Detailed Study of the Text
  1. Middle East: Southeast Asia and Northeast Africa, including the Near East and Iran and Afghanistan. Near Ease: the Arabian Peninsula ( Saudi Arabia, Yemen, Oman, United Arab Emirates, Qatar, Bahrein, and Kuwait), Turkey, Iraq, Syria, Jordan, Lebanon, Palestine, Egypt and Sudan.
  1. Middle East: Southeast Asia and Northeast Africa, including the Near East and Iran and Afghanistan. Near Ease: the Arabian Peninsula ( Saudi Arabia, Yemen, Oman, United Arab Emirates, Qatar, Bahrein, and Kuwait), Turkey, Iraq, Syria, Jordan, Lebanon, Palestine, Egypt and Sudan. Far East: China, Japan, Korea, Mongolia and East Siberia
  2. particular: special, single and different from others. When sth. is particular, we mean it is the single or an example of the whole under consideration. the term is clearly opposed to general and that it is a close synonym of "single". Particular is also often used in the sense of special. I have sth. very particular (special) to say to Mr. Clinton. She always took particular (special) notice of me. On this particular (single) day we had to be at school early. I don't like this particular (single) hat, but the others are quite nice.
  3. Gothic-arched: a type of architecture (see. ALD, church picture) Goth: one of the German tribes Arch: a curved top sometimes with a central point resting on 2 supports as above a door. aged: a. [d d] My son is aged
  10. When he was aged 6, he went to school. a middle aged couple b. [d id] ancient He is aged; her aged grandfather medicare for the sick & aged
  4. glare: shining intensely, harshly, uncomfortably, and too strong; in a way unpleasant to the eyes
  5. cavern: a large deep cave (hollow place in the side of a cliff or hill, or underground), closed roofed place. Here in the text we can see that it is a long, narrow, dark street or workshops and stores with some sort of roof over them.
  6. losing itself in the shadowy distance: in the farthest distance everything becomes obscure, unclear, or only dimly visible in the dark surroundings. lose: come to be without shadow: greater darkness where direct light, esp. sunlight, is blocked by sth.; a dark shape shadowy: hard to see or know about clearly, not distinct, dim Here shadowy suggests the changing of having and not having light, the shifting of lightness and darkness. There may be some spots of brightness in the dark.
  7. harmonious: harmony: musical notes combined together in a pleasant sounding way tinkle: to make light metallic sound cf:
jingle: light tinkling sound The rain tinkled on the metal roof. She laughed heartily, a sound as cool as ice tinkling in the glass. to tinkle coins together
  8. throng: large crowd of people or things, a crowd of people busy doing sth. searching up and down, engaging in some kind of activity cf: crowd: general term, large number of people together, but without order or organization. Crowd basically implies a close gathering and pressing together. The boulevard was crammed with gay, laughing crowds. Throng varies so little in meaning from crowd that the two words are often used interchangeably without loss. Throng sometimes carries the stronger implication of movement and of pushing and the weaker implication of density. Throngs circulating through the streets. The pre-Xmas sale attracted a throng of shoppers.
  9. thread: make one's way carefully, implies zigzag, roundabouts The river threads between the mountains.
  10. roadway: a. central part used by wheeled traffic, the middle part of a road where vehicles drive b. a strip of land over which a road passes
  11. narrow: In the bright sunlight she had to narrow her eyes. The river narrows at this point. They narrowed the search for the missing boy down to five streets near the school. She looked far into the shadowy distance, her eyes narrowed, a hand on the eyebrows to prevent the glare. The aircraft carrier was too big to pass through the narrows (narrow passage between two large stretches of water).
  12. stall: BrE. a table or small open-fronted shop in a public place, sth. not permanent, often can be put together and taken away, on which wares are set up for sale.
  13. din: specific word of noise, loud, confused, continuous noise, low roar which can not be distinguished exactly until you get close, often suggests unpleasant. disordered mixture of confusing and disturbing sounds, stress prolonged, deafening, ear-splitting metallic sounds The children were making so much din that I could not make myself heard. They kicked up such a din at the party. The din stopped when the curtain was raised. the din of the cheerful crowd
  14. wares (always-pl.) articles offered for sale, usu. not in a shop. The word gives the impression of traditional commodity, items, goods, more likely to be sold in free-markets. to advertise / hawk / peddle one's wares Goods: articles for sale, possessions that can be moved or carried by train, road; not house, land, There is a variety of goods in the shops. goods train / freight train, canned goods, half-finished goods, clearance goods, textile goods, high-quality goods ware: (lit.) articles for sale, usu. not in a shop
The silversmith showed us his wares. The baker travelled round the town selling his wares. kitchenware, tableware, hardware, software earthenware, tinware, ironware, silverware commodity: an article of trade or commerce, esp. a farm or mineral product Wheat is a valuable commodity. Wine is one of the many commodities that France sells abroad. a commodity fair merchandise: (U.) things for sale, a general term for all the specific goods or wares. The store has the best merchandise in town. We call these goods merchandise.
  15. would-be: likely, possible, which one wishes to be but is not a would-be musician / football player
  16. purchase (fml. or tech.) to buy You buy some eggs, but purchase a house.
  17. bargain: to talk about the condition of a sale, agreement, or contract
  18. dizzy: feeling as if everything were turning round , mentally confused If you suffer from anaemia, you often feel dizzy. Every night, when my head touches the pillows, I felt a wave of dizziness. The two-day journey on the bus makes me dizzy.
  19. penetrate: to enter, pass, cut, or force a way into or through. The word suggests force, a compelling power to make entrance and also resistance in the medium. The bullet can penetrate a wall. The scud missile can penetrate a concrete works of 1 metre thick. Rainwater has penetrated through the roof of my house.
  20. fade: to lose strength, colour, freshness, etc. fade away: go slowly out of hearing, gradually disappearing The farther you push / force your way into the bazaar, the lower and softer the noise becomes until finally it disappears. Then you arrive at the cloth market where the sound is hardly audible. Colour cloth often fades when it is washed. The light faded as the sun went down. The sound of the footsteps faded away. The noise of the airplane faded away.
  21. mute: adj. a. silent, without speech The boy has been mute since birth. b. not pronounced: The word "debt" contains a mute letter. noun: a. a person who cannot speak The boy was born a deaf mute.( has healthy speech organs but never has heard speech sounds, can be trained to speak) {cf: He is deaf and dumb (unable to speak).}
b. an object that makes a musical instrument give softer sound when placed against the strings or in the stream of air verb: to reduce the sound of, to make a sound softer than usual to mute a musical instrument Here in the text the word "muted" is used to suggest the compelling circumstances, forcing you to lower your sound.
  22. beaten: (of a path, track, etc.) that is given shape by the feet of those who pass along it, suggesting ancientness, timelessness. The path becomes flat due to the treading of countless people through thousands of years. We followed a well-beaten path through the forest.
  23. deaden: to cause to lose strength, force, feeling, and brightness to deaden the pain Two of these pills will deaden the ache.
  24. measured: steady, careful, slow, suggesting lack of speed, paying attention to what to say
  25. overwhelm: overcome, control completely and usu. suddenly The enemy were overwhelmed by superior forces. Sorrow overwhelmed the family. She was overwhelmed with grief They won an overwhelming victory / majority.
  26. sepulchral: related to grave, gloomy, dismal sepulchre / er : old and bibl. use, a burial place; a tomb, esp. one cut in rock or built of stone
  27. follow suit: to do the same as one else has, to play / to deal the cards of the same suits (in poker, there two red suits, and two black suits. They are hearts, diamonds, spades, clubs, jokers, aces, kings, queens and jacks (knaves). When the others went swimming, I followed suit. He went to bed and I followed suit after a few minutes.
  28. peculiarity: a distinguishing characteristic, special feature, suggesting difference from normal or usual, strangeness. One of his peculiarities is that his two eyes are not the same colour. The large fantail is a peculiarity of the peacock. The peculiarity of her behaviour puzzled everyone.
  29. deal in: sell and buy, trade in This merchant deals in silk goods. Most foreign trading companies in West Africa deal in rubber, cocoa and vegetable oils.
  30. scatter: to cause (a group) to separate widely, to spread widely in all directions as if by throwing The frightened people scattered about in all directions. One of the special features / characteristics of the M.E. bazaar is that shopkeepers in the same trade always gather together in the same place to do their business.
  31. knit: to make things to wear by uniting threads into a kind of close network. Here, to unite or join closely
  32. guild / gild: an association for businessmen or skilled workers who joined together in former times to help one another and to make rules for training new members
  33. persecution: cruel treatment
persecute: to treat cruelly, cause to suffer, esp. for religious or political beliefs The first immigrants came to American mainly because they wanted to avoid religious persecution / after being persecuted for their religious beliefs. be persecuted by sb. for sth. bloody / terrible /relentless persecution suffer from / be subjected to political / religious persecution
  34. line: form rows along
  35. trestle: wooden beam fixed at each end to a pair of spreading legs, used, usu. in pairs, as a removable support of a table or other flat surface.
  36. order of the day: the characteristic or dominant feather or activity, the prevailing state of things If sth. is the order of the day, it is very common among a particular group of people Confusion became the order of the day in the Iraqi headquarters due to the electronic interference from the Allied forces. Learning from Lei Feng and Jiao Yulu has become the order of the day recently. Jeans and mini-skirts are no longer the order of the day now. During that period, the Gulf War became the order of the day.
  37. veil: covering of fine net or other material to protect or hide a woman's face
  38. leisure: time free from work, having plenty of free time, not in a hurry to do sth.
  39. pace: rate or speed in walking, marching, running or developing
  40. preliminary: coming before sth. introducing or preparing for sth. more important, preparatory There were several preliminary meetings before the general assembly. A physical examination is a preliminary to joining the army.
  41. beat down: to reduce by argument or other influence, to persuade sb. to reduce a price The man asked $5 for the dress, but I beat him down to $
  42. a point of honour: sth. considered important for one's self-respect It's a point of honour with me to keep my promise = I made it a point of honour to keep my promise. In our country, it is a point of honour with a boy to pay the bill when he is dining with a girl / when he dines a girl; but on the other hand, a western girl would regard it a point of honour (with her) to pay the bill herself.
  43. make a point of / make it a point to: do sth because one considers it important or necessary, to take particular care of, make extraordinary efforts in, regard or treat as necessary I always make a point of checking that all the windows are shut before I go out. I always made a point of being on time. I always make a point of remembering my wife's birthday. He made a point of thanking his hostess before he left the party. The rush-hour commute to my job is often nerve-racking, so I make it a point to be a careful and considerate motorist. Some American people make it a point of conscience to have no social distinctions between whites and blacks.
  44. what it is: used to stress What is it she really likes?
What is it you do? What is it you really want?
  45. protest: to express one's disagreement, feeling of unfairness Here: insist firmly, a firming strongly
  46. deprive of: take away from, prevent from using to deprive sb. of political rights / of his power / civil rights The misfortunes almost deprived him of his reason. The accident deprived him of his sight / hearing.
  47. sacrifice: to give up or lose, esp. for some good purpose or belief The ancient Greeks sacrificed lambs or calves before engaging in a battle. (infml) to sell sth. at less than its cost or value I need the money and I have to sacrifice (on the price of) my car.
  48. regard: regard, respect, esteem, admire and their corresponding nouns are comparable when they mean a feeling for sb. or sth. Regar


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