《高级英语》自学指导用书 编者:赵晓 Part One: College English Book Five Lesson 1 Rashid’s School at Okhla I. Introduction Rashid’s School at Okhla, taken from Santha Rama Rau’s first book Home to India, records the author’s visit with her aunt Kitty to a village school at Okhla in 1939, when she was a 16-year-old girl newly returned from ten-years’ schooling in Britain to her native country India. The text gives us a glimpse of her intense interest in the changes that were taking place in her native land and of the educational campaign carried out by the Congress Party hoping to bring political consciousness through education to the people of India. In running the village school, Rashid, the headmaster, met with and conquered various difficulties: the villagers’ deep-rooted suspicion about education, religious obstacles and financial shortage, etc. It was out of countless such efforts by numerous Indians that the New India was created. II. Organization of the Text
  1. On the way to Okhla (Paragraphs 1-
  2) Through description of the road condition, traffic and property of bullock and camel owners, the author brings out the poverty and backwardness of India and foretells the difficulties for the educational campaign carried on in the Indian villages.
  2. At Okhla (Paragraphs 3-
  4) Another picture is taken of the backwardness and isolation of the Indian village by specific description of the village huts, multi-functional tiny shop, and early marriage of the village women.
  3. Meeting Rashid at his school (Paragraphs 5-
  18) In describing the school activities, the author tells the reader the difficulties involved in running a village school (i.e. villages’ deep-rooted suspicion about education and religious barriers) and great efforts and enthusiasm exerted by the Congress Party of which Rashid serves as one of its representatives in the educational campaign.
  4. Meeting Rashid at Kitty’s home in Delhi (Paragraphs 19-
  24) Another difficulty is discussed in the conversation between Kitty and Rashid: lack of financial support from the colonial government. At the same time, the author’s mother speaks of the relationship between reason and conscience and analyzes the difference in education between the Western countries and India. III. Key Words and Expressions
  1. orderly (Para
  1): well-arranged.
  2. facilitate (Para
  1): make…easy or easier.
  3. brass (Para
  1): an alloy of copper and zinc. Compare: copper (a single element) and bronze (an alloy of copper and tin).
  4. household utensils (Para
  1): 家庭用具。Compare: household appliances(家用电器) 。
  5. proprietor (Para
  3): (shop) owner.
  6. as much…as (Para
  5): to the same degree…as, e.g. It is as much our responsibility as yours(这 是你们的责任,同样是我们的责任).
  7. fluid English (Para
  5): fluent English.

  8. enunciate (Para
  6): pronounce.
  9. in a florid tone (Para
  6): in a showy tone.
  10. an impetus (Para
  6): a push forward.
  11. gauge (Para
  6): judge; estimate.
  12. in a small way (Para
  8): on a small scale. Compare: in a big way (= on a large scale).
  13. inaugurate (Para
  8): start; launch.
  14. accomplish (Para
  9): succeed in doing something; finish successfully. Compare: finish, complete and accomplish. To finish is to bring something to an end; to complete is to make something whole or perfect; and to accomplish implies great effort involved. E.g. I need one more stamp to complete my collection of this set (i.e. This set of stamps is made complete.). But: I finished my stamp collection at the age of 16 (i.e. I stopped collecting stamps then.).
  15. skeptical (Para
  9): suspicious.
  16. carry weight (Para
  10): have importance; have effect.
  17. substantial difference (Para
  11): great difference.
  18. misrepresent the incident (Para
  18): give an untrue account of the issue slightly.
  19. a rickety bus (Para
  19): a shaky bus; a very old bus that is likely to fall to pieces.
  20. true to his promise (Para
  19): in accordance with his promise; as he had promised to do.
  21. carry through (Para
  20): carry out.
  22. not courage so much as hard work and money… (Para
  21): not courage but rather hard work and money. Not…so much as or not so much…as: not…but rather 与其说是。。 ( 。 不如说是。。 . 。)
  23. might as well (Para
  23): also may (just) as well: have no strong reason not to(不妨).
  24. contradict (Para
  23): rebuke.
  25. on my hands (Para
  24): as my pressing responsibility. Antonym: off my hands: not as my pressing responsibility.
  26. mutual corrective (Para
  24): something that corrects each other’s defects. IV. Questions for Discussion
  1. Was the Agra road an asphalt road or a dirt road? What gives the clue to your answer in the text? (It was a dirt road. The sentence “behind us the dust rolled upward in thick red clouds” gives the clue in the text.)
  2. What were the four functions of the shop owner at Okhla? (The shop owner at Okhla serves as a provider of daily commodities, a governor of the village, a village banker and a village letter-writer.)
  3. What signs of educational activity among the children did the two visitors notice? (They noticed that the children were taught fine arts, farming and geography.)
  4. What difficulties did Rashid have in persuading the villagers to send their children to his school? How did he manage to do that? (Firstly, the villagers were suspicious about education. They didn’t believe they could really learn something useful from the educational campaign. Secondly, they were concerned more about family finances than about their children’s education, as the children became important to their families in that they could help support their families. Rashid managed to assure the villagers that the children would learn really useful things in school how to enrich the soil and how to make the land more productive. He also persuaded the villagers to send their children to school by offering to provide the means for the children to reel cotton for an hour every day so that the
earnings from the cotton spools could be used to support their families.)
  5. Was the school co-educational? Was co-education common in cities then in India? What did Rashid say the reason was? (Yes, it was. No, it wasn’t. Rashid said that, once the poor villagers moved to cities, they lost their land and consequently a kind of independence spirit. Therefore they were more affected by traditional customs and ideas which disapprove of co-education. As a result, co-education was less common in cities and in the countryside in India.)
  6. Rashid denied that it took courage to open the school. Why did he deny that? What did he say it took? (Because theoretically the colonial government supported education for all people and there were even some laws concerning this matter. Rashid said it took hard work and money.)
  7. The mother said that Rashid had a “frightening responsibility.” Why did she think it was frightening? (It was frightening because the children would never forget what was taught and so a teacher had no chance of making any mistakes. It was frightening also because sooner or later the new ideas taught would conflict with old ideas, beliefs and habits and so a teacher was doing something risky.)
  8. What does the mother say about reason and conscience? (Reason is the mental power of judging right or wrong from principles, religious codes, or conventional moral customs. Conscience is the individual sense of judgment of what is right or wrong. In the mother’s view, we rely on both reason and conscience. They compensate each other by correcting each other’s shortcoming.)
  9. What do you think Rashid had in mind when he said that education was only an impetus to the achievement of “political consciousness”? (When he said that education was only an impetus to the achievement of “political consciousness,” Rashid had two ideas in mind. One was that a teacher should treat the villagers as his equals and should not act in a way that would show his superiority to the villagers. The other was that a teacher could only push the villagers to educate themselves, but how much they achieved in education depended on themselves. A teacher could not take the place of the villagers in the educational campaign.)
  10. What do you think of Rashid as a person? (Rashid was a man of immense energy. He was passionate yet practical. He was well-educated and had a profound love for his students and his country. He was also timid.) V. Exercises A. Fill in the blank in each sentence with the best word or expression from the box below, changing its form when necessary: facilitate as much…as impetus gauge in a small way not so much…as misrepresent inaugurate carry weight substantial true to on one’s hands
  1. Such a port would the passage of oil from the Middle East to Japan.
  2. She has a large family .
  3. His actions are always his words.
  4. The mayor’s opinion great in this town.
  5. The private wanted to show the sergeant that he was a man anybody.

  6. Foreign investments have become the primary behind the country’s economic recovery.
  7. The demonstrators demanded that blacks be given a voice in the government.
  8. The elections were over and the first native Governor was .
  9. It was the clothes the man himself who impressed immediately.
  10. Witnesses claim to have been seriously . (Key:
  1. facilitate
  2. on her hands
  3. true to
  4. carried…weight
  5. as much…as
  6. impetus
  7. substantial
  8. inaugurated
  9. not so much…as
  10. misrepresented) B. Choose the right word from the box given below for each blank: introducing conflict technology known status resulted significant destroyed seeds power worse that led methods countries supplies development declined growth rate turn number shown system swiftly that
  1. The “Green Revolution” The introduction of new varieties of rice and wheat in Asia and Latin America has been (
  1) as the “Green Revolution.” So far the new (
  2) and the accompanying technology have not (
  3) in increased agricultural production per head or reduced malnutrition. The direct, quantitative effects of (
  4) high-yielding variation of food grains have been modest. The indirect and quantitative effects, however, have sometimes been (
  5). The new technology has (
  6) to changes in crop pattern and in (
  7) of production. It has accelerated the (
  8) of a market-orientated, capitalist agriculture. It has encouraged the (
  9) of wage labor, and thereby helped to create or augment a class of agricultural laborers. It has increased the (
  10) of landowners, and this in (
  11) has been associated with a greater polarization of classes and intensified (
  12). Changes in (
  13) and class alignments have been accompanied by changes in the distribution of income. Profits and rents have increased absolutely and relatively. The share of wages has (
  14) and in some instances real wages rates or the (
  15) of days worked, or both, have declined. In short, an old (
  16) of agriculture, slowly or (
  17) is in the process of being (
  18) by the advance of contemporary (
  19). The policies (
  20) have accompanied the “Green Revolution” in many underdeveloped (
  21) have aggravated the problems (
  22) these countries face. (
  23) of some commodities have increased, but the (
  24) of growth of total agricultural production has (
  25) little tendency to rise. At the same time, inequality has become (
  26), poverty has increased absolutely. (Key:
  1. known
  2. seeds
  3. resulted
  4. introducing
  5. significant
  6. led
  7. methods
  8. development
  9. growth
  10. power
  11. turn
  12. conflict
  13. status
  14. declined
  15. number
  16. system
  17. swiftly
  18. destroyed
  19. technology
  20. that
  21. countries
  22. that
  23. supplies
  24. rate
  25. shown
  26. worse)
Lesson 2 Four Choices for Young People I. Introduction In the 1960s, American youth were disillusioned with what they called “the adult world” for
its social problems like racial discrimination, poverty and the Vietnam War and rebelled against it in various ways. They rejected the conventional social values and voiced their beliefs and attitudes to protest against the American society in which they had no further confidence: some quit the usual ways of society; some escaped from cities to the unspoiled country to live a rather primitive communal life; and still others took up arms, hoping to get rid of the social evils once and for all. Against this background, the author wrote this article to suggest that reform approach was the only workable way for young Americans to deal with the social problems. II. Organization of the Text
  1. American youth’s dissatisfaction with the American society (Paragraphs 1-
  2)
  2. Four choices for them to deal with the social problems (Paragraphs 3-
  14) ① Author’s attitude toward the youth’s dissatisfaction (Paragraph
  3) ② The first choice: drop out (Paragraph
  4) ③ The second choice: flee (Paragraphs 5-
  6) ④ The third choice: plot a revolution (Paragraphs 7-
  10) ⑤ The fourth choice: reform (Paragraphs 11-
  14) III. Key Words and Expressions
  1. misgivings (Para
  1): anxiety; worries.
  2. scores of (Para
  2): a large number of.
  3. do without (Para
  2): dispense with; manage without.
  4. cope with (Para
  3): deal succ
 

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