Period Three Grammar and usage by Laura
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功能
主 语 ★ ★
宾 语 ★ ★
表 语 ★ ★
定 语 ★ ★ ★
补 语 ★
状 语 ★
结果状语
to do doing 动名词 doing 现在分 词 done 过去分 词








区别doing(动名词) / to do主语,宾语,表语 动名词) 主语, 区别 动名词 主语 宾语,

  1.to do to be doing to have done
将来,具体

  2. doing
进行,习惯

  1.眼见为实 眼见为实
Seeing is believing. To see is to believe.

  2.见到你真好 见到你真好 To see you is nice. =It’s nice to see you
  3.游泳是他最喜欢的运动 游泳是他最喜欢的运动 Swimming is his favourite sport.
Practice
我很高兴见到你。 我很高兴见到你。 I am glad to meet you. 据说Tom写过一本科幻小说。 写过一本科幻小说。 据说 写过一本科幻小说 Tom is said to have written a science fiction story. 刚巧在大声说话。 老师进来时 Tom刚巧在大声说话。 刚巧在大声说话 Tom happened to be talking loudly when the teacher came in.
To become
  1. (become) a lawyer was his childhood dream. =His childhood dream was to become a lawyer. Talking
  2. (talk) about problems often helps to post
  3. Don’t forget (post) the letter for
me on your way home.
seeing (see) the Great
  4. I will never forget
Wall before.
卧铺车 吸烟室 听力练习 开幕词 售票处 自来水
a sleeping car a smoking room listening practice an opening speech a booking office running water
区别
  1.to do
具体, 具体,将来 用途

  2.doing(动名词) (动名词)

  3.doing (现在分词) 进行,主动 现在分词) 进行, 现在分词 having done having been done
  4.done (过去分词) Vt.被动,完成 过去分词 被动, 被动
vi.完成 完成
to do
  1.I have a lot of homework(do) I have a lot of homework that I have to do. =
  2.I’ll go to Beijing tomorrow. Do you have sth to be taken (take)to your parents?
Do you have sth that needs to be taken to your parents? = standing
  3. Do you know the person (stand) there? Do you know the person who is standing there? = injured
  4.Do you know the girl(injure) in the accident? …. the girl who was injured in the accident =
being held
  1.The meeting (hold) is now important.
= The meeting which is being held is important.
to be held
  2. The meeting (hold) next week is important. = is important The meeting which will be held next week held
  3. The meeting (hold) last week was important. The meeting which was held last week was important =
escaped ※
  4.The police are trying to find the (escape) prisoner. …the prisoner who has escaped =
half-done
  1. Don’t leave your work (half do) standing
  2. If you don’t obey me, I will have you (stand) all the time. pulled
  3. You’d better have your bad tooth (pull) out.

  4. The teacher had all the students (finish) the paper within five minutes.
finished
  5. The teacher had the paper (finish) within five minutes.
finish
Now translate the following examples into English. 一位很受人尊敬的教授 a highly-respected professor 高度发达的国家 a highly-developed country
受过良好教育的人 a well-educated person 训练有素的队伍 a well-trained team 手工制作的家具 handmade furniture 欠发达地区 underdeveloped regions
followed
  1.The teacher came in (follow) by some students. The teacher came in and was followed by some students. = following

  2. The teacher came in (follow) some students. The teacher came in and followed some students. =
looking
  1.Lucy and Lily, (look) so alike, are often mistaken for twins. Lucy and lily,because they look so alike,are often mistaken for twins =

  2. (finish) my homework, I sat down to watch TV After I had finished my homework…. = spoken
  3.Unless (speak) to, don’t speak first. Unless you’re spoken to, don’t speak first. =
seen
Having finished

  4. Once (see) , it can never be forgotten. Once it is seen, it can never be forgotten. =
knocking 1The car ran at an amazing speed, into the wall. => The car ran at an amazing speed. As a result, it knocked into the wall. leaving 2Her mother died in 1966, her with four younger brothers and sisters. Her => mother died in 19
  66. As a result, she left her with four younger brothers and sisters.
to go
  3.She was so excited as not(go) to sleep. to go =She was too excited (go) to sleep. =she was so excited that she couldn’t go to sleep.
verb主动) 试比较: (verb试比较: (verb-ed 被动 verb-ing 主动)
  1. I noticed an (amaze) difference. amazing I was (amaze) at the great differences. amazed (frighten) voice suggested she was 但:
  1)Herfrightened (frighten). frightened
  2)We knew from his (disappoint) look disappointed that he didn’t pass the test. (verb(verb-ed 正在进行 verb-ing 已经完成) verb已经完成) rising
  2.Can you tell me why the sun looks much bigger risen than the sun? (rise)
  3.The news made her. (upset) upsetting upset hurt frightened
  4.The boy was more (frighten) than (hurt).
Choose the correct sentence.

  1. a. Hearing the news, tears ran down her face. b. Hearing the news, she cried out sadly.
  2. a. Entering the classroom, I found nobody in it. b. Entering the classroom, nobody was found in it.

  3. a. Looking out through the window, the garden was beautiful. b. Looking out through the window, we saw a beautiful garden.
  4. a. Reading the evening newspaper, a dog started barking. b. I was reading the evening newspaper when a dog started barking.

  5. a. Being fine, we will have the sports meeting next week. b. It being fine, we will have the sports meeting next week. -ing形式的否定式为在其前面加 。 形式的否定式为在其前面加not。 形式的否定式为在其前面加 如: He sat there, not knowing what to say.
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