Unit 16
The United States of America
Ⅰ.Brief Statements Based on the Unit The United States of America is a developed country and also a booming country,which has a history of only 200~300 years.After the USA was founded,the American Civil War broke out in 1861,which brought suffering to the people of the USA,especially those in the South.Rebuilding the South became an essential task at that time.This unit mainly talks about the rebuilding and development of the American South.And Atlanta is a good illustration.It also deals with the bison on the plains of America.Because the bison was killed in huge numbers by European settlers,the balance of the whole wildlife was destroyed.After learning the unit,we let the students learn about the early history of America.Besides,some useful expressions and phrases should be mastered,and Non-finite verbs need to be reviewed,especially their passive forms. Ⅱ.Teaching Goals
  1.Talk about the USA.
  2.Practise describing places.
  3.Review Non-finite Verbs(
  2).
  4.Write a comparison essay. Ⅲ.Background Information
  1.The American Civil War The war of 1861~1865 between the northern states (the Union) and the southern states (the Confederacy) is also called the War between the States or the War of the Rebellion.There were many causes,of which the most important were disagreement over slavery,and the quarrel concerning Federal control and States’ Rights.The direct cause of the war was the election of Lincoln as President;this was followed by the secession of the southern states from the Union and the founding of the Confederacy,with Jefferson Davis as its President.The North had many advantages,a far greater population,more railway lines,and more factories.But the Confederates fought hard and were at first successful:they won the battles of Bull Run and Fredericksburg;but then Lee was defeated at Gettysburg and the Union army led by Grant won control of Mississippi.Admiral Farragant forced New Orleans to surrender:Texas,Arkansas and Louisiana were cut off from the rest of the Confederacy.After the Union won the Vicksburg campaign,Sherman made his march through Georgia to the sea,and Lee surrendered to Grant at Appomatton Court House,Virginia,on April 9,18
  65.Lincoln was assassinated in the same month.Slavery was declared unconstitutional.The period after the war (Reconstruction),when the South was occupied by the Worth,left bitterness that has not yet entirely vanished.During Reconstruction the southern states were admitted back into the Union.
  2.The War of American Independence (Also called the Revolutionary War 1775~17
  83) The struggle of the thirteen British colonies in North America for independence ended in the forming of the USA.The main causes of the war were taxes imposed by the British government,e.g.the Stamp Tax of 1765 and the Tea Tax.The colonies rebelled in 1775;the first shots were fired at Lexington,and the First battle was faught at Bunker Hill.The continental Congress appointed General Washington as leader of its forces,and issued the Declaration of
Independence on July 4,17
  76.General Burgoyne led a British army down from Canada but was forced to surrender at Saratoga (Oct.17
  77).He was supposed to meet the army of General Howe,who managed to occupy Philadelphia.Washington spent the hard winter of 1777~1778 at Valley Forge,and had difficulty in keeping his men together,France (17
  78),Spain (17
  79)and the Netherlands (17
  80)joined the war against Britain.British forces under Cornwallis won victories in the South where Britain had some popular support,but Cornwallis was defeated at Yorktown,Virginia,and forced to surrender (Oct.19/17
  81),which practically brought the war to an end.At sea,Britain had to fight to keep her naval supremacy,but after Yorktown the American ports were lost one by one.The war was ended by the Treaty of Paris,1783,which recognized the independence of the USA.
  3.Slavery in the United States The African ancestors (祖先) of today’s black Americans were brought to the US as slaves in the seventeenth,eighteenth,and nineteenth centuries.They worked on farms,especially the large farms in the southern states.Slowly they became a necessary part of the economic (经济) system (体制) of the South. Slaves did not have the right of people;according to the law,they were a “thing” which belonged to the person who bought them.They had to obey the orders of their owners without questions.They were not allowed to learn to read;their owners feared the educated slaves would begin to think about the injustice of the system and would learn to struggle for their freedom.Slaves had to work long hours in very unhealthy conditions.Their owners had complete power over them.They could be bought and sold like animals.At the slave markets,black children were separated from their parents and never allowed to see them again.Slave owners had the right to punish the slaves who broke the law or was against the system.Slaves were often beaten or even killed by their owners.After the Civil War,one free slave reported that his owner killed an older slave who was teaching him to read.In theory an owner who treated a slave badly could be punished.In practice,however,the law meant nothing. Opposition to slavery began very early in the history of the US?in 1671?but little progress was made until the beginning of the nineteenth century.By 1804 slavery was illegal (非法的) in the northern states.But it continued,and even grew,in the southern states,which depended on cotton for their economic wealth.Slavery,ended in the South only after the Civil War.For blacks,however,the end of slavery was only a beginning,the late beginning of a long and difficult struggle for true justice. Ⅳ.Teaching Time:Five periods
The First Period
Teaching Aims:
  1.Learn about the USA.
  2.Do some listening.
  3.Practise describing places to train the students’ speaking ability. Teaching Important Points:
  1.Train the students’ listening ability.
  2.Improve the students’ speaking ability by practising describing places using the following useful sentence patterns:
How long/wide/high/tall is the…? It’s…metres/feet long/wide/high/tall. There is…in the North. It looks like… Teaching Difficult Points:
  1.How to improve the students’ listening ability.
  2.How to help the students carry out the task of speaking. Teaching Methods:
  1.Listening-and-answering activity to help the students go through with the listening material.
  2.Discussion to help the students learn about the US.
  3.Individual,pair or group work to make every student have a chance to work in class. Teaching Aids:
  1.the multimedia
  2.the blackboard Teaching Procedures: Step Ⅰ Greetings Greet the whole class as usual. Step Ⅱ Lead-in T:Now,let’s begin our class.First,I’ll give you some information about the history of a country.Please guess which country it is.Listen carefully.It is a very young country in the world,which has only a history of 200~300 years.Most people in the country are immigrates The head office of the UN was set up there.Two World Wars didn’t take place there.Now it is the strongest country of the world.Can you guess it? Ss:Yes.The USA. Step Ⅲ Warming-up T:You’re right.Today we’re going to learn Unit 16 The United States of America (Bb:Unit 16 The United States of America).Now,let’s have a quiz to see how much you know about the USA.(Teacher shows the following on the screen.) Decide if the following sentences are true or false.Write“T”or“F”in the brackets.
  1.New York is the largest state in the US.
  2.Most state names come from Spanish or English.
  3.Atlanta is known as the“Big Apple”.
  4.The Constitution was written in 17
  79.
  5.There are 52 stars on the American flag.
  6.George Washington was the first American President.
  7.The first settlers arrived in North America about 30 000 years ago.
  8.The Mississippi River is the longest river in the world. ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ) ) ) ) ) ) ) )
T:Well,please do it by yourselves.After a while,I’ll check your answers.Is that clear? Ss:Yes. (After a few minutes,teacher checks the students’ answers.) T:The first one,true or false? S1:False. T:Please correct it.
S1:New York is the largest city in the US. T:Good.The second one? S2:True. T:What about the third one? S3:False.New York is known as the “Big Apple”. … Suggested answers:
  4.F The Constitution was written in 17
  87.
  5.F There are 50 stars on the American flag.
  6.T
  7.T
  8.F The Mississippi is one of the important rivers in the world. T:A good job!Now,open your books and turn to Page
  41.Please look at the map of the USA and find out the following cities and states:New York,Washington,Florida,Taxas, California,Alaska. (A few minutes later,teacher says the following.) T:Please look at the first picture.What place is it?Any volunteer? S4:It is the famous White House,where the president of the US works and lives with his family. T:Do you know how it got its name? S4:No. T:Who knows? S5:At first,it was made of gray stone and called the President’s Palace.During the war of 1812,it was burned by British soldiers.Afterwards,it was rebuilt.The walls were painted white to cover up marks left by the fire.Then people began calling the President’s Palace the White House.The name caught on and has remained in use ever since. T:Wonderful!Next,let’s look at the second picture.It is a famous city,which is it? S6:New York. T:Right.Can you guess when the picture was taken? S6:I think it was taken before the date September 11,20
  01. T:How do you know? S6:Because in the picture,we can see many skyscrapers.Among them,the World Trade Centre and the Empire State Building are most famous,but now the World Trade Centre has already gone.It was exploded by terrorists. T:Oh,What a pity!Do you know anything else about New York? Ss:No. T:New York is America’s cultural capital,where there is the statue of Liberty,the skyscrapers, 了 the beautiful shops on Fifth Avenue,and the many theatres on Broadway.Manhattan,the smallest island in New York,is the real centre of the city.When people say“New York City”they usually mean Manhattan.In 1605,the first Europeans came to Manhattan from Holland.They bought the island from the American Indians for a few glass necklaces,worth about $
  26.The most crowded part of New York is perhaps Harlem,where most Black Americans live.The crime rate is among the highest in the Western world.I hope one day some of you will have a chance to visit
it.Do you have enough confidence? Ss:Yes. T:OK.Now,work in pairs or groups.Make a list of things you know about the USA and what you’d like to know more about.(Teacher may encourage the students to make a chart.Several minutes later,teacher collects their charts.) Sample diagram:
Step Ⅳ Listening T:OK.We have talked more about the USA.Now let’s listen to a radio programme about New York to help Wang Xiao correct the errors in her notes.Turn to the next page.Let’s look at Ex.1 in the listening part.Here are the notes taken by Wang Xiao after he listens to a radio programme about New York.First read it by yourself.Then I’ll play the tape for you to listen.After that,please correct his errors. (Teacher plays the tape for the first time.After playing it,teacher gives the students one or two minutes to do Ex.
  1.At last,teacher checks the answers with the whole class.) T:OK.Now let’s listen to the tape again and then answer some concerned questions.Before listening,you need to go through with the questions.(Teacher gives the students one minute to read the questions.Then play the tape for the second time.After that,give the students enough time to discuss the answers and check them.)
T:Well done.Please listen to Part 2 of the listening material and then choose the best answers to the question in Ex.
  3. (Teacher deals with Ex.3 in the same way.If necessary,play the tape again.) Step Ⅴ Speaking T:Everyone loves his own hometown,which is beautiful in their hearts.Now,let’s talk about our hometown.Tell me where your hometown is,Wang Kai. S7:My hometown lies on the plain of North China. T:Are there any mountains,rivers or forests? S7:Yes.There is the famous Mount Taihang to the west,Fenhe River in the centre and a railway from Datong to Fenglingdu across my hometown. T:What does the landscape look like? S7:Very beautiful.There are thick forests,clean rivers and pleasant climate.Resources of minerals are also rich,which is called “the Sea of Coal”.Many places of interest,like the ancient city Pingyao,Yungang Rock Cave and Mount Wutai are famous in the world. T:Well done!Now,look at the last part?Speaking at Page
  42.Let’s do some speaking.Choose one of the cards and ask each other questions.You can use a map to help you.Before speaking,please look at the sentence patterns on the screen.They may be of great help to you. (Teacher shows the following on the screen.) How long/wide/high/tall is the…? It’s…metres/feet long/wide/high/tall. There is…in the North. It looks like… Can you make a sentence using each sentence pattern on the screen? Ss:Yes. T:Who can try the first sentence pattern? S8:How tall is the building? T:Yes.Answer the question,please. S8:It’s about 100 feet tall. T:Very good.Make a sentence with the next sentence pattern.Any volunteer? S9:There is a famous mountain in the north. T:OK.Sit down,please.The last one? S10:It looks like a bird’s nest. T:Good job!Now,work in pairs to talk about your hometown.Ater a while,I’ll ask some
 

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