高考备考英语语法 之三
定语从句
概念导入: 概念导入:
定语: 定语:修饰名词或代词的词或短语或从句
→定语从句(用一个句子来修饰名词代词),但要放在名词(名 定语从句(用一个句子来修饰名词代词),但要放在名词( 定语从句 ),但要放在名词 词短语)或代词的后面,被修饰的名词(名词短语)或代词叫先 词短语)或代词的后面,被修饰的名词(名词短语)或代词叫先 行词。先行词和从句之间通过关联词 关联词连接 行词。先行词和从句之间通过关联词连接 关联词: →关联词: 关系代词: 关系代词:who ,whom ,whose, which, that , as (what 不能引 导定语从句) 导定语从句) 关系副词: 关系副词:When, where, why 注意:关系代词和关系副词在定语从句中担当成分, 注意:关系代词和关系副词在定语从句中担当成分,关系代词可以 做主语、宾语、表语;关系副词在从句中做状语。 做主语、宾语、表语;关系副词在从句中做状语。
限制性定语从句与非限制性定语从句的区别
限制性定语从句 形式上 意义上
非限制性定语从句
不用逗号和主句隔 用逗号和主句隔开 开 是先行词不可缺少 是对先行词的补充 的定语, 的定语,不能删除 说明,删除后意思 说明, 仍完整 翻译成先行词的定 通常翻译成主句的 语,“…的… 的 并列句 A.做宾语时可省 A、不可省 略 不用that C、 B、不用that C、 可用that C、 不用who代替whom who代替 B、可用that C、 不用who代替whom whom可用who代替 可用who whom可用who代替
要注意区分以下几个句子的不同
(
  1)His brother who is now a doctor always encourages him to go to college. 他那当医生的哥哥常鼓励他要考上大学。(他还有其他的哥哥) 。(他还有其他的哥哥 他那当医生的哥哥常鼓励他要考上大学。(他还有其他的哥哥) (
  2)His brother, who is now a doctor, always encourages him to go to college. 他的哥哥是当医生的,常鼓励他要考上大学。(他只有一个哥哥) 。(他只有一个哥哥 他的哥哥是当医生的,常鼓励他要考上大学。(他只有一个哥哥)
解题方法指南: 解题方法指南:
关联词的确定: 1 关联词的确定:
a)根据先行词, a)根据先行词,看是人是物还是地点 根据先行词 b)看在后面的从句里面做什么成分 b)看在后面的从句里面做什么成分
2意义整合: 意义整合: 意义整合
通过第一步初步定下了关联词之后, 通过第一步初步定下了关联词之后,结合句子的意思进一步整合确定 所选关联词的准确性。 所选关联词的准确性。
分类剖析: 分类剖析:
1 关系代词引导定语从句: 关系代词引导定语从句:
much.( I have a brother likes playing football very much.(做 主语,指人) 主语,指人) whom) with.(做宾语) I have a brother (whom)(that) I like to play with.(做宾语) wonderful.(做定语) I have a brother motorcar is wonderful.(做定语) I have a brother the motorcar of whom is wonderful. wonderful.( The motorcar belongs to my brother is wonderful.(做 主语,指物) 主语,指物) that/ This is a house that/which is located in the south of the 做主语,指物) city. (做主语,指物) where) This is a house in which (where) an old man lived three ago.(作状语) years ago.(作状语) seen.(做宾语, This is the most beautiful house that I have seen.(做宾语, 指物) 指物) 做宾语,指物) This is the last house ( ) I want to buy. (做宾语,指物)
that /who whose which /that that
区别: 区别:that 与which

  1.which可引导非限制性定于从句,that则不能 which可引导非限制性定于从句,that则不能 可引导非限制性定于从句 He passed the exam , which made me very excited. 可用在介词的后面而that that不可以
  2. which 可用在介词的后面而that不可以 This is the house in which Lun Xun used to live. that和 都可以指物,但在下面四种情况下,只能用that that不能用
  3.that和which 都可以指物,但在下面四种情况下,只能用that不能用 which ,few等不定 a)all, everything ,something ,anything ,much ,little ,few等不定 代词 There is little (that) I could do for you. b)当先行词被序数词修饰时 b)当先行词被序数词修饰时 He is the first that (who) came to the classroom. c)当先行词被形容词的最高级修饰时 c)当先行词被形容词的最高级修饰时 She is the most beautiful girl that (who) I have met. d)当先行词被 当先行词被the d)当先行词被the very, the only , 等修饰时 This is the very dictionary that I want to buy. e)在非限制性定语从句中用which不用 在非限制性定语从句中用which不用that e)在非限制性定语从句中用which不用that He had failed in the exam, which made his father very angry.
关系代词as引导定语从句 关系代词as引导定语从句 as
as 也可用作关系代词,在从句做主语、宾语、表语 也可用作关系代词,在从句做主语、宾语、
  1. as 单独成句(引导非限制性定语从句) 单独成句(引导非限制性定语从句) As we know, as is known to all, as we expect, as is expected, as is natural…
  2. 先行词被 修饰时,定语从句常用关系代词as . 先行词被same, such 修饰时,定语从句常用关系代词 引 导 I received the same congratulations as you did. 区别: 区别:He wants to get the same book that you have. He is not such a man as I like which引导定语从句的区别 As 与which引导定语从句的区别
  1. as 译为“正如正像” ,which 则不 译为“正如正像” .
As we all know, 2 added to 2 is 4 正如我们知道的那样,2加2等于 正如我们知道的那样 我们知道的那样, 加 等于 等于4 He must be lying, which can be guessed from his expressions. 他肯定在撒谎, 从他的表情上就可以猜出来。 他肯定在撒谎,这从他的表情上就可以猜出来。

  2. as 引导定语从句位置灵活,而which引导的定从置于主句后面 . 引导定语从句位置灵活, 引导的定从置于主句后面
sun.(as在句首 在句首) As is known to all, the earth goes round the sun.(as在句首) natural.(as在句中 在句中) We jumped at the news for joy, as was natural.(as在句中) angry.( He failed the exam, which made his father angry.(which 用在句 中)

  2.关系副词引导定语从句: 关系副词引导定语从句:
引导定语从句先行词往往是表示时间的名词如time
  1.when 引导定语从句先行词往往是表示时间的名词如time ,day, hour, year等 year等,且定语从句缺少时间状语 people’s October 1, 1949 was the day when the people s republic of china was founded. can’t I can t forget the day when I met you in the park 区别: well区别:I got a well-paid job on the day (that/which) I will never forget. 先行词是表地点的一些名词place, street.且
  2.where 先行词是表地点的一些名词place, room, house, street.且 从句中缺地点状语。 从句中缺地点状语。 This is the place where/in which my mother was born. 区别: 区别:This is the place (that/which)my mother was born in. 先行词通常是reason
  3.why 先行词通常是reason 且定语从句缺少状语 The reason why he is late is clear to everyone. 区别: 区别:The reason that he gave for his being late is unacceptable.
习题精练 ( )
  1. Don’t talk about such things of you are not sure. A. which B. what C. as D. those ( )
  2. Is this the factory you visited the other day? A. that B. where C. in which D. the one ( )
  3. Is this factory some foreign friends visited last Friday? A. that B. where C. which D. the one ( )
  4. Is this the factory he worked ten years ago? A. that B. where C. which D. the one ( )
  5. The wolves hid themselves in the places couldn’t be found. A. that B. Where C. in which D. in that ( )
  6. The freezing point is the temperature water changes into ice. A. at which B. on that C. in which D. of what ( )
  7. This book will show you can be used in other contexts.. A. how you have observed B. what you have observed C. that you have observed D. how what have observed A
( )
  8. The reason is he is unable to operate the machine. A. because B. why C. that D. whether ( )
  9. I’ll tell you he told me last week. A. all which B. that C. all that D. which ( )
  10. That tree, branches are almost bare, is very old. A. whose B. of which C. in which D. on which ( )
  11. I have bought the same dress she is wearing. A. as B. that C. which D. what ( )
  12. He failed in the examination, made his father very angry. A. which B. it C. that D. what ( )
  13. We’re talking about the piano and the pianist were in the concert we attended last night. A. which B. whom C. who D. that ( )
  14. The girl an English song in the next room is Tom’s sister. A. who is singing B. is singing C. sang D. was singing
CABAAAA
( )
  15. Those not only from books but also through practice will succeed. A. learn B. who C. that learns D. who learn ( )
  16. Anyone this opinion may speak out. A. that against B. that against C. who is against D. who are against ( )
  17. Didn’t you see the man ? A. I nodded just now B. whom I nodded just now C. I nodded to him just now D. I nodded to just now ( )
  18. Can you lend me the novel the other day? A. that you talked B. you talked about it C. which you talked with D. you talked about ( )
  19. Is there anything to you? A. that is belonged B. that belongs C. that belong D. which belongs ( )
  20. “How do you like the book?” “It’s quite different from I read last month.” A. that B. which C. the one D. the one what ADBBDD
( )
  21. Mr. Zhang gave the textbook to all the pupils except who had already taken them. A. the ones B. ones C. some D. the others ( )
  22. The train she was traveling was late. A. which B. where C. on which D. in that ( )
  23. He has lost the key to the drawer the papers are kept. A. where B. in which C. under which D. which ( )
  24. Antarctic we know very little is covered with thick ice all the year round. A. which B. where C. that D. about which ( )
  25. It’s the third time late this month. A. that you arrived B. when you arrived C. that you’ve arrived D. when you’ve arrived ( )
  26. It was in 1969 the American astronaut succeeded in landing on the moon. A. that B. which C. when D. in which ( )
  27. May the fourth is the day we Chinese people will never forget. A. which B. when C. on which D. about which BCBDCCA
( )
  28. we are going to spend the Spring Festival in Guangzhou, live my grandparents and some relatives. A. which B. that C. who D. where ( )
  29. The hotel during our holidays stands by the seaside. A. we stayed at B. where we stayed at C. we stayed D. in that we stayed ( )
  30. Is it in that factory cars are produced? A. in which B. where C. Which D. that ( )
  31. It is the Suez Canal separates Asia Africa. A. which, to B. where, from C. that, from D. that, with ( )
  32. Under the bridge, however, almost directly below, was a small canoe, with a boy in it. A. there B. where C. it D. which ( )
  33. He is not a fool . A. such, as he is looked B. such, as he looks C. as, as he is looked D. so, as he looks DDABDA
)
  34. Is that the reason you are in favor of the proposal? A. which B. what C. why D. for that ( )
  35. He must be from Africa, can be seen from his skin. A. that B. as C. who D. what ( )
  36. He has two sons, work as chemists. A. two of whom B. both of whom C. both of which D. all of whom ( )
  37. I, your good friend, will try my best to help you out. A. who is B. who am C. that is D. what is ( )
  38. He is a man of great experience, much can be learned. A. who B. that C. from which D. from whom ( )
  39. Do you know the town at all? No, this is the first time I here. A. was B. have been C. came D. am coming ( )
  40. I don’t like you speak to her. A. the way B. the way in that C. the way which D. the way of which
(
CCABDAC
( )
  41. The two things they felt very proud are Jim’s gold watch and Della’s hair. A. about which B. of which C. in which D. for which ( )
  42. The dinner was the most expensive meal we . A. would have B. have had C. had never had D. had ever had ( )
  43. Do you know which hotel ? A. she is staying B. she is staying in C. is she staying D. is she staying in ( )
  44. There is only one thing I can do. A. what B. that C. all D. which ( )
  45. Who can think of a situation this idiom can be used? A. which B. that C. where D. in that ( )
  46. I have many books, some of are on chemistry. A. them B. that C. which D. those DDDADC
( )
  47. They were interested you told them. A. in which B. in tha
 

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