Unit 17 Disabilities

  1. disability (
  1) (
  2) 作不可数名词,表示"无能力,失去能力",常作主语. His disability prevents him from holding a job.他的无能使他不能胜任工作. 作可数名词,表示"缺陷",常作主语,宾语或表语. 在巴黎不讲法语实在是一个缺陷. He gets money from government because of his disabilities. 他因为残疾而接受政府的钱. (
  3) 同义词:incapacity n. n.无能力,伤残 无能力, 无能力
  2. ability Not speaking French in Paris is a real disability.
(
  1) 作不可数名词,表示"能力;本领",其后常接动词不定式. He shows considerable ability in (for) organization. 他很有组织能力. I do not doubt your ability to do the work.我不怀疑你有担任这项工作的能力. (
  2) 作可数名词,表示"才能,技能" He is a man of many abilities.他是一个有多方面才能的人. (
  3) 习语 to the best of one's ability/ abilities 尽最大努力 leadership ability 领导才干 a man of ability 有才能的人 (
  4) 同义词:skill, talent, competence n.能力;才能;技能 反义词:disability n.无力;无能;无能力 He soon received promotion(提升), for his superiors realized that he was a man of considerable A. future
  3. obstacle obstacle race B. ability n. 障碍,妨碍物 障碍赛跑 . C. possibility D. opportunity
obstacles on the race-course 赛马跑道上设置的障碍物 obstacles to world peace 世界和平的障碍 Not being able to pass his maths exam proved an obstacle to his career.他数学考 试不及格是他前途上的一大障碍.
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  4. get around = get about (
  1) 表示"四处走动;活动" It's difficult for his grandpa to get around without a cane. 他祖父离开手杖就走 不了道. (
  2)
  5. fair (
  1) (
  2) 作名词,表示"集市;庙会;展览会" 作形容词,表示"公平的;相当的;晴朗的;金发的",常作定语或表语. a world fair 世界博览会 We charge fair prices and are content with fair profits. His knowledge of French is fair, but ought to be better. 他的法文不错;但是还 应该更好些. We are hoping for fair weather.我们期待着好的天气. (
  3) 习语 fair price 公平价值 fair dealing 公平交易 adj.白皙的;明亮的;公平的 fair dos 公平对待 fair play 公平比赛 (
  4) 反义词:unfair
  6. potential (
  1) n.[U]可能性;潜在性 The new invention has enormous sales potential.这项新发明有巨大销售潜力. She recognized the potential for error in the method being used. 她意识到在所采用的方法中可能出错. (
  2) adj. 可能的,潜在的,有潜力的 a potential danger 潜在的危险 She is potentially our best tennis player, but she needs to practise much harder. 她有可能成为我们的最佳网球运动员,但她也需要进行更刻苦的锻炼.
  7. guidance 引导;领导;指导 We would much appreciate guidance from an expert in this field. 我们很欢迎在这个领域的专家来指导.
2
表示"消息传开,传出去"
Bad news gets around quickly.坏消息总是传得很快.
同义词:light, bright , just
The agency offers practical guidance to people starting their own businesses. 这个机构对开始经营自己生意的人提供切实有效的指导. * be under sb.'s guidance 在某人的指导下 guide n.&.v.向导;导游;指南;引导;指导 He guided us through the narrow streets to the railway station. 他引导我们走过狭窄的街道去火车站. Be guided by your sense of what is right and just. 做事要有是非观念和正义 感.
  8. (
  1)gifted adj. 有天赋的;悟性高的,聪颖的 He is a gifted artist. 他是一位有天赋的艺术家. The child is gifted at writing. (
  2) gift n. ① 礼物,赠品 ②天赋,禀赋,才能(可数名词) have a gift/talent/ genius for sth./ doing sth. 有……才能 He has many outstanding gifts.他多才多艺.
  9. assist (
  1) vt.&vi. vt. 帮助;协助
assist sb. with sth./ assist sb. to do sth./ assist sb. in doing sth. 帮助某人干某事 You will be required to assist Mr. Smith in preparing a report. 你将要协助史密斯先生准备一份报告. vi. 出席;参加 assist at/ in sth. 在某场合出席;参加…… The president will assist at the ceremony.主席将参加仪式. assistance n. 帮助;援助 (
  2) assist/ help assistant n. 助手,助理;店员
assist 帮助;援助;正式用语,受帮助者自己也出力. Students assisted the professor in doing the experiment.学生们协助教授做实验. help 帮助;常用语;受帮助者可以出力,也可以不出力. help sb. with sth./ help sb. (to) do sth.帮助某人做某事 He helped me when I was in trouble.我处于困境时他帮助了我.
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  10. cooperate (
  1) 作不及物动词,表示"合作;协助", 常用结构是 cooperate with sb. in doing sth. 表示"与某人合作做某事" cooperate with sb to do sth. He cooperated with his family to finish the work. 他为完成那工作与家人合作. (
  2)习语 cooperate in harmony 协调地合作 cooperate with sb. in the work 在工作上与某人合作 (
  3)cooperative adj.
  11. recognition cooperation n. 不可数名词,表示"承认,接受;认识,识别",常作主或宾语
Einstein gained international recognition in his theory of relativity. 爱因斯坦的相对论已得到国际的公认. recognize vt. 认出,承认= recognise recognizable adj. 可认出的,可识别的 beyond/ out of recognition 难以认出
  12. sympathy (
  1) 作不可数名词,表示"赞同"时,固定搭配为 be in (out of ) sympathy with, 指"心里赞同(不赞同)……" I'm in sympathy with your proposal. 我赞同你的建议. (
  2) (
  3) (
  4) 还可以表示"慰问" 最常用的意思是"同情;同情心" 习语: They sent me a letter of sympathy. 他们寄给我一封慰问信. We all had sympathy for him.我们大家都同情他. feel sympathy for sb.同情某人 have (no) sympathy with sb. 对某人(不)表示同情 in sympathy with 同意;赞同
  13. encouragement (
  1) encouragement 是不可数名词,它由动词 encourage 加名词后缀-ment 后 派生而来 He owed his success to his wife's encouragement. 他把他的成功归功于他妻子
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recognizably adv.可识别地
的鼓励. (
  2) 反义词:discouragement n. 劝阻;泄气 (
  3) encourage sb. to do sth. 鼓励某人做某事 The teacher encouraged me to study abroad.老师鼓励我去国外学习.
  14. productive (
  1) 是由动词 produce "生产"派生而来作形容词, 表示"生产的, 有生产力的", productive land 肥沃的土地 常用作表语或定语. a productive society 生产协会 (
  2) 还表示"多产的,丰饶的"
Poverty is productive of crime.贫困产生犯罪. The changes were not productive of better labor relation. 这些改变并未能使劳资关系获得改善. (
  3) (
  4) (
  5) (
  1) 其副词形式是 productively ;名词 productivity 生产力;多产 同义词:fertile adj. product n. 工业产品 produce n. 农产品

  15. visual 作形容词,表示"视觉的,视力的;看得见的",没有比较级和最高级 the visual arts 视觉艺术 visual field 视野,视界 adj.看不见的,无形的 a visual image 视觉形象 the visual nerve 视神经 同义词:visible (
  2) (派)visible
adj. 可见的,视觉的 adj.看得见的,有形的 invisible visually adv.视觉地,看得见地
vision n. 视力,视觉 visual aid 直观工具
  16. impair (
  1)
vt. 损害,损伤,削弱,常用于被动语态
When you're tired, your judgment is impaired. 当你疲劳时,你的判断能力就 会削弱. (
  2) (
  3) 习语:a man with impaired hearing 听力受损的人 同义词:harm, hurt vt.损害

  17. motivate (
  1) v. 作为(某人行为)的动机;使(某人)以某种方式行事
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The murder was motivated by hatred.那凶杀案是由仇恨所引起的. (
  2) v. 激发(某人)的兴趣;使欲做某事 He is a teacher who can motivate her pupils to work harder. 他是一个善于诱导学生努力学习的教师. (
  3) motivation
  18. adjust (
  1) 作及物动词,表示"调节,调整,校准" adjust color on a TV 调整电视的色彩 adjust one's tie in a mirror 照镜子整理领带 adjust a clock 调准时钟 (
  2) 作及物动词, 表示"使……适合于……", 其后常接介词 to, 常用搭配 adjust oneself to 表示"使自己适应(新环境等)" You must adjust yourself to new conditions.你必须使自己适应新的环境. (
  3) 作不及物动词,表示"适应",其后常接介词 to He soon adjusted to army life.他很快就适应了军队生活. (
  4) 同义词: adapt adjustment
  19. ceremony (
  1) (
  2) (
  3) 作可数名词,表示"典礼,仪式" 作不可数名词,表示"礼节;礼貌". 习语: the ceremony of conferring graduation certificates 毕业证书授予仪式 Help yourself without ceremony. 请随意吃/不必客气 stand on/ upon ceremony 讲究,客套,客气 without ceremony 不拘礼节地,随便地 perform the opening (closing) ceremony 举行开幕(闭幕)式 (
  4) (
  1) 同义词:celebration; manners n.庆典;礼貌
  20. victory 表示"胜利,成功",既可指具体的,又可表抽象意义上的胜利;因而有
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n.
They lack the motivation to study. 他们缺乏学习的积极性.
vt. 调整,调节;适应 adjustable adj. v.扰乱
n.
反义词:disturb
时用作可数名词,有时用作不可数名词. It was a great victory. 这是一个大胜利. (
  2) 习语 a major victory 大捷 celebrate a victory 庆祝胜利 a moral victory 精神上的胜利 Perseverance means victory. 坚持就是胜利 (
  3) 同义词:success n.成功 反义词:defeat, failure n.失败
  21. dignity (
  1) 严. (
  2) (
  3) (
  4) 还表示"庄严的举止,端庄的仪态" 习语 stand up on one's dignity 保持尊严 同义词:nobility n. 高贵 She kept her dignity despite to booing.尽管嘘声四起,她仍旧泰然自若. beneath one's dignity 有失身份 反义词:vulgarity n. 粗俗
  22. shameful (
  1) 是由名词 shame 加形容词后缀-ful 派生而来,表示"可耻的,丢脸的;不 体面的" What a shameful conduct! 多么可耻的行为! (
  2) 同义词:disgraceful adj.可耻的,丢脸的 adj. 荣誉的,光荣的,体面的 反义词:honourable 作不可数名词,表示"尊严;尊贵",常作宾语或主语 Only a truly free person has human dignity.只有真正自由的人才具有人的尊

  23. participate 参加;参与,常与 in 连用 Tom can't participate in the match because he has hurt his foot. 汤姆不能参加比赛,因为他扭伤了脚. 另外,还作"分享,分担"讲,而 take part in 无此意思. participate in one's suffering 分担某人的痛苦 participate in the profits 分享利润 participate in sth.= take part in 参加某活动
7
participate in 更正式 take part in 更口语化 participant
  24. facility (
  1) 作名词,常用复数形式,表示"设备,设施;方便,便利" educational/ public facilities 教育/公共设施 facilities of civilization 文明的设备 facilities for communication/ research 交通/研究设备 (
  2) 也可以表示"才能,本领",其后接介词 in 或 for . have facility in speaking / writing 有口才/写作才能 have no facility for language 没有语言的才能 (
  3) 同义词:equipment
  25. survey (
  1)作及物动词,表示"眺望(景色等) ;纵览",其后常接复合宾语(宾语 通常是名词或代词,宾语补足语常是介词或介词短语) They surveyed the countryside from the top of the hill.他们从山顶俯瞰乡间. He surveyed me with an inquisitive look.他以好奇的眼光(从头到脚)仔细地 打量我. (
  2)作及物动词,表示"鉴定;查勘" They have started to survey the country that a new motorway will pass through. 他们开始勘测新汽车道要通过的那块地段. (
  3)作名词,表示"调查,概论;查看;纵观" do a survey 做调查 (
  4)作名词,表示"测量,实地勘察". The house is still under survey. 该幢房子还在鉴定之中. make a survey of the land 测量土地 (
  5)同义词:review 队) ;传导 A girl conducted the visitors around the museum. 一位姑娘领着游客在博物馆中参观.
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n. 参加者,参与者
n.设备
n.调查

  26. conduct 陪伴,引导,带领;进行,实施,处理;表示,为人;指挥(乐
He conducts himself well.他行为端正. Copper conducts electricity better than other materials.铜的导电性能比其他材 料好.
  27. accessible 易达到的,接近的,易取得的;随和的;容易理解的 The island is accessible only by boat. A teacher should be accessible to his/her students. 老师应该让学生感到平易近人. The information ought to be made more accessible. 资料应该明白易懂. A telephone is put where it will be accessible.电话要放在容易拿到的地方. be accessible to sb.某人容易得到,了解,亲近 access n.进入,通道 have/ gain access to 有……机会/条件 access 与 to 连用相当于汉语中的"……的",不可用 of Only high officials have access to the president. 只有高官才可见总统. Students must have access to a good library. 学生应有使用好的图书馆的便利 条件.
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