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高二英语词汇突破
高二英语语法突破讲义 英语语法突破讲义 语法突破
主讲: 主讲:李健
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Unit 1
一、高考词汇复习要点及方法
  1、 听力:跳过单词的形而直接将音与义联系起来,并注意对话的背景
  2、 单选:以考察语法为主,但需注意连词、代词、情态动词
  3、 完形填空:注重单词的辨析,尤其是形近及义近词汇
  4、 阅读:注重对单词引申义的辨别及超纲单词的推测
  5、 改错:注意对名词、代词、介词及连词的关注
  6、 作文:保证不出现拼写错误,只选择熟悉的单词 一、高考语法复习要点加方法
  1、 听力:基本没有复杂语法,以简单句为主
  2、 单选:重点注意几种语法现象:时态、语态、非谓语动词及交际用语、
  3、 完形填空:以单词考察为主,语法处于辅助地位
  4、 阅读:关键在于对复杂句的掌握
  5、 改错:时态是重点
  6、 作文:选择简单语法,确保正确表达 二、单词记忆法
  1、词根词缀记忆法。 例如:dis- 表示否定意义 dislike,disorder, dishonest ,disappear
  2、合成记忆法: 例如:undertake; basketball; wheelchair
  3、读音记忆法 例如:agriculture; exploration; intelligent
  4、机械记忆法。 例如:take-took-taken, cut-cut-cut, lose-lost-lost,
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高二英语词汇突破

  5、谐音记忆法 例如:exhaust vt.使筋疲力尽;用完耗尽 n. 排气管 谐音:一个早死的他(谐音)体力精力耗尽早早死去 flee vt.逃走 vi.消散 谐音:飞离(谐音)?飞着就离开了,逃走 ambition n. 雄心勃勃的、野心的 谐音:俺必胜(谐音)
  6、近形故事记忆法 例如:鸽子(dove)服药(dose)打瞌睡(doze) b-tter:黄油(butter)苦(bitter)一点(bit)更好(better) 三、动词不定式
  1.不定式的句法功能
  1)作主语: To finish the work in ten minutes is very hard. To lose your heart means failure 动词不定式短语作主语时,常用 it 作形式主语 It is very hard to finish the work in ten minutes It means failure to lose your heart.
  2)作表语 Her job is to clean the hall. He appears to have caught a cold.
  3)作宾语 常与不定式做宾语连用的动词有:want, hope, wish, offer, fail 等。 We plan to study in the best university in China 如果不定式(宾语)后面有宾语补足语,则用 it 作形式宾语,真正的宾语(不定式) 后置,放在宾语补足语后面 Marx found it important to study the situation in Russia.
  4)作定语 ①动宾关系 I have a meeting to attend. 注意:不定式为不及物动词时,所修饰的名词如果是地点、工具等,应有必要的介词 He found a good house to live in. The child has nothing to worry about. 如果不定式修饰 time, place, way,可以省略介词 He has no place to live. ②说明所修饰名词的内容 We have made a plan to finish the work. ③被修饰名词是不定式逻辑主语 He is the first to get here.
  5)作状语 ①表目的 She sold her hair to buy the watch chain。 注意不定式放句首时,逻辑主语与句子主语要一致 To save money, every means has been tried. ×
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高二英语词汇突破
To save money, he has tried every means. √ To learn English well, a dictionary is needed. × To learn English well, he needs a dictionary. √ ②表结果 He arrived late to find the train gone. 常用 only 放在不定式前表示强调 I visited him only to find him out. ③表原因 They were very sad to hear the news. ④ 表让步或条件 A man would be blind not to see the truth. You shouldn’t do that to save your own life.
  6)作宾语补足语 宾语补足语说明宾语做了什么,正在做什么或去做什么 常见动词:advise sb to do, ask sb to do
  2.不定式的时态及语态
  1)一般式 结构:to do I'm glad to meet you. He seems to know a lot
  2)进行式 结构:to be doing The boy pretended to be working hard. He seems to be reading in his room.
  3)完成式 结构:to have done I regretted to have told a lie He is pleased to have met his friend.
  3.不定式的被动语态 结构:to be done That is my honor to be invited to join the party. I wish to be excused.
  3.典型例题
  1. There are five pairs of shoes , but I am at a loss which to buy. A. to be chosen B. to choose from C. to choose D. for choosing
  2. Do let your mother know all the truth. She appears everything. A. to tell B. to be told C. to be telling D. to have been told
  4. It is said in Australia there is more land than the government knows . A. it what to do with B. what to do it with C. what to do with it D. to do what with it 重点词汇 patient adj. 耐心的,忍耐的 n. 患者,病人 patience n. 耐心
  30. ?You know, Bob is a little slow understanding, so…. ?So I have to be patient him . A. in; with B. on ; with C. in; to D. at ; for (05 重庆) even if = even though = no matter
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whether 是否 as if 仿佛 There was never any time for Kate to feel lonely, she was an only child. A.ever since B.now that C.even though D.even as (05 辽宁) bore: sth bore sb, sb be/get bored, sth be boring
  35. Mr. Smith, of the speech, started to read a novel. A. tired; boring B. tiring; bored C. tired: bored D. tiring; boring (03 北京 春季) 五、易混单词及词组辨析
  1. about , on The conference has been held to discuss the effects of tourism the wildlife in the area. A. in B. on C. at D. with B
  2. accept receive
  1) a reply, the decided to write again. (全国) A. Not receiving B. Receiving not C. Not having received D. Having not received C
  2) Mary finally Bruce as her life-long companion.(上海) A. received B. accepted C. made D. honored B
  3. across cross over past through The sunlight came in windows in the roof and lit up the whole room.(上海) A. through B. across C. on D. over A
  4. act action deed We all know that speak louder than words.(上海) A. movements B. performances C. operations D. actions D
  5.affect effect
  1) The new law will come into on the day it is passed.(上海) A. effect B. use C. service D. existence A
  2)According to the new research gardening is a more exercise for older women than jogging or swimming.(上海) A. mental B. physical C. effective D. efficient C
  6.few a few little a little
  1)It is impossible for so workers to do so work in a single day.(全国) A. few much B. few many C. little much D. little many A
  2)?Are the new rules working? ?Yes. hooks are stolen. (全国) A. Few B. More C. Some D. None A
  3)There’s cooking oil left in the house. Would you go to the corner store and get ?(北京) A. little some B. little any C. a little some D. a little any A
  7. after in later The doctor will be free .(全国) A. 10 minutes later B. after 10 minutes C. in 10 minutes D. 10 minutes after C
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高二英语词汇突破
Unit 2
非谓语动词 过去分词在句中相当于名词、形容词及副词,因此可以做宾语、表语、定语、状语及宾语补 足语,但是不可做主语。
  1、过去分词做定语 知识总结与归纳: 过去分词或过去分词短语可以用来修饰名词做定语。过去分词表达的内容与被修饰的名 词具有完成和被动关系, 如果是单个过去分词则放在名词之前, 如果是过去分词短语则放在 名词之后。 语法结构:过去分词+名词 名词+过去分词短语
  1. Chen wrote about the efforts to bring stolen cultural relics back to China.
  2. The letter mailed last night will reach him tomorrow.
  3.还有一些过去分词是表达人或物品的特性或状态,这些词已经被形容词化了,与其说 是过去分词,倒不如说是以 ed 结尾的形容词。
  1) The retired workers told him about their family life and their problem.
  2)I’m going to buy some used books tomorrow.
  2、过去分词做表语 过去分词在在 be 动词或其他动词后面做表语来描述人或物品的特性或状态,表示“感 觉……, 例句:
  1. He is interested in classical music.
  2.The situation remains unchanged. 注意:在许多句子中,be + done 可能表示被动意义,也可能表示主语所处的状态,是系 表结构。 辨别方法主要有两个, 其一是被动语态可以补充 By+动作的执行者而系表结构不行, 其二是系表结构可以用 well, very, much, quite 等副词修饰而被动语态则不行。 例如:Why is the glass broken? (系表结构) By whom is this glass broken? (被动语态)
  3、过去分词做宾语补足语 语法结构总结: 谓语动词+宾语+过去分词 (done) done 短语做宾语补语, : 表示“宾语”被……; (过去分词与前面的宾语具有动宾关系) 。在这种句型里常用的谓语动词有:see; hear; find; get; have; notice; want; make; keep 等。 例句:
  1. Why don’t you get the job done by somebody else ?
  2. The police found a car abandoned by the roadside.
  4、过去分词做状语
  1.表示原因,相当于原因状语从句 Praised by the neighbors, he became the pride of his parents.
  2.表示动作发生的时间,相当于时间状语从句 Once seen, it can never be forgotten.
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  3.表示一个假设情况,相当于条件状语从句 Given more time, I'll be able to do it better. 过去分词例题:
  1. The Olympic Games ,in 776 BC, didn’t included women players until 19
  12. A. first playing B. to be first played C. first played D. to be first playing
  2. The film was so that everyone became __ at it. A. excited; exciting B. exciting; excited C. exciting; exciting D. excited; excited
  3. The first textbook for teaching English as a foreign language came out in the 16th century. A. having written B. to be written C. being written D. written
  4. The next day they found that the door remained , and that the boss was gone. A. to lock B. locking C. locked D. to be locked
  5. At any rate, I did not succeed in making myself by you. A. understand B. understood C. understanding D. to understand
  6. The managers discussed the plan that they would like to see next year. A. carry out B. carrying out C. carried out D. to carry out
  7. and happy, Tony stood up and accepted the prize.(2006 年全国卷 I) A. Surprising B. Surprised C. Being surprised D. To be surprised
  8. for the breakdown of the school computer network, Alice was in low spirits. (2006 福建 卷) A. Blaming B. Blamed C. To blame D. To be blamed 在掌握了过去分词在句子中的一些用法之后我们来看一下过去分词与现在分词在句子 中充当同样成分时有那些区别 整体而言现在分词和过去分词都可以作表语、定语、状语和补语,现在分词表示主动 和进行,过去分词表示被动和完成。
  1.作表语 现在分词表示主语的性质,过去分词表示主语的状态 The film Titanic is very moving. 表示性质,主语本身怎样 My hair is sold and gone. 表示状态,不在了
  2.作定语 分词作定语时的逻辑主语就是被修饰的词。当逻辑主语同分词是主动关系的时候就用现 在分词,否则就用过去分词。 The books sealing with the Long March are sold out. The books written by Lu Xun are popular with young pople.
  3.作状语 分词作状语,其逻辑主语就是句子的主语,逻辑主语同分词是主动关系时使用现在分词, 否则即使用过去分词。 Hearing a cry for help, he rushed out without delay.
  4.作补语 区别同以上两点相同 典型例题:
  1. five people won the “ China’s Green Figure ” award, a title to ordinary people for their contributions to environment protection. 2006 山东
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A being given B is given C given D was given
  2. with so much trouble , we failed to complete the task on time. 2006 四川 A Faced B Face C Facing D To face Part Two 下面我请大家同我一起来学习一下同过去分词有关的另一个重要语法概念,即独立主格 结构。
  1. 独立主格结构的构成: 名词(代词)+过去分词;
  2. 独立主格结构的特点:
  1)独立主格结构的逻辑主语与句子的主语不同,它独立存在。
  2)名词或代词与后面的分词是主谓关系。
  3)独立主格结构一般有逗号与主句分开。 举例: The test finished, we began our holiday. = When the test was finished, we began our holiday. The president assassinated, the whole country was in deep sorrow. = After the president was assassinated, the whole country was in deep sorrow.
  3. With 的复合结构作独立主格 表伴随时,既可用分词的独立结构,也可用 with 的复合结构。 with +名词(代词)+过去分词 举例: He stood there, his hand raised.
 

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