高二英语 Unit 9 单词讲解

  1. issue vt. 发出,发表,发行,发给 句型: issue sth. to sb. 或 issue sb with sth, 表示“把……发给某人” eg. The school issued uniforms to the players. 学校给运动员发运动服。 The convicts were issued with new clothing. 犯人们发了新衣服。 A joint communiqué was issued on March
  20.三月二十日发表了联合公报。 作为不及物动词,后接 from ,表示“从……流出” “来自” eg. The stream issued from the bottom of the hill.小溪从山底流出。 Smoke issues from the chimney.烟从烟囱冒出。 A sound of laughter issued from the adjoining room. 笑声从隔壁的房间里飘出来。 n. (书刊的) 期号,版本,发行,分配,问题,争议,结果,流出等,是可数名词 eg. Have you seen the latest issue of the magazine? 你有没有读过这家杂志的最新一期? There was no issue at all between us.我们之间毫无争论。 The great issue today is whether there will be war or peace. 今天最大的争议是战争还 和平。 No one knows what the final issue will be. 没有人知道最终结局如何。 A nose-bleed is an issue of blood from the nose.鼻衄就是鼻孔流血。 短语:at issue 待决定,讨论 eg. The point at issue is whether you are willing to go abroad. 有待决定的情况是你是否愿意出国。
  2. summarize vt.&vi. 概括,总结 n. summary 摘要,概要,提纲,归纳。 eg. (
  1) The situation is perhaps best summarized in two brief sentences as follows. 局势也许可以用下面两句简短的话加以概括。 (
  2) It may be summarized in the following outline. 这可以用下面的提纲简短地加以概括。 (
  3) I will summarize what I have done and want to do. 我将总结一下我已经做的和将要做的事。 (
  4) A summary of each article is given at its end. 每篇文章结尾都附有概要。 (
  5) The history book had a summary at the end of each chapter. 那本历史书的每章结尾都附有概要。
  3. content. n. 内容,里面的东西 (
  1) I like the style of this book, but I don’t like the content. 我喜欢这本书的文笔,但不喜欢这本书的内容。 (
  2) Empty out contents of your purse. 把你钱包里的东西倒空。 adj. 满足的,高兴的。多用作表语,不作定语 be content to do sth; be content with sth. eg. I am quite content to remain where I am now. 我十分愿意保持现状。 Mary seems content to sit in front of the television all night. 玛丽看来乐意在电视前坐一夜。 I’m perfectly content with my present salary. 我对自己目前的工资满意。
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vt. 使满足(to satisfy, to make …happy) eg. John contented himself with one glass of wine. Simple praise is enough to content him. 简单的赞扬足以使他满足。
  4. representative (
  1) n. a person who has been chosen to act in place of one or more others 代表;代理人 eg. I couldn’t be present myself, but I sent my representative to the meeting. 我本人不能亲自出席,可我派了代表出席会议。 They are demanding to have a representative of the workers on the board. 他们正在要求董事会设一名工人代表。 (
  2) adj. typical, consisting of elected deputies 典型的,代表性 eg. Are your opinions representative of those of the other students? 你们的意见代表其他的学生吗?
  5. access n. 接近,进入,通路 access 表示“进入的方法或道路” “能接近” “了解”或“使用”等意思,是不可数名 词,后接介词 to (
  1) There is no access to the house from the main road. 这条干道没有到那间房子的通道。 (
  2) The only means of access to the building is along a muddy track. 进入此建筑物的惟一方法是沿着泥泞小路走。 (
  3) Students need easy access to books. 学生们需要便于使用图书的机会。 (
  4) Only a few people have access to the full facts of the case. 只有少数人了解这个案件的全部真相。
  6. poverty n. 贫穷,贫困,贫乏,缺乏,低劣,劣质 eg. She had been worn down by poverty and illness. 她贫病交加,受尽折磨。 There are thousands of people living in poverty.有成千上万的人生活在贫困之中。 There are still too many people living below the poverty line. 生活在贫困线以下的人数仍然很多。 His works was criticized for its poverty of imagination.他的作品因缺乏想像力而受到批 评。
  7. violence n. 暴力,侵犯,猛烈,强烈 eg. Many people say too much violence is shown on television. 许多人都说电视上出现的暴力镜头太多。 They are exerting ever greater violence against the environment. 他们正在更为大肆地破坏环境。 The wind blew with great violence. 风刮得很猛。 * do violence to sth. 违背/反某事物;损/破坏 eg. It would do violence to his principles to eat meat.吃肉与他的原则相违背。 These modern boxlike buildings do violence to the beauty of the old city. 这些盒式的现代建筑物破坏了这座古城之美。 adj. violent 厉害的,猛烈的,暴行的 eg. People in this society are prepared to be violent. 这个社会里的人随时准备使用暴力。 We have been going through violent changes the past couple of years. 过去几年里我们经历了强烈的变化。
  8. stress vt. 强调(说)
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(
  1) She stressed the need for careful speeding of using money. 她强调用钱必须慎重。 (
  2) To stress something is to call special attention to it. 强调某事就是唤起人们特别注意它。 (
  3) He stressed that everybody must arrive on time.他强调说每个人都必须按时到达。 n. 强调,压力,重力 (
  1) My parents lay great stress on honesty. 我的父母特别强调要诚实。 (
  2) He does not like the stress of life in a big city. 他不喜欢大城市生活的紧张。 (
  3) The child’s headache may be caused by stress. 那个孩子的头痛可能是紧张造成的。 (
  4) The limb could not bear up under the stress of heavy snow. 那个大树承受不了大雪的压力。
  9. equality n. 平等,相同 eg. Women are still struggling for true equality.妇女仍然在争取与男人真正平等 Equality does not guarantee happiness in love.平等并不能保证爱情一定幸福。
  10. fairness 公平 反义 unfair adj. 公平的,还不错,浅色的(头发等) ,清楚的 eg. Everyone must have a fair share. 人人都应该获得公平的份额。 His knowledge of French is fair, but ought to be better. 他的法语知识还不错,但应当更好些。 The weather will be fair tomorrow.明天天气晴朗。 All this is fair enough, but it touches only the surface of the problem. 这一切都说得对,但所触及的只是表面问题。 Mary is a fair-haired girl.玛丽是一位金发女郎。 It is not fair to kick another player in football.在足球赛中踢对方球员是不公平的。 There must be fair play in this competition.这次竞赛必须公平。 They will win the election by fair means or foul(=in any way, honest or dishonest) 他们不择手段想要取得选举的胜利。 It is unfair to accuse anyone without evidence.没有证据指控一个人是不公平的。
  11. duty 与 responsibility 辨析 (
  1) duty 指“道义上的责任” ,比较强调自觉性和作为一种义务的永恒性,是不可数名词。 eg.Every citizen has the duty of defending his country. 每个公民都有保卫祖国的责任。 We are in duty bound to help the needy. 帮助贫困者,我们义不容辞。 (
  2)responsibility 强调“职责” ,含有在法律上对后果负责的意味,是不可数名词。 With so many reports to mislead one, it is hard to say at whose door the responsibility should be laid. 报告多得叫人摸不着头脑,很难说责任该由谁来负。 He refused all responsibility for the mistake. 他对这一错误拒绝承担任何责任。 在指具体“职务、任务”时,两词有时可以通用,这时它们是可数名词。 Both officers and men have discharged their responsibilities (duties). 官兵们都很好地完成了他们的任务。
  12. prosper v.兴旺,成功;健康成长,顺利发展 eg. The business is prospering.生意兴隆。 The farmers prospered.农民们兴旺发达了。 May the gods prosper our city! 愿神灵保佑我们的城市繁荣昌盛! n. prosperity 发达,兴隆,昌盛,繁荣 eg. We wish you health, happiness and prosperity. 我们谨祝你们健康、幸福和繁荣昌盛。 The increase in the country’s prosperity was due to the discovery of oil. 该国经济之日趋繁荣是由于发现了石油的缘故。
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adj. prosperous 成功的,兴旺的,繁荣的 eg. a prosperous country, businessman, industry His father was a prosperous farmer and coal merchant.他父亲是一个富裕的农场主和煤商。
  13. take action 采取行动 注意该短中的 action 用单数,其前不用冠词。 eg. In that situation, you should take immediate action. 在那种情况下,你应立即采取行动。 I felt it was time for me to take action. 我觉得是我采取行动的时候。 Why didn’t you take any action to stop pollution? 你们干吗不采取措施制止污染? action 与 act 辨析 action 偏重于抽象的“行动、活动” ,往往占用较长时间,包括不同的步骤和许多动作。 act 指时间较短的个人行动或行为,具有单一性和完满性。action 往往指进行中的行为,act 往往指完成了的行为。action 可数与不可数均可,act 多作可数名词。 eg. He is a man of action. 他是一位活动家。 He has a wide field of action. 他活动范围很广。 His actions do not square with his words.他言行不符。 Your action was unselfish.你的行为是无私的。 That was an act of kindness.那是善良的行为。 For that brave act he was decorated by the government. 由于那次勇敢的行为,政府授予他勋章。 We have had enough talk. It’s now time for action. 我们已经谈得足够了,现在是行动的时候了。 Actions speak louder than words. 行动比语言更响亮。
  14. willingness n. 乐意,愿意 adj. willing 乐意的,愿意的 adv. willingly 乐意的,愿意的 (
  1)作表语,表示“愿意的,乐意的” ,后接不定式,that 从句(从句用 should+动词原形) eg. He is quite willing to pay what you ask. 他非常愿意按你说的付钱。 He seems willing to help us. 他好象愿意帮我们。 Are you willing that he (should) be allowed to join in?你愿意让他参加吗? (
  2)willing 作定语用,表示“积极的,意志坚强的” eg. She is a very willing student. 她是一个积极肯干的学生。
  15. harmony n. (感情、兴趣,意见等)相符,一致;协调;匀称 eg. Several incidents damaged this image of racial harmony. 几起事件损坏了种族间和睦相处的形象。 They sing in harmony.他们唱得和谐而协调。 *in harmony withagreeing; matching 协调一致,相配 eg. His tastes are in harmony with mine. 他的品味与我的相同。 Selfish people will not live in harmony with each other.自私的人不可能和睦相处。
  16. put an end to 结束,终止或废止某事物 eg. Only political solution could put an end to the violence. 只有政治解决方案才能结束暴力。 Winning the competition put an end to his financial difficulties. 赢得比赛结束了他的经济困难。
  17. wipe vt. 擦,擦干 短语:wipe away 擦掉,wipe off 把……从……擦掉,擦掉,wipe over 擦一遍, wipe out 擦干净,消灭。 eg. She wiped her face and neck with a towel.她用毛巾擦脸和颈。
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She wiped away the sweat from her brow with the back of her hand. 她用手背将额头上的汗擦掉。 She wiped the marks off the table. 她把桌子上的污垢擦掉。 Here’s a brush to wipe off the mud before you come into the house. 你进屋前用刷子把泥土刷掉。 We always wipe the bottles out before returning them to the milkman. 我们把奶瓶送给奶员之前总是擦干净。 One atom bomb can wipe out thousands of people. 一颗原子弹可以杀死成千上万的人。 Make sure the table-top is wiped over before you put the cloth on. 把桌布铺上桌面前务必把桌面擦一遍。
  18. alternative adj. (两者或两者以上)选其一的,非此即彼的;替代的,无比较级形式 n. (两者或两者以上)选择,二选一,常用 the alternative 表达“可供选择的办法或方案” alternatively adv. 两者挑一地 We have no alternative ways to solve this problem.解决这个问题,我们没有可挑选的方法。 You have no alternative in the matter.在这件事上,我们没有选择余地。 The way was blocked, so we had to go by an alternative road. 这条路被封锁了,所以我们必须走另一条路。 You can go by ship or alternatively by rail.你可以乘船去或乘火车去。
  19. defend, guard 与 protect 辨析 (
  1)defend 指用某种方法或武力来“保卫” “捍卫” ,免受某种实际存在的威胁或攻击, 其保护对象可以是具体的,也可以是抽象的(如权利、决定、观点等) eg. Their duty is to defend the country against the enemies. 他们的职责是保卫祖国以防敌人侵略。 (
  2)guard 是为防御实际存在或潜在的危险,从而小心谨慎地警戒、警卫、守卫。 eg. The dog guarded the h
 

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