Language points
瓦解; 瓦解 毁坏; Para 2 break down 使…瓦解;毁坏;分解
人体中的化学成分把食物分解成有用的物质。 人体中的化学成分把食物分解成有用的物质。
Chemical in the body break our food down into useful substances.
有人把门弄坏了。 有人把门弄坏了。
Somebody broke the door down.
出毛病; 出毛病;不运转 go wrong and stop working
机器坏了。 机器坏了。 The machine broke down. 中断 stop; pause 这时候谈话中断了。 这时候谈话中断了。 The conversation broke down at this point.
break away (from) 逃脱,脱离 逃脱, break in 强行闯入 break into 破门而入 中断, break off 中断,停止 火灾,战争等)突然发生, break out (火灾,战争等)突然发生,爆发 break through 突破,穿越 突破, break up 分割,破坏,结束 分割,破坏,
leave a person defenseless 让…处 处 于某种状态
leave + doing/done /a./介词短语 介词短语
The door was left open. Left the lights on. Please excuse me if I have left the unanswered 没有回答 question . (没有回答) 没有回答) Don’t leave me waiting (wait) outside.
leave the church empty leave sb speechless
defence n. defend against /from v.保卫 抵抗 保卫; 保卫
defend, guard , protect defend “保卫” “防御”, 具体 抽象的 保卫” 防御” 具体/抽象的 保卫 defend our motherland against.. guard 观察、戒备(可能的攻击或伤害 可能的攻击或伤害) 观察、戒备 可能的攻击或伤害 guard our school protect 保护...以免遭受伤害等 保护 以免遭受伤害等 protect the children from harm
He got well again under the doctor’s treatment.
  1) 治疗 People with AIDS need friendly treatment.
  2)对待,处理 对待, 对待 treat v. 对待,治疗,款待 对待,治疗, treat .. as … treat sb. (to lunch)
in xiaohua’s case
a civil case 民事诉讼 in case, in case of Take the raincoat with you in case it
In case of rain they can't go.
= if, 以防,可能 以防 可能 =如果;万一 如果; 如果
in any/no case = anyway/ never in this case 假如这样的话 n. suitcase
n.合同 vi. 缔结(合同)承包 合同 缔结(合同)
他以二万元承揽建造这幢房子。 他以二万元承揽建造这幢房子。 He has contracted for the building of the house of 20,000 dollars. 他订约按期供给我煤。 他订约按期供给我煤。 He contracted to supply me with coal regularly. vi. 收缩 to become or make shorter or smaller The metal contracts with cold. 金属受冷就收缩。 金属受冷就收缩。
vt. 结交 contract a friendship for a person ? 我结识了许多朋友。 我结识了许多朋友。 I contracted many friendships. contract with 与…订合同 …订合同 contract for 订了 合同 订了…合同 contract in… 订约参加
contract out of … 退出合同、计划等 退出合同、
Xiaohua’s mother did not know that she had AIDS until Xiaohua was born. Not until Xiaohua was born did Xiaohua’s mother know that she had AISDS. It was not until Xiaohua was born that Xiaohua’s mother know that she had AISDS.
Sb.+过去分词(表现在) 过去分词(表现在) 过去分词
Sb.+ wish (that)+ Sb.+ had + 过去分词
(表过去) 表过去) Sb. + could/ should / might +do (表将来) 表将来)
I wish he would try again. (表将来 表将来) 表将来
表过去) He wishes I had missed him.(表过去)
I wish I could remember more about …. I wish that she were here with me and that we weren’t sick. 虚拟语气在宾语从句中: 虚拟语气在宾语从句中
  1)wish (that) “与事实相反”或不可实 ) 与事实相反” 与事实相反 但愿…, 要是… 就好了” 现的愿望 “但愿 , 要是 就好了”. 要是Juliet在这里陪我们就好了 在这里陪我们就好了 要是 I wish that Juliet were here with us.
要是我知道答案就好了。 要是我知道答案就好了。 I wish I knew the answer to the question. 我要是没有浪费时间就好了。 我要是没有浪费时间就好了。 I wish I hadn’t wasted so much time. 明天要是不下雨就好了。 明天要是不下雨就好了。 I wish it would stop raining tomorrow.
a lack of 缺乏,短缺 缺乏,
a lack of care a lack of money 缺少雨水,地面非常干燥。 缺少雨水,地面非常干燥。
There has been a lack of rain and the ground is very dry.
野兔因缺乏空气而死。 野兔因缺乏空气而死。 The hare died for lack of air. 由于缺乏技术,他不能做这项工作。 由于缺乏技术,他不能做这项工作。 He cannot do the work for lack of skill.
炎热的夏天,植物缺水。 炎热的夏天,植物缺水。 In the hot summer the plants lacked water. 我们缺少时间和金钱。 我们缺少时间和金钱。 We lacked both time and money. We were lacking in time and money. lack = be short of = be lacking in
The ticket is available for three days.
They have tried all available means to open the door.
available power
Para 6 …… act as if I were a bad or dangerous person. 暴风雨好象快要来啦。 暴风雨好象快要来啦。 It looks as if a storm would come soon. 他说话的时候好象很累。 他说话的时候好象很累。 He talks as if he were tired.
die of 内因(情感,饿冻,生病…) die of hunger,cold,old, sorrow,disappointed love(失恋), age,illness,thirst… die from 外因 die from a wound,an accident, overwork, drinking,some unknown cause…
AIDS is a disease that breaks down body’s the immune HIV system., the virus which causes AIDS, can be via,infected blood transmitted unprotected sex transfusions or. There are millions of people at birth who die of AIDS every year. AIDS patients There is no cure discovered for the disease and deal with have to the fact that they might die young. Unfortunately, a deadly disease such as AIDA also frightens others. All too often, people treat AIDS patients they were bad or dangerous. as if Because of knowledge about how it gets a lack of transmitted, there are a great many people who increasing HIV in china and the number is. have contracted
Fill in the blanks according to the first letters.
  1.V cause illnesses such as the common Viruses cold,flu and measles.
  2.after a year,she was cured of cancer,and she still c works happily now.
  3. One of the boys in the class had a fever and he soon i other children. infected
  4. The virus is t via physical contact. transmitted
  5. Simon is not available at the moment. Should I a ask him to call you back?

  6. We have been asked to l our presentation limit to 5 minutes maximum.
  7. He dosen’t often get flu, but when he does he really suffers . s
  8. Normally, people and animals that are d defenceless are weak and unable to protect themselves from attack.
虚拟语气: 虚拟语气:表示说话人所说的话不是 一个事实,而是一种愿望, 一个事实,而是一种愿望, 假设,怀疑,猜想, 假设,怀疑,猜想,空想等
与现在事实相反 虚拟语气在条件句中有三种情况 虚拟语气在条件句中有三种情况
与过去事实相反 与将来可能发生的事实相反
If从句谓语动词形式 从句谓语动词形式
动词过去式 的过去式用were) (be的过去式用 的过去式用 )
Would/should/could/ might+动词原形 动词原形
If my brother were here,everything would be all right. If you hurried,you would catch the bus.
If从句谓语动词形式 从句谓语动词形式
had + 过去分词
Would/should/could/ might+have +过去分词 过去分词
If you had had more time, I would have shown you more places. If I had not taken your advice, I would have made a bad mistake.
If从句谓语动词形式 从句谓语动词形式
  1。Should + 动词原形 。
  2.过去式(be用were) Would/should/could/ 过去式( 用 过去式 ) might+动词原形 动词原形
  3.Were + 不定式 If it should rain tomorrow, I wouldn’t go out. If it were Sunday tomorrow, I should go to see my sister. If I were to do it, I would do it in a different way.

  1. If there were no subjunctive mood, English__much easier. A. will be B . Would have been C. could have been D. would be

  2. If my lawyer__here last Saturday, heme from going. A. had been; would have prevented B. had been; would prevent C.were; would prevent D.were; would have prevented

  3. If he__, hethat food. Luckily he was sent to the hospital at once. A. was warned, would not take B. had been warned; would not have taken C. would be warned; had not taken D. would have been warned; had not taken

  4. But for the storm, weearlier. A. Will arrive B. should have arrived C. arrive D. Arrived

  5. it rain tomorrow, we would have to put off the visit to the Yangpu Bridge. A. Were B. should C. would D. will
在书面语中,有时if条件从句可采用倒装形式, 在书面语中,有时 条件从句可采用倒装形式, 条件从句可采用倒装形式 从句中含有were, had, should 其规则是: 从句中含有 , , 其规则是:若if从句中含有 可省略if, 移至句首。 时,可省略 , 将Were, should, had 移至句首。 , ,

  6. for the free tickets, I would not have gone to the films so often. A. if it is not B. were it not C. had it not been D.if they were not
  7. It is hard for me to imagine what I would be doing today if I in love, at the age of
  17. A. wouldn’t have fallen B. had not fallen C. Should fall D. were to fall
  8. When a pencil is partly in glass of water, it looks as if it . A. Breaks B. has broken C.were broken D.had been broken

  9. Without electricity human life__quite different today. A. Is B. will be C. would have been D. Would be


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