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高中二年级英语学案 13Units 13-14 (B
  2)
【知识网络】
一,重点词汇与短语
  1. benefit (
  1).作名词的用法: a.用作不可数名词,有"好处,益处,利益,恩惠,裨益"等意义. 例如: 例如: She didn't get much benefit from her stay abroad because he was ill for a long time. 由于病了很长时间,她在国外期间并没有得到多大好处. b.用作可数名词,意思是"善举,义演" . 例如: A benefit for the disaster area will be held next week. 下周将举办一个赈灾义演. c.作"救济金,津贴"讲时,即可用可数名词,也可用不可数名词. 例如: 例如: How much unemployment benefit does the middle-aged woman get every month? 那位中年妇女每月领到多少失业救济金? Housing benefits are given out at the end of year. 住房补贴在年底发放. d.常用于一些固定表达中. 例如: 例如: have the benefit of 获益于,受益于 He has had the benefit of his 4-year education in America. for the benefit of/ for one's benefit 为了某人的利益,为了帮助某人 For the benefit of those who arrived late, I'll go over the plan once again. be of benefit 有益,有好处 My holiday wasn't of much benefit to me. (
  2)作动词的用法: a.用作及物动词,有"有利于, 有助于,有益于"的意思. 例如: 例如: It is an expensive investment but it will benefit the company in the long run. 这是一项花费很大的投资,但从长远来看,它对公司有好处.
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b.用作不及物动词,有"获益,受益,得到好处"的意思,后常用介词 from,也可用 介词 by. 例如: 例如: They will benefit from the new way of doing the business. 他们会从新的经营方式中获益. He is a man who has never benefit from experience. 他是一个从不吸取经验教训的人. Who is most likely to benefit by the old lady's death? 谁最可能因老妇人去世而获益呢? (
  3)Benefit 的形容词形式是 beneficial,副词形式是 beneficially. be beneficial to 有利于… …, 例如: 例如: The new policy is beneficial to car drivers. 新的法规对汽车驾驶员有利. Fresh air and good food are beneficial to the health. 新鲜空气和优良的食物有益于健康.
  2.demand (
  1)demand 作动词是 "要求, 需求"的意思, 经常指认为有用, 公正, 正确, 恰当或必需 而提出要求. 注意: demand 后接不定式, 不能接动名词; 被要求的人作为宾语时用 of 引出. 例如: 例如: I demanded an answer of him. 我要求他答复. All this was demanded of me. 这些都是向我要的. demand 后跟宾语从句时, 后面从句要用虚拟语气, 应用 "should+动词原形", should 可省 略. 例如: 例如: I demand that one of you (should) go there at once. 我要求你们中间的一个人立即到那里去! (美国用法省略 should) 不能用 "demand+宾语+不定式"这种句型, 而应去掉宾语用 demand to do sth. 这个句型. 例如: He demanded to know what was going on there. 他要求知道那里发生了什么事. She demanded to see the headmaster.
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她请求见校长 (
  2) demand 作名词是 "要求, 需求; 请求"的意思, 后面常接介词 for. 常用于 demand for sb, to do sth.或 demand for sth/that…结构. 例如: 例如: Ives listened to the workers' demand for more money. 艾夫斯听着工人们要争取更多钱的要求 There is a great demand for such books. 这种书需要量很大 (
  3)习语: have many demand on/upon one's time 时间不够支配 in (great )demand 需要量很大; 许多人都需要 make demand of/on 对……提出要求; 有求于…. meet the demand 满足需要; 符合要求 on demand 在要求时, 一经请求; 在要求支付时 demand of/from 向…要求; 向…索取 (
  4)同义词: require v.要求 反义词: supply v.提供
  3.插入语用法小结 插入语在句中主要是用来表示说话人对某事物的看法. 态度和推测. 有时起到解释, 说 明的作用, 有时表示总结, 有时可以用来引起对方的注意和思考. 插入语用法很多. 在句子 中的位置比较灵活, 大提而言, 可以分为以下及类: (
  1)用简短的句子结构作插入语.这一类有: I think, I hope, I guess. I believe, I suppose, I wonder, I tell you, I say, I'm afraid, I'm sure, you see, you know, as you know, that is, that is to say, what's more 等等, 它们可以置于句中或句尾. 如: This diet, I think, will do good to your health. 我认为, 这个食谱对你的身体有健康有益. It won't be raining long, I hope. 我希望雨不会老下个不停 You will have to work harder, you know, if you want to succeed. 你当然清楚, 想成功就必须努力奋斗 (
  2)副词或副词断语用作插入语. 这类插入语一般放在句首或句尾. 如: Happily for him, his father's second wife was kind to him, too. 幸运的是, 他的继母对他也很好. You'll be able to pass the coming exam, surely. 可以肯定地说, 你能通过下次考试. Honestly, I don't need it at the moment.
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说实话, 我现在还不需要它. Luckily for him, he didn't hurt in the accident. (
  3)介词或介词断语作插入语, 这类插入语一般放在句首, 有时也可放在句中. 如: Like most of my schoolmates, I have neither bothers nor sisters-- in other words, I'm an only child. 像大多数同学一样, 我没有兄弟姐妹, 换言之, 我是独身子女 By the way, Bob sends his best wishes. 顺便说一句鲍伯也向你问好 In short, things have begun to improve since schools were called on to reduce learning load. 简而言之., 自从学校实现减负以来, 情况开始有了改善. (
  4)分词短语作插入语. 如: Judging from your accent, you must be from England. 根据口音判断, 你准是英格兰人. Generally speaking, be is the best student in our class. 一般说来, 他是我们班最好的学生. Compared with China, the USA is smaller. 与中国相比, 美国略小一点 (
  5)不定式短语做插入语. 如: To put it mildly, he was not up to the mark. 说得婉转些, 他的身体不算太好. To tell you the truth, I don't want to see her. 说实话, 我不想见她. To conclude, it was a great success. 总之,这是一次巨大的成功. 二,词义辨析 advantage; benefit; gain; profit 的区别 advantage; benefit; gain; profit 这四个词都可用作名词表示 "好处; 利益". (
  1)advantage 侧重表示某人或某物在价值, 等级或地位方面的优势或好处. 如: Her beauty proved to be of great advantage to her in her stage career. 她的美貌使她在舞台生涯中占了很大的便宜 (
  2)benefit 侧重表示某人在身体, 智力精神或物质等方面的受益.
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如: This medicine will be of real benefit to you. Take it. 这种药对你的病会很有效的, 快吃吧. (
  3)gain 侧重表示物质利益方面的好处或利益, 常用复数形式. 如: We have made some very exciting gains in the past year. 去年我们取得了可喜的收益. (
  4)profit 既可指物质或前财方面的收益, 亦可指一般意义上的益处. 如: Coal and steel interests were merging for mutual profit. 煤矿和钢铁界为了共同的利益合并起来. 三,重点句型 a)It was during the "March on Washington DC" in 1963 that he gave the speech "I Have a Dream", which inspired people of all races to fight for equality. 他就是在 1963 年的 "向华盛顿 进军"活动期间发表了演说<<我有一个梦想>>, 这激励着各种种族的人民为争取平等而斗争. 本句用了 It was…that…强调句型, 强调的是时间状语 during the "March on Washington DC" in 19
  63. 又如: 又如: It was last night that John wore a white suit at the dance. which 在此引出了一个非限制性定语从句, 修饰前面的 speech, which 在从句中作主语. 又如: 又如: She heard a terrible noise, which brought her heart into her mouth. b)Heat capacity is the amount of energy it takes to raise the temperature of a substance one degree centigrade. 热能量是一种物质升高一摄氏度所需要的能量 it takes…to do…是固定句式, 可表示 "做某事需要……"之意. 如: It will take a lot of courage to tell the truth. it takes…to do…多指 "花多少时间去做某事". It took him three years to write the book. 亦有 it takes…for sb. to do sth.句型. It usually takes ten minutes for a taxi to get to the hotel. c)What all these groups have in common is that they ask to be treated with respect, share the rights to work, good housing conditions and education and be treated equal to other people in all ways. 所有这些组织都有一个共同的目标, 那就是要求得到尊重, 享有工作的权利, 有良好 的住房条件, 能获得教育, 能在各方面与其他人平等对待. what 在此做关系代词, 引出一个主语从句, what 在从句中作 have 的宾语. 又如: What he often keeps in mind is how to serve the people well.
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equal to 是固定搭配. 在此句中是形容词短语, 用作主语补足语, 意为 "与……平等或相 等". 如: Everyone was born equal to one another. 四,语法复习 (一) 情态动词的某些特殊用法 情态动词的一些习惯用法
  1.Used to+动词原形(表过去的习惯) 含有与现在比较的意思,即过去做,现在不做 , 了. would 经常和表示过去时间的短语或句子连用,或通过上下文可明确是过去的事,而 used to 则不必. 如: He used to smoke. 他过去总是抽烟. (但现在不抽了) When he was young he would smoke a lot. 年轻时,他总是抽很多烟. (现在也许抽,也许不抽)
  2.be used to sth. (doing sth.)习惯于 Li Ming was used to sitting up all night during the war. 战争期间,李明习惯于熬夜.
  3.表"宁愿做某事"的习惯表达 would do something would rather do than do somethingn would do something rather than do something would rather sb. did something prefer to do something prefer to do rather than do something prefer doing something to doing something 应熟记其结构, 以便应付高考 can't…too/enough 越……越好,无论……也不过分 You can not be too/enough careful when crossing the street 过马路时,你越小心越好./再小心也不过分
  3.can not but +do sth. 不得不,只好 I can not but admire your bravery. 我不得不佩服你的勇气. I could not but choose to go 我只好去.
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(二)被动语态 被动语态常用在没有必要或不可能说明动作的执行者的句子里, 被动语态由 be+动词的 过去分词构成,应该注意的是:语态变化要在动词上体现,助动词放在动词前. 一,被动语态的构成:
  1.一般现在时:am/is/are done
  2.现在进行时:am/is/are being done
  3.在完成时:have/has been done
  4.一般将来时:will be done
  5.将来完成时:will have been done
  6.一般过去时:was/were done
  7.过去进行时:was/were doing
  8.过去完成时:had been done
  9.过去将来时:would be done 二,被动语态的用法:
  1.没有必要或不知道动作的执行者是谁时. Teachers are needed everywhere in China. 在中国到处都需要老师. Smoking is not allowed here. 禁止抽烟. Such sign can be seen in many places on freeway. 在高速公路上到处都能看到这样的牌子.
  2.似下列无主语句子已构成固定句子. It's said…据说 It's reported…据报道 It's believed that…大家相信 It's thought that...大家认为 It's known that…众所周知 It's must be pointed out that…必须指出 It is taken for granted that…被视为当然
  3.汉语中,当主语泛指某些人时,往往用被动语态. When he was asked to have a rest, he always smiled and said, "Thank you, but I'm not tired." 当人们请他休息时,他总是笑笑说"谢谢,我不累" .
  4.需要突出或强调动作的承受者时,往往用被动语态, 用"为……所,受……"词语 来表达. The delegation was warmly welcomed. 代表团受到热烈欢迎. 三. 注意事项
  1. 注意断语动词和含有情态动词的被动语态,切不可丢掉后边的介词或副词.
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The old man was often laughed at. 那位老人经常被人嘲笑. Time must be made good use of. 时间一定要充分利用. The doctor has been sent for. 已经派人去请大夫了. The plan will be given up. 那计划要被放弃了. He must be prevented from going. 必须阻止他去.
  2. get+过去分词可表示被动,此用法较口语化. He got married last week. 他上周结婚了. The relics get damaged. 文物遭到了破坏.
  3. 主动语态不能变为被动语态的情况. (
  1)感观动词表状态或结果时,这类动词有: smile, sm
 

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