hair stand on end.这令我毛骨悚然。 He placed the box on end and sat on it. He sat three for hours on end.他连续几小时坐在那儿。 It has been snowing on end for a week. stand on one leg 以单足站立 stand one’s hands 以双手倒立 stand still 站着,不动
  3. terrify (
  1)vt. 使恐怖;使惊吓;吓坏 可以构成:terrify (sb.) into doing 威胁(某人)做某事 be terrified of 对……感到惊恐; be terrified at/ with ……为……吓了一跳 例如:You terrify me! 吓我一跳! The animals were terrified by the storm.动物被风暴吓坏了。 What a terrifying experience!多么可怕的经历啊! (
  3) adj. terrifying 可怕的,恐怖的,吓人的 terrible 可怕的,恐怖的,吓人的,极坏的 eg. a terrible war (accident) 可怕的战争(意外事件) My room was in a terrible state of disorder.我的房间凌乱极了。
  4. erupt (
  1) erupt 是不及物动词,指“ (火山等)喷发” eg. Mount Vesuvius hasn’t erupted for many years. 维苏威火山已有多年未喷发了。
1
也可引申为“爆发,迸发” eg. Violence erupted in the city after the football match. 足球赛后城里发生了暴力事件。
  5. spot (
  1) 斑点,污渍 The girl is wearing a white skirt with red spots. (
  2)少量,用于短语 a spot of Are you ready for a spot of lunch?你想吃点午饭吗? (
  3)地点 This is the spot where the man was murdered.这是这个人被谋杀的地点。 The police were on the spot a few minutes after I phoned. 我打电话后几分钟警察就赶到了现场。 vi & vt. (
  1) 认出,发现 He finally spotted the shirt he wanted. 他最后找到了他想要的衬衫。 He was potted by police in the train.他在火车上被警察认出。 (
  2) (使)有污点,沾污 His desk is spotted with ink.他的课桌墨迹斑斑。
  6. sight n. 视域,景象,视力,望见 (
  1)sight 作“视域” “望见”解时,常用的词组有 catch sight of = see suddenly As he caught sight of his old friend, he shouted his name.他一看到老朋友就直喊他的名字。 反义词组 lose sight of in/ within sight / out of sight No vehicle is in sight.一辆车子都看不见 The train was soon out of sight. at the sight of She flared up at the sight of his son smoking. at first sight He recognized his father’s handwriting at first sight. (
  2)sight 作“景象”解时,一般指值得看的景象,如指某地方的名胜古迹用复数,如; What a beautiful sight these boats in the river make!(可与 scene 互换) Come and see the sights of Shanghai. 注意:in sight 与 in the sight of 不同, 前者表示在视野内,后者是“以……的眼光来看”in the sight of the youth 以年轻人的眼光来看。
  7. at hand (
  1)在附近,近在手边 eg. I haven’t my book at hand, but I’ll show it to you later. He lives close at hand. (
  2)即将到来 The autumn harvest is at hand. near at hand, close at hand, next one’s hand, ready at hand, ready to hand, to hands 表达同 at hand 一样的意思 Victory is at hand, so we should keep on fighting. 胜利已在望,因此我们应继续战斗。 常用词组: by hand 用手做,靠人工 in hand 在手里的 hand in hand 手牵手,携手 hands off 请勿动手,不要干涉 on one hand, on the other hand 一方面,另一方面 lend/ give sb. a hand 帮某人忙 from hand to hand 从一人(之手)转到他人(之手) wash one’s hands 洗手 from hand to mouth 仅够糊口的 hands up 请举手 shake hands with sb.与某人握手 hand sb. sth.= hand sth. to sb.把…递给… hand back 把……归还,交还 hand in 上交,面交 hand out 分发,分配 hand on (to sb.)依次传递,传阅
2
hand over 交出;移交 hand down 把……传下去
  8. flee vt. &vi. (fled, fled) 逃跑,逃避 flee (from sb. / sth.) People fled in a panic from the burning building. 人们从燃烧的楼里惊慌出逃。 The enemy fled in all directions.敌人四下溃逃。 During the Civil War people were forced to flee the country. 内战时人们被迫离开那个国家。 We shouldn’t flee from responsibility.我们不应该逃避责任。 His hope fled when he failed to get a job again and again. 当他找来找去找不到工作时,他的希望破灭了。
  9. urge vt. 催促,力劝,强烈要求,主张 urge sb. to do sth. urge on/ upon sb. urge that sb.(should) do sth. eg. They urged me to apologize to him. They urged that I should apologize to him.他们要求我向他道歉。 They urged that the library should be kept open during the vacation. 他们要求图书馆在假期也应开放。 He urged on us the necessity of patience. 他对我们力言忍耐是必要的。
  10. arrival n.到达,抵达,到达者,到达物(arrive 的名词) Cheers greeted the arrival of the professor. 一片欢呼声欢迎教授的到来。 on/upon (sb.’s ) arrival 某人一到达 On my arrival home, I found the burglar.= On arriving home, I found the burglar. 我一到家就发现家中被盗。 on/ upon sth./doing sth. 一……就……,相当于 as soon as 引导的时间状语从句。 On (my ) asking for information I was told I must wait. 我一打听情况,就被告之等着。 On the news of his accident, I was sad.在获悉他发生事故后,我很难过。 We went out to welcome the new arrivals.我们出去欢迎新来的人。
  11. calm down vt. 使平静,vi,平静下来 She calmed him down At last the wild wind calmed down.狂风终于平静下来。 I told him to calm down.
  12. immediately adv. 立即,马上(at once) eg. I left immediately after I heard the news. immediately 可用作连词,表示“一……就……”(as soon as)引导一个状语从句 eg. I left immediately the clock struck twelve. I didn’t wait a moment, but came immediately you called.
  13. fresh adj. 新鲜的,新来的,清新的,重新的 eg. I really think I ought to go out to get some fresh air. There’s been no fresh news of the fighting since yesterday. It’s time to take a fresh look at this subject.是应该重新考虑这个问题的时候了。 Let me make you a fresh pot of coffee. You have given me fresh hope and courage. She was still fresh after working all day.
  14. board (
  1) on board 意为“在(车、船、飞机)上” (on a train, ship or plane etc.)也可作“去、到 (车、船、飞机)上”解(=onto a train, ship or plane etc.) 。注意这个习语也可接用船
3
名或船的类型,可以说“on board the ship”, “on board of the ship” 和 “on board ship”, 但不可以说 “on board of ship”。 (
  2) on the board 意为“在木板上”board 前可加上其他名词构成合成词,表示供某种用途 的木板。 on the message board 在留言版上, the notice board 在公布告牌上, the 如: on on diving board 在跳水板上。on the board 还可以表示“在会上讨论(be discussed at the meeting) ”的被动含义。 (
  3) on the boards 意为“当演员” (on the stage), 常用在连系动词 be 后面作表语。
  15. knock about = knock around (
  1) 漫游;漂泊 He’s knocked about in Africa all his life.他在非洲漂泊一生。 Before liberation, he used to knock about the docks, trying to find a little work to make a living.解放前,他常常到码头上去设法找点工作谋生。 (
  2) 虐待 The woman was cruelly knocked about by her husband. (
  3) 毁坏 The crops were badly knocked about by the storm.庄稼受到那场风暴的袭击。
  16. all of a sudden 突然地,冷不防,意外地 eg. All of a sudden she began to laugh.她突然笑了起来。 all of a sudden= suddenly eg. All of a sudden\ Suddenly, the tyre burst.轮胎突然爆裂了。 同义词组:all at once 突然,完全同时 eg. The wind fell all at once.(本单元) He was happy and sad all at once.他悲喜交加。
  17. live through 度过,经受住 eg. He lived through both world wars. live by live on live with live up to
  18. swear (swore, sworn) swear +n./ 不定式/从句/ to having done.(坚持说,肯定说) eg. The swore an oath to carry out their duties faithfully. He swore to tell the truth. He swore that he would cut off smoking His boss often swore at him, sometimes for no reason at all. He swore to having seen the man do it.他肯定地说看见这人做过这事。 I swear before God I didn’t do it.
Language points
I. Warming up
1 scare/frighten sb. 使某人害怕 be scared/ frightened/ afraid of sb./ sth. 害怕某人/某物 a scared/ frightened face/ look/ eyes 充满恐惧的脸/神色/眼神(此人感到害怕) a scaring/ frightening face/look/ eyes 吓人的脸/神色/眼神 (令别人害怕)be scared/ frightened to death 吓得要死 2 be a threat/ danger to 对…构成威胁/危险,对…而言是构成威胁/危险的人或事物
4
3 stand on end 直立,竖着 4 be terrified at/ with/ by 被...吓了一跳 be terrified of 对...感到恐怖 terrify sb into doing 威胁 某人做某事
II. Reading
1 attract/ draw sb’s attention 引起某人的注意 attract/ draw sb’s attention to 将某人的注意力吸 引到…上去 pay attention to/ give one’s attention to 注意… call sb’s attention to 叫某人注意… bring sth. to sb’s attention 使某人注意… 2 rise vi. rose risen
  1)(太阳、月亮、星星等)升起,出现 The sun has risen
  2) (水位,价格,声音等)升高, 上升, 上涨,提高,增长/强 The flood has risen two feet.洪水上涨两英尺。
  3)起立/床 rise from table(餐毕)起立离桌
  4)(河流)发源于 The river rises in the mountains.这河发源于群山之中。 raise vt. raised, raised
  1)抬高;举起;使升起 raise one’s arms 抬起手臂 raise one's head 抬起头
  2)使升高/上升/上涨/增加/增长;提高 raise the rent 提高租金 raise one’s voice 提高声音
  3)饲养; 养育; 栽培 raise a family 供养一家人 raise chickens and corn 养鸡和种植玉蜀黍
  4)提出 raise a question to sb 向某人提一个问题
  5)筹集(款);召集; 征集,)raise funds 筹集资金 raise an army 召集军队 比较下面的句子: They raised the prices 他们提高了价格。The prices rose 价格上涨/增长。 sit vi 坐下 seat vt 使…就坐/安排…坐下 seat sb. seat oneself 记住:及物动词必须有宾语,如后面无宾语肯定用过去分词表被动,不及物动词不可接宾 语也就不可用被动语态 Sitting/ Seated at the table, my father and I were talking about my job. I found the boy seated/ sitting on his mother’s knee. We got them to raise the prices. We got the prices raised. The prices keep rising. 3 sight
  1)景象,景物, 场景, 景观 a beautiful sight 美丽的景象 a sad sight 悲惨的场景
  2) 风景,名胜(人工造的景色, 常用复数)see the sights of the West Lake.观赏西湖风景
  3)视觉,视力 lose one's sight 失明 have short/near sight 近视 have good/poor sight 视力 好/差
  4) 看,观望;观览 at first sight 一见就..., 初次看见时 at the sight of 一看见…就... catch /have/ gain/ get sight of 突然瞥见
  5) 视野,眼界 be in sight 可看得见的,在视线内 out of sight 看不见的,在视线之外 be/ go /get out of sight 看不见了 lose sight of 看不见...了 scene
  1) 自然景色, 风景 The scene is a perfect dream when you see the sun rising slowly in the east.
  2)眼前的情景,景象(包括人及活动在内)The scene after the earthquake was horrible.地 震后的场景十分可怕。 There is a happy scene of children playing in the garden.孩子们在花园里玩耍,好一派欢乐的 景象。
  3)现场,出事地点 a crowd at the scene of the accident 在出事地点的人群
  4)场所,地点 What's new on the film scene?电影院
 

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