Unit15 Destinations Reference for Teaching
Ⅰ.异域风情 The African ancestors of today’s black Americans were brought to the US as slaves in the seventeenth,eighteenth,and nineteenth centuries.They worked on farms,especially the large farms in the southern states.Slowly they became a necessary part of the economic system of the South. Slaves did not have the rights of people;according to the law,they were a “thing” which belonged to the person who bought them.They had to obey the orders of their owners without questions.They were not allowed to learn to read;their owners feared the educated slaves would begin to think about the injustice of the system and would learn to struggle for their freedom.Slaves had to work long hours in every unhealthy conditions.Their owners had complete power over them.They could be bought and sold like animals.At the slave markets,black children were separated from their parents and never allowed to see them again.Slave owners had the right to punish the slaves who broke the law or was against the system.Slaves were often beaten or even killed by their owners.After the Civil War,one free slave reported that his owner killed an older slave who was teaching him to read.In theory an owner who treated a slave badly could be punished.In practice,however,the law meant nothing. Opposition to slavery began very early in the history of the US?in 1671?but little progress was made until the beginning of the nineteenth century.By 1804 slavery was illegal in the northern states.But it continued,and even grew,in the southern states,which depended on cotton for their economic wealth.Slavery ended in the South only after the Civil War.For blacks,however,the end of slavery was only a beginning,the late beginning of a long and difficult struggle for true justice. Ⅱ.知识归纳
  1.在英语中,do,have,make,take 这四个动词,加上名词作宾语(名词前可有形容词)构 成词组,可以表达许多不同含义,其意义相当于在名词前加上一个相关动词,现分述如下: (
  1)do+名词 e.g.Mary has done (=has written) an article. 玛丽写了一篇文章。 He will do(=draw) a large portrain of Ren Changxia. 他要为任长霞画一幅大画像。 do computer study=study computer do the room=clean the room do the dishes=wash the dishes do one’s hair=comb one’s hair do one’s teeth=brush one’s teeth do the fish=cook the fish do the puzzle=work out the puzzle do science=study science do a comedy=act a comedy do a concert=hear a concert do the tower=visit the tower do Japan=visit Japan do 20 miles=travel 20 miles
do one’s guests well=serve one’s guests well 有时宾语也可用 doing,并在 doing 前加 some。 do some reading=read some books,read some pages do some studying=study something do some walking=walk for some time 还有 do most of the talking,do some morning shopping 等。 (
  2)have+名词 e.g.We had a long talk(=talked for a long time) last Sunday. 上星期天我们进行了一次长谈。 They’re having a rest(=resting). 他们在休息。 此类结构常见的还有: have a chat,have a look at…,have a drink,have an interview,have a smoke,have a fight,have a bath,have a dream 名词前可有修饰成分,如 have no respect,have no wish,have some good laughs,have one more try 等。 有时意义上等于在名词前加上一个相关的动词,如: have a lesson (class)上一节课 have an X-ray 进行 X 光检查 have a great success 取得很大成功 have a small accident 出了小事故 have a headache(a flu,cold)得头疼病(流感,感冒) have a baby 生孩子 have one’s advice 听从某人的建议 have a telegram 收到一封电报 have an answer 有了答案 (
  3)make+名词(相当于名词的动词含义) e.g.The police made an examination in her room. 警察检查了她的房间。 The teacher made a clear explanation. 老师清楚地作了解释。 We made a comparison of the two articles. 我们把这两篇文章作了比较。 make an attempt=attempt make a suggest=suggest 还有 make a visit 参观, make a long stay 住了很长时间, make another start 又重新开始了, make preparations 作准备,make arrangements 作安排,make decisions 作决定,make a choice 作选择,make a map 画一张地图,make tea 沏茶,make an expression 留下印象 (
  4)take+名词(相当于名词相应的动词) e.g.He took a look at(=look at) this book. 他看了一下这本书。 I want to take a nap(=nap). 我想午休一会儿。
这类词组还有: take a bath 洗澡 take a walk 散步 take exercise 进行锻炼 take an action 采取行动 take an examination 进行考试,进行检查 take a trip 旅行 take a vacation 度假 相当于“吃,喝,吸(入),如: ” take the food,take pills,take medicine,take tea (coffee),take a glass of beer,take sugar,take a breath of fresh air,还有:take a taxi(bus,train…)坐出租车(公共汽车,火车……) take a room 要一个房间,租用一个房间 take one’s advice 接受……的建议 take a job 承担一项工作 take one’s degree 接受……学位 take chemistry 选学化学
  2.with 的一种用法 with 之后可以加一个抽象名词,构成名词短语,作用相当于这一名词相对应的副词。 e.g.He looked at her with respect(=respectfully). 他恭敬地看着她。 She told Tom the story with a smile(=smilingly). 她微笑着给汤姆讲了个故事。 He accepted the invitation with pleasure(=pleasurably). 他愉快地接受了邀请。 这类词组常见的还有: with calmness=calmly 冷静地 with curiosity=curiously 好奇地 with surprise=surprisingly 惊奇地 with ease=easily 轻易地 with difficulty 艰难地 with amazement 惊奇地 with sympathy 同情地 with disapproval 不满地 with fear 害怕地 with delight (joy)高兴地 with envy 妒忌地 with anger 生气地 with efficiency 有效地 with one accord voice 异口同声地 with tears in one’s eyes 含泪地 in+名词也可以这样用。例如: “How did you come here?”He asked in surprise(=surprisingly). “你是怎么到这儿的?”他惊奇地问。
Jack shut his eyes in fear(fearfully). 杰克害怕得闭上了眼睛。 His sister stared at him in amazement(=amazingly). 他的妹妹惊奇地看着他。 He came home in high cheerfulness(=cheerfully). 他兴高采烈地回了家。 常见的这类词组还有: in terror 害怕地 in astonishment 惊奇地 in anxiety 焦急地 in amazement 惊奇地 in confusion 大惑不解地 in alarm 惊慌地 in curiosity 好奇地 in great happiness 非常愉快地 in a hurry 急忙地 in a low voice 低声地 in hatred and despair 满怀仇恨和绝望地 in earnest 认真地 Ⅲ.同义词语辨析
  1.murder,kill,massacre (
  1)murder 是“谋杀,杀害”的意思。英语意思是 to kill unlawfully,especially on purpose。 e.g.The bandits murdered the man for his money. 歹徒为了谋取他的钱而杀害了他。 Every two hours someone was murdered. 每两个小时就有一人被谋杀。 (
  2)kill 用于因凶器或在非常事故中死亡的场合。英语的意思是 cause to die。 e.g.His father was killed in a railway accident. 他父亲在一次火车事故中身亡。 Only a few people were killed in the earthquake. 地震中只有少数人死亡。 He killed him with a spear. 他用矛刺死了他。 kill 还可作“使……难受之极,使……极其尴尬,使失去,消磨(时间) ”解。 e.g.My back killed me. 我的背非常难受。 It killed him to admit he is wrong. 承认他错了使他感到极为尴尬。 The joy killed the audience. 这个玩笑让观众笑得要死。 The train was late,so we killed time by playing cards. 火车晚点了,我们就打牌消磨时间。 (
  3)massacre“大屠杀” ,英语意思是 to kill a number of people without mercy。
e.g.When the soldiers captured the town,they massacred all the inhabitants. 当敌兵占领这座城市后,他们屠杀了城里的所有居民。 另外,表示“为……而献出生命”的同义词组有: devote one’s life to… dedicate one’s life to… give one’s life for… lay down one’s life for… lose one’s life for… 另外还有一些词组可以用来表示“死” ,但此用法较委婉: (sb.)pass away;one’s heart stop beating forever; (sb.)sleep peacefully;those who have fallen; (sth.)cost sb. his life;sb.is dead and gone; (sb.)be in heaven for some time
  2.ask for,require,demand (
  1)ask for 指要求得到具体的物质的东西,普通用词。也可用 ask sb.to do sth.表示“要求 某人做某事” ,语气较客气。 e.g.He asked for some money. 他让了一些钱。 He asked his mother to wake him at six in the morning. 他让他母亲早上六点叫醒他。 I asked that I (should be) was allowed to see her. 我请求允许我看望她。 (
  2)require“要求,有必要”,语气不如 demand 强,一般强调从需要、规章、惯例出发, 要求别人做某事,含有客观上必要的,缺此不可的性质。 e.g.He has done all that was required of him. 凡需要他做的他都做了。 How many days will be required to finish this work? 完成这项工作需要多少天? (
  3)demand“要求,需要”,指坚持要得到某物或坚持要做某事,用于人时,通常表示提 出要求的一方认为他们有权这样做,语气较强烈,有时带有强制的意味;用于物时,指一般 的“需要” ,这时可和 require,want,need 等词互换。 e.g.The Iraqi people demanded that the USA soldiers should get out of Iraq. 伊拉克人要求美国兵从伊拉克撤退。 All his life he believed that it was right and necessary to demand changes in society if people did not have their civil rights. 整个一生他都认为如果人民没有权利的话,要求社会变革是正确的,而且是必要的。 The work demands(=requires,wants,needs,etc,) great skill. 这个工作需要熟练的技巧。 Ⅳ.能力训练
  1.同义句转换 他们把黑人作为奴隶对待。 (
  1)They blacks as slaves. (
  2)They blacks as slaves.

  3)They blacks as slaves. (
  4)They blacks as slaves. (
  5)They blacks as slaves. (
  6)They blacks as slaves. (
  7)They blacks slaves. 答案:(
  1)treated (
  2)took (
  3)regarded (
  4)had (
  5)looked on (
  6)considered (
  7)considered;to be 二十加十等于三十。 (
  1)Twenty and (plus) ten thirty. (
  2)Twenty and (plus) ten thirty. (
  3)Twenty and (plus) ten thirty. (
  4)Twenty and (plus) ten thirty. 答案:(
  1)equal/equals (
  2)are/is equal to (
  3)are/is (
  4)make/makes 经理进来时他恭恭敬敬地站在那里。 (
  1)He stood there when the manager came in. (
  2)He stood there when the manager came in. 答案:(
  1)respectfully (
  2)with respect 这个学生在认真地做作业。 (
  1)The student was doing his homework . (
  2)The student was doing his homework . 答案:(
  1)earnestly (
  2)in earnest
  2.用适当的词填空 (
  1)相对论使得爱因斯坦在全世界出名了。 Theory of relativity Einstein all over the world. 答案:made;famous (
  2)金为美国黑人的政治权利而奋斗。 King fought for for blacks in the USA. 答案:political rights (
  3)金相信他能通过和平行动而不是暴力来达到他们的目标。 King believed that he could his by ,not by . 答案:achieve;goal;peaceful action;violence (
  4)她后来被警察逮捕了。 Later she was by the police. 答案:arrested (
  5)在这个国家经常举行反对种族歧视的非暴力的示威游行。 In this country,there are many . 答案:nonviolent demonstrations against racial discrimination (
  6)他的讲话鼓舞不同种族的人民为平等权利而斗争。 His speech people of all races to fight for . 答案:inspired;equality Ⅴ.高考真题
  1.(2004 北京卷)The mayor of Beijing says that all construction work for the Beijing Olympicsby 20
  06.
A.has been completed B.has completed C.will have been completed D.will have completed 简析:选 C。本句意思是: “北京市市长说所有北京奥运会的建设工作将在 2006 年前完 工。“work”和“complete”是被动关系,句子应用将来完成时态,所以选 C。 ”
  2.(2004 上海卷)The flu is believed by viruses that like to reproduce in the cells inside the human nose and throat. A.causing B.being caused C.to be caused D.to have caused 简析:选 C。全句的意思是: “人们认为感冒是由病毒引起的,这种病毒喜欢在人的鼻 子和喉咙中繁殖。“感冒”和“引起”之间为被动关系。这里叙述一般情况,应选 C。B 为 ” “正在引起” 为“已经引起” ,D 。
  3.(2004 上海卷)The disc,digitally in the studio,sounded fantastic at the party that night. A.recorded B.recording C.to be recorded D.having recorded 简析:选 A。disc 和 record 之间是被动关系,作定语时,不定式表示未来动作,及物动 词的过去分词表示完成了的被动动作,故这里应选 A。
  4.(2004 上海卷) The number of deaths from heart disease will be reduced greatly if people to eat more fruit and vegetables. A.persuade B.will persuade C.be persuaded D.are persuad
 

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