生词和词组 例句讲解

  2.constitution
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Constitution of the United States / the American Constitution
  2) 体格,体质He has a weak constitution
  3) 构造,构成the constitution of starch (淀粉 的构成)

  1) 宪法the

  3.achievement
? .achievement (U)取得,完成(C)成就, 成绩(V)achieve development government movement equipment vt 完成 达到(目的),得到
  1) By hard working we can achieve anything.
  2) We have achieved success in developing the product.
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  3.Mankind 人类 manmade (adj) Manly 有男子气概的;刚强的
  4.in store(for sb./sth.):coming in the future;about to happen e.g.There is a surprise in store for you. I can see trouble in store.
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likely
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  1) be likely to do sth 很可能(发 很可能( 生某种情况) 生某种情况)Our team is likely to win the game.
  2) it is likely that + 从句 It is likely that we’ll go on a picnic in the forest tomorrow.
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? 辨析:likely, possible与probable 辨析: 与 Likely 常用词,指“从表面现象看很 常用词, 有可能” 有可能” Possible 指“由于有适当的条件和方 某事可能发生或做到” 法,某事可能发生或做到”,强调 客观上有可能” “客观上有可能”,但“实际希望很 小”。 Probable 语气比 语气比possible 强,指 有根据、合情理、值得相信的事物, “有根据、合情理、值得相信的事物, 带有大概,很可能的意思” 带有大概,很可能的意思”
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? Likely 之后常跟不定式(sb/sth be likely to do sth) 而possible与probable之后通常 不跟不定式; Likely 的主语可以是人,而possible与 probable的主语不能是人。 It’s possible to finish the work on time./ Success is possible / Anything is possible. ? The baby is likely to fall asleep./ It’s likely that we will be late .
8 set up

  1) 建立,成立 Set up home Edison set up a chemical lab of his own at the age of ten.
  2) 树立起来Let’s set up the tent first.
  3) 使(自己或他人)从事某职业 (as) He has set himself up as a bookseller. 他开始经营书籍。
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? set about doing sth 着手做 set out to do sth /Set an example 树立榜样 set fire to 点火;放火Set off 出发,动身 Set foot in (on) 登上;涉足;访问 set foot in/on sth.: enter or visit(a place);arrive e.g. Don’t ever set foot in this house again! Who was the first man to set foot on the moon.
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  7.Private
adj 私人的;私立的;不
公开的 Private property /私人财产 Private school a private door 便门in private 在私 下,秘密地in public 公开地
11 .grasp vt
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  1)
抓住 grasp sb by the arm
  2) (= understand ) 掌握, 领会 Grasp sb’s meaning
  3) n (常用单数) 紧握;把握;理解; 理解力 Beyond sb’s grasp 力量达不到 Grasp all, lose all. 样样都要,全数失 掉。 Within sb’s grasp 力量达得到
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Master
? Master n 硕士;(男)主人;能手; 雇主;大师 Mistress n 女主人 Masterless adj 无主 的 Mastermind n 非常聪明的人 Masterkey n 万能钥匙 Masterpiece(masterwork) n 杰作 The master of the house 家长
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? Master and man雇主与雇工 A master in literature 文学大师 Master of Arts (MA) 文学硕士 Master of Science (MS) 理学硕 士 vt 掌握;精通;控制;统治 Master a foreign language Man can master nature.
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  10. perfect adj 理想的;完美的; 绝对的;完全的;(动词的)完成 的 His reading is perfect. He is a perfect stranger to us. The perfect tense 完成时态
15 ? vt 使完美 They worked hard to perfect their dance. Practice makes perfect 熟能生 巧 Be perfect in English 精通英语
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? ? ? ? ? arrange 表示“安排”,注意以下用法: ①用作及物动词。如: a) 用名词或代词作宾语。如: We will arrange everything. 你们会安排好 一切的。 ? I’ve arranged a taxi for you. 我已为你们安 排了一辆出租车。
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? ? ? ? 有时用于被动语态。如: It is all arranged. 这事全都安排好了。 b) 用不定式作宾语。如: They arranged to start early. 他们计划一早 出发。 ? I’ve arranged to see them tonight. 我已安 排今晚同他们见面。 ? We still have to arrange how (when) to go there. 我们还得安排如何(何时)去那儿。
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? 表示“安排某人做某事”,不能 表示“安排某人做某事” 用 arrange sb to do sth, 而应 用 arrange for sb to do sth (此时 此时 为不及物动词)。 的 arrange 为不及物动词 。 ? c) 用 that 从句作宾语 从句多用虚拟 从句作宾语(从句多用虚拟 语气)。 They arranged that 语气 。如: the meeting (should) be put off to Saturday. 他们安排把会议推迟到星 期六。 期六。
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? d) 不接双宾语。如: 不接双宾语。 ? 请给我们安排一次与工人的会见。 请给我们安排一次与工人的会见。 ? 正:Please arrange an interview with the workers for us. ? 误:Please arrange us an interview with the workers.
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? 用作不及物动词时,还通常用 用作不及物动词时, 于 arrange for sb (sth) to do sth(此 此 不能省略)。 类句型中的介词 for 不能省略 。如: ? He’s arranged for me to attend the meeting. 他已安排我去参加会议。 他已安排我去参加会议。 ? We have arranged for the car to come at nine. 我们已安排好让汽车 我们已安排好让汽车9 点钟来。 点钟来
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? 比较以下同义句型。如: 比较以下同义句型。 ? 我们安排把会议推迟一周后召开。 我们安排把会议推迟一周后召开。 ? 正:We arranged for the meeting to be put off for a week. ? 正:We arranged that the meeting (should) be put off for a week.
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  2. 表示“整理”、“排列”,是及物 动词。如 ? They were arranged in kinds (years, size). 他们是按种类(年代,大小)排列 的。 ? We must arrange the room before the guests arrive. 在客人到来之前我们必 须把房间整理好。
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  12. have an effect on 对……产 生影响 Take effect 开始生效;开始实 行 In effect = in fact 实际上
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  13. rely on / upon : depend on… 依赖,依靠;信赖, 依赖,依靠;信赖,信任 We should rely on our own efforts. 我们应该自力更生。 我们应该自力更生。 You may rely on it that she won’t be late.你可以放心,她不 你可以放心, 你可以放心 会迟到的。 会迟到的。
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  14.make it clear (that)…表明, 讲清楚 e.g. She made it clear that she objected to the proposal. She made clear her objections.
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  15.Failure (v fail) 失败 ,失败的 . 失败(U), 人或事( ) 人或事(C) Failure is the mother of success. 失 败乃成功之母 He is a failure as an artist, but a success as an art teacher.他不是一 他不是一 个成功的艺术家, 个成功的艺术家,但是个成功的美术 老师。 老师。 ?
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? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? His plans ended in failure. 他的计划以失败而告终。 It was clear that the policy was a failure. 很明显,那项政策失败了。 Gary was a failure as a football player. 作为一个足球运动员,加里是个失败者。 Success comes after many failures. 成功是源于很多次的失败后得来的。
28 announce vt.宣布,宣告,显示 ? He phoned me to announce his decision. ? 他打电话给我,宣布了他的决 他打电话给我, 定。 。 ? It has been announced that he will resign. ? 他已经将辞职的消息宣布了。
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? Please announce to your class that there will be no school tomorrow. ? 请告知你们班的学生明天不上课。 ? A warm sunshine announces the coming of spring. ? 温暖的阳光显示春天即将来到。
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  16.come to life: back to normal state, 苏醒过来,恢复生气,活跃起来 After three hours’ saving, the injured man came to life. When I mentioned our plans for a trip abroad, the kids came back to life at once.
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  17. mark n 痕迹;符号;商标;分数; 痕迹;符号;商标;分数; 特征 an ink mark。 a question mark。 full marks。 make a mark 作标记
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? vt 做标记;留痕迹于;表明;批分数,评 做标记;留痕迹于;表明;批分数, 成绩 a dirt road marked with footprints 留有 脚印的泥路 be marked with 标着 标着……;(人、动物等身 ;人 上)具有 具有 Her face is marked with sadness. 她面 露悲哀。 露悲哀。 mark examination papers.
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  18. outstanding
  1) 杰出的,突出的 ( stand out ) 一名杰出的学生 an outstanding student
  2) 未完结的;未清的;未付的 Outstanding debts 未付清的欠款
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  19.Breakthrough n 重大突破, 突围;突破性的发现,成就 A military breakthrough 军事突 破A scientific breakthrough 科 学成就
35 deep--deepen Sharp? sharpen Wide--widen ?
  20.enable en-使+able能……的 enrich enlarge strengthen strength(力量)+ en (使) vt 加强,增强 vi 变强 they strengthened the city wall.. the wind strengthened.
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  21. organ n 器官;风琴;机构,机 器官;风琴;机构, 关 The eyes are the organ of sight. a government organ adj organic 有机物的;有机体的 有机物的; n organism (C)生物,有机体,有机 生物, 生物 有机体, 组织 vt organize 组织 n。 organization 。 团体,机构, 团体,机构,组织
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  22. put forward 提出(建议、 意见);推荐,提名 He put forward a better plan. We put her forward as chairman of the committee.
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  23. aim (sth) at sth/doing sth (把……)瞄准;目的在于;企图 He aimed his gun at the target. Those girls worked out every morning, aiming at losing weight. (sb aim sth at sth be aimed at
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  24.locate vt.设置(机关、店铺等),设 立(工厂、办公室等);确定……的位置 ? They decided to locate their new office in Hong Kong. ? 他们决定在香港设立新的办事处。 ? We located the island on the map. ? 我们在地图上确定那个岛的位置。
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? be located in/on… 坐落于……,位 于…… ? Our school is located in the centre of the town. ? 我们学校坐落于市镇的中心。 ? The country is located in the southern part of Africa. ? 该国位于非洲南部。
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? ? ? ? 25 .luggage n.(总称 行李 总称)行李 总称 He did not have much luggage. 他没有很多行李。 他没有很多行李。 You are only allowed to take one piece of hand luggage onto a plane. ? 你只可携带一件手提行李上飞机。 你只可携带一件手提行李上飞机。 ? 注:luggage是不可数名词。 是不可数名词。 是不可数名词
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  26.put forward提出,建议,推荐 提出, 提出 建议, ? Are you serious in putting forward such a view? ? 你真的要提出这种观点吗? 。 你真的要提出这种观点吗? ? We put him forward for the position of chairman. ? 我们推举他当主席。 我们推举他当主席。
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? 同、近义词辨析
  1.likely, possible 与probable (
  1)三者均表可能性,但意思有别。 possible指客观上有可能性,但往往含 有希望很小的意味;probable比 有希望很小的意味 possible可能性稍大 可能性稍大,有“较为可能、 可能性稍大 大概”,指有实际依据;likely是从外 表迹象判断有可能发生的事
44 ? It’s possible, though not probable, that he will come tomorrow. 他明天可能来,但也 不一定准来。 She is likely to ring me tonight. 今晚她很可能给我来电话。
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? (
  2)possible 不能用人做主语。 possible 常用于下列句型: It is possible to do sth. It is possible for sb. to do sth. It is possible that … eg: Is it possible to say so?可能这样说 吗? It is possible for me to do it. 我可能做 那件事。
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? (
  3)probable
也不能用人做主语。 一般只用于下面句型中: It is probable that … eg: It is probable that he will come. 他 很可能要来。
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? (
  4)likely 既可用人作主语,也可 用物做主语。通可用于“It is likely that …”句型中。 eg: He is likely to come. = It is likely that he will come. 他可能要来。但 不能说:It is likely for him to come. (
  5)impossible, improbable, unlikely 用法与上述类似。
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  2.catch, grasp, seize 与snatch catch是普通用语,用“设法抓住 是普通用语, 设法抓住, 是普通用语 捉住”的意思; grasp表示牢牢地 “抓住”;seize指“突然用力抓 住使不逃脱”;snatch 表示迅速 的拉扯动作、出其不意地“抓取”
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? The police caught the thief as he ran. 小偷逃跑时被警察抓住了。 He grasped his gun and rushed out. 他抓起枪就冲了出去。 He seized the gun from the enemy soldier. 他从敌人士兵手中夺过了枪。 The thief snatched her handbag and ran off. 小偷抢走了她的手提包就跑 了。
 

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