语气 英语的动词一般可带有三种不同的语气: 英语的动词一般可带有三种不同的语气: 陈述语气,祈使语气和虚拟语气。 陈述语气,祈使语气和虚拟语气。不同 的语气用动词的不同形式( 的语气用动词的不同形式(有的还借助 句法形式)来表示。 句法形式)来表示。
语气
陈述语气(The Indicative Mood)用来陈述一个事实,
或提出一个看法,有肯定,否定,疑问或感叹等形式。 People get AIDS after having been infected with HIV. Her mother did not know that she had AIDS until after Xiaohua was born. How should we act towards people who have AIDS. What a brave girl!
语气
祈使语气(The Imperative Mood)用来表示请
求,邀请,命令,警告或劝告等。 Let me do it. Please keep quiet in the reading room.
虚拟语气
虚拟语气的概念
虚拟语气是一种特殊的动词形式,一是用 来表示说话人所说的话不是一个事实,而 是一种假设、猜测、怀疑等(在条件从句中 或让步状语从句中);一是表示说话人的愿 望、要求、命令、建议等 (在宾语从句、表 语从句、同位语从句)。
虚拟语气
虚拟语气在 在条件从句中
一、在条件从句中 (叫虚拟条件句),表示与事实相反 的条件。分三种情况(以 do 为例):
表示与事实情况相反
条件从句的谓语形式 过去式(did) 过去式 (be常用 were) 常用 过去完成式(had +done) 过去完成式 ①过去式 (did)(were) ②should + do ③were to do
主句的谓语形式 Would / could / might / should (用于第 人称) +动 用于第1人称 动 用于第 人称 词原形(do) 词原形 Would / could / might / should +have done Would / could / might / should + do
表示现在情况 表示过去情况 表示将来情况
虚拟语气
虚拟语气在 在条件从句中
[例句 例句] 例句
  1. If you had come a few minutes earlier, you would have met him. 要是你早来几分钟的话,你就能见到他了。(与过 去事实相反)
  2. If it were(were to be/should be) sunny tomorrow, I would come to see you. 明天要是天气好的话,我来看你。(与将来事实可 能相反)
  3. If I were you, I would go now. 假如我是你的话,我现在就走。(与现在事实相反, 事实上我不可能是你)
虚拟语气
虚拟语气在 在条件从句中
二、省略 if 的条件从句
当从句中有 were, had 或 should 时,可省略if ,而 把它们放在句首。 If I were to meet him tomorrow, I should ask him about it. Were I to meet him tomorrow,… If he should fail in the experiment this time, he would try again. Should he fail in the experiment… If you had come a few minutes earlier, you would have met him. Had you come a few….
虚拟语气
虚拟语气在复合句中的应用: 虚拟语气在复合句中的应用:
三、错综时间的条件句(交叉虚拟) 错综时间的条件句(交叉虚拟)
即从句与主句的动作发生的时间不同。此时,需要 按时间来确定虚拟形式。如:
  1. If they had studied hard, they could do it easily now. 如果他们以前努力学习的话,现在干的就会容易 些。
  2. If he had not taken my advice, he wouldn't do it much better like this. 如果他不听取我的建议,他就不会干得这样好。
虚拟语气
虚拟语气在: 虚拟语气在:在宾语从句中

  1、记住:这些动词后面接的宾语从句:表示愿望 ( wish), 建议(suggest, advice, propose, recommend) ,要求(demand, request, require, insist), 命令(order, command)等。
  2、除wish外,其它动词用should + do 构成, should 可以省略。
  3、 wish接宾语从句有三种情况:
  1) 现在:用过去式
  2) 过去:用过去完成式 (had done)
  3) 将来:用情态动词(would / could) + do
虚拟语气
虚拟语气在: 虚拟语气在:在宾语从句中
[例句]

  1. I wish she would be on my side. 我希望她能站在我一边。
  2. I wish I were 30 years younger. 我但愿自己能年轻三十岁。
  3. I wish (that) you would get a good job. 我希望你能找到一个好职业。
  4. He wished he hadn't done it. 他想要是他没这样做该多好。
  5. He ordered that the students(should)wash the clothes every week by themselves. 他要求学生每周都要自己洗衣服。
虚拟语气
虚拟语气在: 虚拟语气在:在宾语从句中

  4、记住:insist / suggest 各有两种意思,要用不同的语气 、记住: 各有两种意思, Insist 表示“坚决要求”时,用虚拟形式,即 should + do; 表示“坚决要求” 用虚拟形式, Insist 表示“坚称,坚持说”时,用陈述语气,表示事实。 表示“坚称,坚持说” 用陈述语气,表示事实。 Suggest 表示“建议”时,用虚拟形式。 表示“建议” 用虚拟形式。 Suggest 表示“表明、暗示”时,用陈述语气。 表示“表明、暗示” 用陈述语气。 [例句 例句] 例句
  1) The teacher suggested that we (should) clean the blackboard after class. 老师建议我们课后把黑板擦了。 建议我们课后把黑板擦了 老师建议我们课后把黑板擦了。
  2) He insisted that all of us should be there on time by any means. 坚持要我们大家想尽办法按时去那儿 我们大家想尽办法按时去那儿。 他坚持要我们大家想尽办法按时去那儿。
  3) He insisted that he was right.
虚拟语气
虚拟语气在: 虚拟语气在:在宾语从句中
  5. 在would (had) rather(宁愿 引导的宾语 宁愿) 宁愿 从句中 当从句表示现在或将来的时间时,谓语动词要 当从句表示现在或将来的时间时 谓语动词要 用一般过去时;表示过去时间时 表示过去时间时,谓语动词 用一般过去时 表示过去时间时 谓语动词 要用过去完成时。 要用过去完成时。 I would rather he/you came tomorrow than today.
虚拟语气
虚拟语气在 在表语从句中 主句的主语常是表示说话人愿望(wish / desire)、建议(suggestion / advice) 要求 (requirement / demand)、命令(order, command)等的名词,表语从句的谓语动词 用 (should) + do. Our suggestion is that you (should) be there on time.
虚拟语气
虚拟语气在 在同位语从句中 同位语从句的先行词常是表示说话人愿望、 建议、要求、命令等的名词。 The suggestion that students (should) learn something practical is worth considering. Do you know the order that you (should) keep watch.
虚拟语气
虚拟语气在 在主语从句中
在句型 “It is important (necessary, strange, natural) that .... ” 中,that 后面的从句中的谓语 动词用: should + 动词原形 [ [例句] ]
  1. It’s necessary that we should have a walk now. 我们有必要出去散散步。
  2. It’s natural that she should do so. 她这样做是很自然的。
  3. It’s important that we should take good care of the patient. 重要的是我们要照顾好病人。
虚拟语气
虚拟语气在 在 as if 从句中
在as if /though从句中,常用虚拟形式,即表示与现 在事实相反,用过去式;与过去事实相反用过去 完成式 (had done). 一、as if 连接表语从句 She looked as if she were made of ice. 她看起来似乎是冰做的 He looked as if he hadn’t slept for two days. 二、as if 连接方式状语从 句 She looked after the boy as if he were her own son. 她照顾这男孩就像自己的儿子一样。
He speaks to us as if he had been there. 他给我们讲的好象他去过那儿。
虚拟语气
虚拟语气中的几个特例

  1. if only 意为:若是...那该多好啊; 真希望...; 只要, 只要...就好 表示现在的情况,应用过去式; 如果是过去的情况, 应用过去完成时态 If only I had arrived in time! If only she didn’t drive so fast.
  2. It’s (high/right) time that… that 从句要用虚拟语气:谓语用过去时或should + do It’s time that you left/should leave here.
虚拟语气
虚拟语气中的几个特例
  3. 一些介词短语, 如:but for(要不是), without, otherwise(否则), 等表示含蓄的条件,这时主 句要用虚拟语气 Without your help, we would not have made such rapid progress. But for my brother's help, I would not have finished it on time. I had to do sth.more important,otherwise I might have helped.
虚拟语气
简单的归纳
  1、表示说话人的要求、建议、命令时,常用 (should) do表示虚拟形式, 主要用于名词性 从句中。
  2、其它情况常用两种形式:表示与现在事实 相反,用过去式;表示与过去事实相反用 过去完成式。
虚拟语气
Exercises

  1. Alan the party if he had gone to London. A. would have missed B. had missed C. would miss D. missed
  2.?It was the drug,not the disease,that killed the boy. ?He would be still alive today if he that drug. A.not take B.shouldn’t have taken C.didn’t take D.hadn’t taken
虚拟语气

  3. If only I to my parents! (But I didn’t.) A. listened B. had listened C. should listen D. would listen
  4. Tom suggested that Ann the house. A. sell B. sold C. shall sell D. would sell
  5. I wish this bus to the university. A. go B. went C. has gone D. had gone
虚拟语气

  6. Simon looks as though he never a square meal(吃得饱), though his parents feed him very well. A. get B. getting C. got D. should get
  7. He is talking so much about America as if he there. A. had been B. were C. was D. been
  8. I you some money, but I hadn’t got any then. A. would lend B. would have lent C. could lend D. may have lent
虚拟语气

  9. ? Have you ever been to Beijing? -- No, but I wish I . A. have B. will C. do D. had
  10. I don’t think it is the right time that you __. A. will go B. went C. go D. must go
  11. When a pencil is partly in a glass of water, it looks as if it ____. A. breaks B. has broken C. were broken D. had been broken
虚拟语气

  12.(2003上海春季高考题)Look at the trouble I am in! If only I your advice. A.followed B.would follow C.had followed D.should follow
  13.(2002上海高考题)It is hard for me to imagine what I would be doing today if I in love, at the age of seven,with the Melinda Cox Library in my hometown. A.wouldn’t have fallen B.had not fallen C.should fall D.were to fall
  14.She insisted that she ill of him behind him,but he didn’t believe it. A.hadn’t spoken B.shouldn’t speak C.wouldn’t speak D.not speak
虚拟语气

  15.It is high time the child to the hospital. A.is sent B.would be sent C.be sent D.were sent
  16.If it so hard,we’d go to town. A.isn’t raining B.weren’t raining C.doesn’t rain D.has rain
  17.It’s strange that he without saying good-bye to us. A.should have gone out B.went C.should go out D.goes out
虚拟语气

  18.Had you listened to the doctor , you all right now. A.are B.were C.would be D.would have been
  19.I’d rather you know the secret. A.didn’t B.hadn’t C.not D.not to
  20.Without your help,we this task. A.don’t finish B.will not finish C.didn’t finish D.would not have finished
虚拟语气

  21.Isn’t it about time that you to pick up the visitors from New York? A.went B.would go C.go D.will go
  22.I wish I you yesterday. A.saw B.did see C.had seen D.were to see
  23.His silence at the meeting suggested that he to your plan. A.didn’t agree B.hadn’t agreed C.wouldn’t agree D.not agree
虚拟语气

  24.The father insisted his daughter a rich man. A.would be engaged to B.be engaged to C.should engaged to D.must be engaged to
  25.You earlier.The bus left a moment ago. A.would come B.should have come C.must come D.could have come
  26.She made a suggestion that the plan carefully. A.be considered B.was considered C.should consider D.would be considered
See you tomorrow!
 

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