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非谓语动词 动词的非谓语形式有三种:不定式、动名词和分词。 一、不定式: 不定式: It is hard for me to do the work. 作主语 He wants to speak at the meeting. meeting.作宾语 I have a lot of work to do 作定语 do. He asked me to finish it in time 作宾补 o time. My job is to help the patient patient.作表语 He is too young to go to school. 作结果状语 We were surprised to find him there 作原因状语 o there. He spoke loudly to make herself heard. 作目的状语 He went to his home, only to find he was out. 出乎意料的结果 特点
  1)不定式短语做主语时,往往放在谓语之后,用 it 作形式主语, (例
  1)
  2)不定式作宾语,如果还带有宾语补足语,往往把不定式宾语放 在宾补之后, 而用 it 作形式宾语,请看下句: I find it interesting to study English.
  3) 不定式作宾补,在 feel, hear, listen to, look to, notice, observe, see, watch, have , let, make 等词后的补足语,不定式不带 to, 但 这些句子变成被动结构就必须带 to. 二 、动 名 词 :
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动名词形式由“动词+ing”构成,具有动词和名词的性质,在句中 起名词作用,可作 主语,表语,宾语和定语。请看例句: 1 ) Collecting information ( 收 集 信 息 ) is very important to businessmen.作主语
  2) It is no use arguing with him.(与他争论)作主语
  3)She finished reading the book (看完这本书)yesterday. 作宾语
  4) He has a reading room. (书房)作定语 特点: 特点:
  1.在 it is no use/good, no any use/good, useless 等后须用动名词 作主语,泛指抽象动作. 2 在 finish,mind, enjoy, pactise, avoid, imagine, consider, feel like, keep, prevent, risk,suggest 等词后,一定用动词的 ing 形式。
  3. 在 forget, go on, like , mean, regret, remember, stop, try 等动词 可带动名词或不定式作宾语,但意义上有区别,请看下列句型:
  1)我记得读过这本书. I remember reading the book. (指过去的动作) I must remember to read the book. (指将来的动作)
  2)我要设法提高我的英语口语。I’ll try to improve my spoken English. 敲门没人答应,试着敲后门。Try knocking at the back door if
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nobody hears you at the front door.
  3) 不要讲话。Stop talking. 他停下来讲话。He stopped to talk.
  4) 我没打算伤害你。I didn’t mean to hurt you. 错过这班车意味着再等一个小时。Missing the train means waiting for another hour. . 和不定式结构在意义上区别
  4. 动名词和不定式结构在意义上区别: 动名词形式表示一般习惯,抽象概念,或已成过去的动作,不 定式表示的往往是具体的或特定的动作,也可表示现在或将来的 动作。 Playing with fire is dangerous. (泛指玩火)
To play with fire will be dangerous. (指一具体动作) It’s no use crying over spilt milk. 指抽象动作 He realized that to go on like this was no use. 具体动作 He has forgotten seeing me before. 指已成过去的动作 I must remember to remind John that the garden needs watering 指将来的动作 去分词 三、分词:现在分词 和 过去分词 在分词
  1.分词的时态和语态。 时态和语态。 现在分词: 在分词
  1)有一般式和完成时,一般式即主句和从句谓语动词所表示的动 作同时发生。
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  2)完成时(having+过去分词)表示的动作在主句谓语动词所表示 的动作之前发生。 When he was a student, he was interested in books. Being a student, he was interested in books. After he had done his homework, he went to bed. Having done his homework, he went to bed.
  3) 当句子的主语是分词动作的承受者时,分词用被动语态,如果 要强调分词的动作先于谓语动作,就用动词完成时的被动形式。 The question which is being discussed is important. The question being discussed is important. As he had been criticized by the teacher, Li Ming gave up smoking. Having been criticized by the teacher, Li Ming gave up smoking. 去分词 过去分词:过去分词表示在谓语动词之前发生的动作,本身有被 动的含义,所以只有一般式,没有完成式。 的用法:
  2. 分词的用法:
  1. 作定语: 站在窗旁的那个男人是我们的老师。 The man standing at the window is our teacher. 被污染的空气河水对人体有害。 Polluted air and water are harmful to people’s health. 请注意:如果现在分词作定语时,表示动作正在进行或与谓语动 词所表示的动作几乎同时发生。如果两个动词有先后,一般不能
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用现在分词作定语,而用定语从句。 The teacher criticized the student who had broken the window.
  2. 作状语:
  1)While he was reading the book, he nodded from time to time. While reading the book , he nodded from time to time.
  2) Since I am a student, I must study hard. Being a student, I must study hard. As we were not satisfied with the result, we decided to do the experiment again. Not satisfied with the result, we decided to do the experiment again.
  3) If time permits, I will finish another lesson. Time permitting , I will finish another lesson. If he is allowed, he would eat all the food in the house. If allowed, he would eat all the food in the house.
  4)The students went out of the classroom, talking and laughing .(说 说笑笑) He entered the room,followed by his girlfriend (后面跟着女朋 友).
  3. 作宾补: We saw the teacher making the experiment .(做实验) I’ve never heard the song sung in English. (用英语唱)
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  4. 作表语: The news is inspiring (令人鼓舞) He is surprised. (他很吃惊) 特点:
  1.分词短语作状语,其逻辑主语须与句子的主语一致.
  2. 表示时间关系的分词短语有时可由连词 while 或 when 引导。
  3. 有时“with(without)+名词(或代词宾格)+分词的结构表示伴随 状况的独立主格结构。 eg.
  1)With his homework finished ahead of time, he began to play computer.
  2) He fell asleep with the lamp burning.
  4. 分词短语作状语时,若句子主语不是它的逻辑主语(即两边主 语不一致)通常在它前面加上它的主语,构成独立主格结构。 All my money stolen, I had to walk without buying anything. Time permitting ,(时间允许的话) I will finish another lesson
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主语
宾语
表语
定语
状语
宾语补足 语
动名词 分词 不定式
EXERCISES: 不定式作宾补 不定式作宾补
  1.They would not allow himA across the
  1. enemy line. A. to risk going B.risking to go C. for risk to go ask,tell,invite,force,get,beg,allow,help,wish want,like,hate,prefer,expect,encourage,advise, persuade,instruct,permit,request,order,warn.cause,urge 等 等 动 词 后可接不定式作宾补。
  2.Though he had often made his little sister _A, today he was madeby his little sister. A.cry,to cry B.crying,crying C.cry,cry D.to cry,cry D.risk going
使役动词 make,let 只接不带 to 的不定式作宾补。 Let me do it for you.
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  3.As you’ve never been there before,I’ll have someone_Byou the way. A.to show B.show C.showing D.showed
I had my TV set repaired yesterday. Don’t have him waiting in the rain for so long.
  4.Good morning.Can I help you? I’d like to have this package_D__,madam. A.be weighed B.to be weighed C.to weigh D.weighed

  5.It’s very cold. Let’s make a fire__B ourselves. A.warm B.to warm C.warming D.warmed

  6.I have a suggestion__C__at the meeting. A.put forward put forward have(有),make(“做”等非使役意义)时接带 to 的不定式作定语或目 的状语
  7.In Australia, he made a lot of friends__Ba very practical knowledge of the English language. A.get B.to get C.getting D.got B.putting forward C.to put forward D.to be

  8.I’m going to Shanghai next week.Have you anything__D to your
  8. parents? A.to buy B.to be bought C.to take D.to be taken
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  9.The missing boy was last seen__Anear the river. A.playing B.to be playing C.play D.to play

  10.The boy who was caught_Bin the examination will be punished 10 by the teacher. A.Cheat B.cheating. C.to cheat D.cheated

  11.The stranger you saw__Bwith a big travelling bag stayed in 11 Room 104 yesterday. A.to come in
  1)感官动词,
  2)“致使”动词 have,get,keep,leave
  12.When he was a boy, he used to go there and watchedC.
  12. A.bicycles repaired B.bicycles to be repaired B.come in C.has come in D.who came in
C.bicycles being repaired D.to repair bicycles
  13.Who did the teacher have__Can article for the wall newspaper 13 just now? A.written B.writing C.write D.to write
注意这一结构的活用。 I saw the bike being repaired. I saw the bike repaired. We often heard the song being sung. 不定式作状语 不定式作状语
  14.In 14 order to improve English,.
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A.Jenny’s father bought her a lot of tapes B.Jenny bought a lot of tapes for herself C. a lot of tapes were bought by Jenny. D.a lot of tapes were bought by Jenny’s father 不定式作状语,其逻辑主语 通常是句子的主语。 1> I’ll write down his telephone number in order to call him when necessary. 2>In order not to be late, we took a taxi instead of a bus. 3>She lived to be over 1
  00. 4>She was not old enough to understand all that. 5>We are proud to be young people of China.
  15.We should prevent pollution__Bhappily.
  15. A.from living B.to live C.living D.to living

  16.I’m examining the composition he has just finished__Athe 16 possible mistakes in it. A.to correct B.correct C.corrected
  17.The day we look forward to__Cat last.
  17. A.come 动 名词
  18.I 18 don’t mind _Cby bus,but I hate in queues. A.traveling;stand B.to travel;to stand C.traveling;to stand B.coming C.came D.to come D.correcting
D.traveling;to standing
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  19.When did you go to Shanghai?
  19. I remember _Bthere when I was a child. A.having taken B.having been taken C.to be taken
  20.The squirrel was lucky that it just missed__C_. 20 A.catching B.to be caught C.being caught D.to catch
  21.__Cto sunlight for too much time will do harm to one’s skin. 21 A.Expose exposed
  22.I 22 can hardly imagine Peter_Cacross the Atlantic Ocean in 15 days. A.sail B.to sail C.sailing D.to have sailed B.Having exposed C.Being exposed D.After being D.taken
动名词的复合结构:动名词的逻辑主语+动名词 Mary’s complaining annoyed him. I don’t mind him coming.
  23.What worried the boy was_Bto visit his father in the hospital. 23 A.his not allowing B.his not being allowed.
C.his being not allowed D.having not been allowed 分词
  24. The first textbooks__Afor teaching English as a foreign language, were produced in the 16th century. A.written B.to be written C.being written D.having written
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  25.This is one of the problems_Dat the meeting at present.
  25. A.discussed discussed
  26.The problem__Ctomorrow has something to do with our daily 26 life. A.discussed discussed
  27.The child _C__by his father left home yesterday. 27 A.having b
 

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