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高二英语(人教版) --独立主格 独立主格, 高二英语(人教版)专项复习 1--独立主格,倒装句
具体内容
独立主格 (一)独立主格结构的构成: 名词(代词)+现在分词,过去分词 名词(代词)+形容词 名词(代词)+副词 名词(代词)+不定式 名词(代词)+介词短语构成 (二)独立主格结构的特点:
  1. 独立主格结构的逻辑主语与句子的主语不同,它独立存在.
  2. 名词或代词与后面的分词,形容词,副词,不定式,介词等是主谓关系.
  3. 独立主格结构一般用逗号与主句分开. 举例: The test finished, we began our holiday. = When the test was finished, we began our holiday. 考试结束了,我们开始放假. The president assassinated, the whole country was in deep sorrow. = After the president was assassinated, the whole country was in deep sorrow. 总统被谋杀了,举国上下沉浸在悲哀之中. Weather permitting, we are going to visit you tomorrow. 如果天气允许,我们明天去看你. This done, we went home. 工作完成后,我们才回家. The meeting gone over, everyone tired to go home earlier. 会议结束后,每个人都想早点回家. He came into the room, his ears red with cold. 他回到了房子里,耳朵冻坏了. He came out of the library, a large book under his arm. 他夹着本厚书,走出了图书馆. with 的复合结构作独立主格 表伴随时,既可用分词的独立结构,也可用 with 的复合结构. with +名词(代词)+现在分词/ 过去分词/ 形容词/ 副词/ 不定式/ 介词短语 举例: He stood there, his hand raised. = He stood there, with his hand raised. 注意: 注意: (
  1)独立主格结构使用介词的问题: 当介词是 in 时,其前后的两个名词均不加任何成分(如物主代词或冠词),也不用复 数.但 with 的复合结构不受此限制 A robber burst into the room, knife in hand. (
  2)当表人体部位的词做逻辑主语时,及物动词用现在分词,不及物动词用过去分词. He lay there, his teeth set, his hand clenched, his eyes looking straight up.
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如果不会判断独立结构作状语的形式,不妨将句子改为条件句,例如本句改为 If weather permits, we'll go out for a walk. 然后将 if 去掉,再将谓语动词改为非谓语动词即 可.
倒装句
  1. 倒装句之全部倒装 全部倒装是只将句子中的谓语动词全部置于主语之前.此结构通常只用与一般现在时和一般过去时. 常见的结构有: (
  1)here, there, now, then, thus 等副词置于句首, 谓语动词常用 be, come, go, lie, run. There goes the bell. Then came the chairman. Here is your letter. (
  2)表示运动方向的副词或地点状语置于句首,谓语表示运动的动词. Out rushed a missile from under the bomber. Ahead sat an old woman. 注意: 注意:上述全部倒装的句型结构的主语必须是名词,如果主语是人称代词则不能完全倒装. Here he comes. Away they went.
  2. 倒装句之部分倒装 部分倒装是指将谓语的一部分如助动词或情态动词倒装至主语之前.如果句中的谓语 没有助动词或情态动词,则需添加助动词 do,does 或 did,并将其置于主语之前. 句首为否定或半否定的词语,如 no, not, never, seldom, little, hardly, at no time, in no way, not until…等. Never have I seen such a performance. Nowhere will you find the answer to this question. Not until the child fell asleep did the mother leave the room. 当 not until 引出主从复合句,主句倒装,从句不倒装. 注意: 注意: 如否定词不在句首不倒装 I have never seen such a performance. The mother didn't leave the room until the child fell asleep.
  3. 以否定词开头作部分倒装 如: not only... but also, hardly / scarcely... when, no sooner ... than Not only did he refuse the gift, he also severely criticized the sender. Hardly had she gone out when a student came to visit her. No sooner had she gone out than a student came to visit her. 注意: 注意:只有当 not only... but also 连接两个分句时,才在第一个分句用倒装结构.如果置于句首的 not only... but also 仅连接两个并列词语,不可用倒装结构. Not only you but also I am fond of music .
  4. so , neither , nor 作部分倒装 表示"也","也不"的句子要部分倒装. Tom can speak French. So can Jack. If you won't go, neither will I.
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高考网 www.gaokao.com 注意: 注意:当 so 引出的句子用以对上文内容加以证实或肯定时,不可用倒装结构.意为"的确如此". Tom asked me to go to play football and so I did. ?It's raining hard. ?So it is.

  5. only 在句首要倒装的情况 Only in this way, can you learn English well. Only after being asked three times did he come to the meeting. 如果句子为主从复合句,则主句倒装,从句不倒装 Only when he is seriously ill, does he ever stay in bed.
  6. as, though 引导的倒装句 as / though 引导的让步从句必须将表语或状语提前(形容词, 副词, 分词, 实义动词 提前). 注意: 注意: (
  1)句首名词不能带任何冠词. (
  2)句首是实义动词,其他助动词放在主语后.如果实义动词有宾语和状语,随实义 动词一起放在主语之前. Try hard as he will, he never seems able to do the work satisfactorily. 注意: 注意: 让步状语从句中,有 though,although 时,后面的主句不能有 but,但是 though 和 yet 可连用.
  7. 其他部分倒装 (
  1)so… that 句型中的 so 位于句首时,需倒装. So frightened was he that he did not dare to move an inch. (
  2)在某些表示祝愿的句型中: May you all be happy. (
  3)在虚拟语气条件句中从句谓语动词有 were, had, should 等词,可将 if 省略, 把 were, had, should 移到主语之前,采取部分倒装. Were I you, I would try it again. 【典型例题分析】 典型例题分析】

  1. Why can't I smoke here? At no time in the meeting-room. B. smoking is permitted D. does smoking permit A. is smoking permitted C. smoking is it permitted 答案: 答案:A 这是一个倒装问题.当否定词语置于句首以表示强调时,其句中的主谓须用倒装结构. 这些否定词包 括 no, little, hardly, seldom, never, not only, not until 等. 本题的正常语序是 Smoking is permitted in the meeting-room at no time.
  2. Not until the early years of the 19th century A. man did know 答案: 答案:D 看到 not until…的句型,我们知道为一倒装句,答案在 C,D 中选一个. 改写为正常语序为,Man did not know what heat is until the early years of the 19th. 现在 将 not 提前,后面就不能再用否定了,否则意思就变了. B. man know C. didn't man know what heat is. D. did man know
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  3. No sooner than it began to rain heavily. B. has the game begun D. had the game begun
A. the game began C. did the game begin
答案: 答案:D 以具有否定意义的副词放在句首时,一般采用倒装句(谓语前置).这类表示否定意 义的词有 never, seldom, scarcely, little, few, not, hardly, 以及 not only…but (also), no sooner…than.

  4. ?Do you know Jim quarrelled with his brother? ?I don't know, . A. nor don't I care 答案: 答案:B nor 为增补意思"也不关心",因此句子应倒装.A 错在用 don't,再次否定,C neither 用法不对 且缺乏连词. D 缺乏连词. B. nor do I care C. I don't care neither D. I don't care also

  5. Not until I began to work how much time I had wasted. A. didn't I realize B. did I realize C. I didn't realize D. I realize 答案: 答案:B
  6. Do you know Tom bought a new car? I don't know, . A. nor don't I care B. nor do I care C. I don't care neither D. I don't care also 解析: 解析:答案为 B.句中的 nor 引出部分倒装结构,表示"也不".由 so,neither,nor 引导的倒装句,表示前一情况的重复出现.其中,so 用于肯定句,而 neither,nor 用在 否定句中.
  7. The murder was brought in, with his hands behind his back . A. being tied B. having tied C. to be tied D. tied 答案: 答案:D with +名词(代词)+分词+介词短语结构.当分词表示伴随状况时,其主语常常用 with 来引导.由于本句中名词"手"与分词"绑"是被动关系,因此用过去分词,选 D. 【模拟试题】 模拟试题】

  1. ? Let me tell you something about the journalists. ?Don't you remember me the story yesterday. A. told
  2.
  3.
  4. A. sail A. mind twelve. A. a ; an ? . A. I know it. It's a key school B. C. Sorry, I'm a stranger here. Please ask the policeman over there Yes, take a bus B. a ; the C. the ; an D. / ; an
  5. ?Excuse me. Can you tell me the way to the No. 1 High School? B. telling B. to sail B. heart C. to tell C. sailing C. brain D. to have told D. to have sailed D. thought I can hardly imagine Peter across the Atlantic Ocean in five days. No matter what you do, you should put your into it. The party last night was success. We sang and danced until it came to end of
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  6. Why do you want to go there After working in working in the company for 10 years, he returned to the small town B. where B. Give C. that C. Given D. when D. To give
he grew up as a child. A. which
  7.
  8. A. Giving blood if you can and many lives will be saved. Take it easy. We will do we can your son's life. B. what ; save D. that ; saving C. where D. what
A. all ; to save C. all what ; saved
  9. A. that many B. how
Little Tommy was reluctant to tell the schoolmaster he had done the day before.

  10. Money is often to be the most important thing in our life, but in fact there are other things more important than it. A. considered
  11.
  12.
  13. A. it B. think C. taken D. used The moon has no light of . Its light comes from the sun. B. itself C. it own D. its own C. who else D. which else's If the dictionary is yours, can it be? B. who else's writer, she is excellent, teacher she is not very good. B. As a ; but as a D. As ; but as C. sign C. by D. sight D. over
A. what else A. As a ; and as a C. As ; and as A. scene
  15. A. than ?
  17.
  18.
  19. B. C. D.
  20.

  14. After the train crash, the station was a of panic. B. view B. with John and Jenny are of the same age, but John is taller a head.

  16. ?I don't have any change on me. Will you pay the fare for me, please? . B. Nothing serious B. care B. the ; / C. spare C. Never mind D. share D. / ; / D. No problem A. That's fine A. support A. the ; the
Let Harry play with your toys as well, honey. You must learn to . The warmth of sweater will of course be determined by the sort of wool used. C. / ; the I'll lend you the money only you can pay on time. on the condition that; for it on condition that; it back for one condition as; it out ?Excuse me, could I use your ruler for a few minutes, please? ?Sure. . B. Help yourself D. Don't be polite C. not such D. no such a
A. for the condition that; it off
A. You use it by yourself C.
  21. Take it easy B. no a
As I know, there is car in this neighbourhood.
A. no such
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  22. ?What do you think of my English, sir? B. area B. There C. place C. It D. room D. This
?Well, it's getting better, but there's still plenty of for improvement. A. space
  23.
  24. A. That is no chance that they'll show up at the meeting. ?Should I take in English or French? B. feel C. care D. because
?Do as you . We understand both. A. think
  25. ?Did you see Tom? He said that he would come back home for supper at 6:30 . ?He seems with Tonny in the lake. A. to swim
  26.
  27.
  28.
  29.
  30. A. disturbed A. you fly A. visit A. to repair B. to be swimming B. disliked B. your flight B. paying a visit B. repaired C. to have swim C. unpopular C. flight C. walk in D. swimming D. unwelcome D. flying His laziness at work made him with his workmates. Once your business becomes international, constantly will be part of your life. She looks forward every spring to the flower lined garden. D. walking in D. to be repairing It was the radio that the young man spent a whole morning in his room. C. repairing ?How did you know the surprising news? ?I happened the event then. A. to cover
  31. ? . A. No, two hours later C. OK, but I can manage
  32. ?They are the murderer. A. searching for; searching C. searching; in search for
  33.
  34. A. set off B. pick out B. searching; searching D. in searching; searching for C. pick up D. set up B. Yes, that's a good idea D. No, I don't think so B. to be covering C. covering D. to have covered ?I'll meet you outside the cinema in an hour, OK?
?Why are they the forest?
Suddenly the small boy stopped and bent down as if to something. ?You should have thanked her before you left. ?I meant , but when I was leaving I couldn't find her anywhere. B. to C. doing D. doing so
A. to do
  35.
?Why haven't you bought any butter? ?I to but I forgot about it. B. wished B. any one C. meant C. whomever D. expected D. no matter who
A. liked
  36. A. whoever
She wants to make friends with shares her interest.

  37. David says sounds right to Helen. That's why she has made up her mind to leave with him happens. A. Wha
 

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