The English Coordinate Conjunctions
English Conjunctions
The main classification of the coordinate conjunctions:

  1.The Copulative Conjunctions;
  2.The Alternative Conjunctions;
  3.The Adversative Conjunctions;
  4.The Causal Conjunctions;
  5.The Resultative Conjunctions.

  1.The Copulative Conjunctions

  1) and
  2) both... and...
  3) neither... nor...
  4) not only... but also...
  5) as well as
  6) when (and at that time, and suddenly)
He and I attend the medical conference. We were singing and dancing all evening. Father and son went to New York by a morning train. He started to shout and swear. She was sweet and amiable. Read it slowly and clearly. He had plenty of money and he spent it freely. Give him an inch and he will take a mile. Go straight on and you'll see a church.
both... and...
You've given both your uncle and myself a lot of trouble. Sophia was both glad and sorry to see her. I decided to play safe both for own sake and the job's. He both speaks and writes French.
neither... nor...
He can neither read nor write. They have neither natural gas nor running water. He was neither clever nor stupid. Paul came just at the right time, neither too early nor too late. Neither I nor he attends the class.
not only... but also...
He not only did the shopping but he also cook the meal. The cuts will affect not only this school but also other schools in this area. Not only my mother was unhappy, but Marian, too. Not only did he speak more correctly, but he spoke more easily.
...as ...as well as...
John can speak Chinese as well as French. We shall travel by night as well as by day. The conflict spread everywhere, into villages, as well as into the cities. It is a political as well as an economic question.
An Arab was walking along in the desert when he met two men. I was just coming to see you when I ran into Wilson. Peter was on his way home when two boys stopped him. He was walking in the street purposelessly when he caught sight of a tailor's shop. I was about to leave when the telephone rang.

  2.The Alternative Conjunctions

  1) or
  2) either... or...
  4) otherwise
  3) or else
You can walk up take the cable car. Would you like fish or beef? Do you want a bath at once, or shall I have mine first? He had to have a job or go hungry. Don't drive so fast or you'll have an accident.
either... or...
Either Tim or his brother has to shovel the snow. She's either French or Spanish. I left it either on the table or in the drawer. You can either write or phone to order a copy. It was either pink, red or orange. Either you must improve your work or I shall dismiss you.
or else and otherwise
Hurry up, or else (or, otherwise) you'll be late. You must work harder; otherwise you will be put into another class. Do what you are told; otherwise you will be punished. Seize the chance, otherwise you will regret it.

  3.The Adversative Conjunctions

  6) but yet while however still nevertheless
The weather will be sunny but cold. He no longer felt despondent, but happy and hopeful. He is not a novelist, but a dramatist. James hasn't got a car, but his sister has. She's been learning Italian for six years, but she doesn't speak it very well. I'd love to come but I can't make it till 8 o'clock.
It is strange, yet true. Jane said she was ill, yet I saw her in the street just now. They are ugly and expensive, yet people buy them. I offered him still more, and yet he wasn't satisfied. She's a funny girl, but yet you can't help liking her.
Jack is clever, while his brother is stupid. I have remained poor, while my brother has made a fortune. Some men are rich, while (whereas) others are poor. Some families are making merry while others are suffering from poverty. He has nothing to spend his money on, while I have no money to spend.
I'll offer it to Tom. However, he may not want it. Sales are poor this month. There may, however, be an increase before Christmas. His first response was to say no. Later, however, he changed his mind.
You did wrong. Still, I'm ready to forgive you. It's raining; still I'd like to go. He is naughty, (but) still you cannot help liking him. It is very good, still it can be better.
They hadn't trained hard, nevertheless (but) they won. nevertheless, He's charming; nevertheless, I don't trust him. He was angry, nevertheless (however) he listened to me.

  4.The Causal Conjunction: for
The children soon lost their way, for they had never been in the forest before. The windows were open, for it was hot. The days were short, for it was now December. It must have rained in the night for when I woke the next morning I saw the grass wet. She must have gone out early, for she had not shown up at breakfast.

  5.The Resultative Conjunctions

  6) so therefore hence thus then as a result
Nobody seemed about, so I went in. The play began at eight, so they must dine at seven. She felt very tired so she went to bed early. Our cases were heavy, so we took a taxi. The manager was sick so I went in his place.
There is fog at Heathrow; therefore the plane has been diverted. It rained; therefore the game was called off. He's out of the country and therefore unable to attend the meeting. He had finished the Times, there was therefore nothing to do. He had gone; she therefore gave the money to me.
My mother is by herself; hence I must go home now. Microwaves have got cheaper and hence more people can afford it. Hence he was annoyed by many unwelcome attentions.
thus, then and as a result
He is busy, thus he can't come. Her mother was ill, thus she went home to look after her. He stood up suddenly, then he felt a little dizzy and sat down again. He often worked hard, as a result he passed the exam easily.



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