高考英语常用短语精解
| 文章作者:佚名 | 文章来源:英语词汇网 | 文章录入:henry982 | 更新时间:2007-3-6 | 字体:小 大 |

  1.to get on : (to enter, board) 【说明: get on(搭乘,上车) 动词get 的用法很多,常常在后面接用各种不同的介系词或副词而形成意义不同的习语。 】to 这里的on 是介系词,后面的bus 和subway 用作它的受词。如果on 作副词用,则有进步,相处甚好,与年事已长的意思。 【例: 】 (
  1) I always get on the bus at 34th Street. 我总是在34街搭乘公共汽车。 (
  2) William gets on the subway at the same station every morning. 威廉每天早晨在同一车站搭乘地下火车。
  2.to get off : (to leave, descend from) 【说明: to get off (下车)与上面的get on 相反。 off 也有好些其它的意义, 】 Get 如寄出, 离开等。 下车也可以用alight from 或 get out of a carriage 或 motor car, 不过下电车或公共汽车多用get off . 【例: 】 (
  1) Helen got off the bus at 42nd Street. 海伦在42街下公共汽车。 (
  2) At what station do you usually get off the subway? 你通常在那一站下地下火车?
  3.to put on: (to place on oneself-said particularly of clothes) 【说明: 】 to put on (穿,戴)特别指穿衣服、穿鞋、戴帽、戴眼镜也用这个成语。英文中还有wear 和dress 二字也是穿的意思。可是 wear 是继续的动作,表示穿着的状态,而put on 是一时的动作。下面两个句子都是错的: I shall wear my overcoat before I go out (应用 put on). In such cold weather I put on my overcoat all day (应
用 wear).dress 的意思是 ①put clothes on 后面的受词一定是人,如dress a child, dress oneself, be dressed in white, ②put on clothes, vk Get up and dress quickly. (快点起来穿好衣服。 ) 【例: 】 (
  1) Mary put on her hat and left the room. 玛丽戴上她的帽子就离开这屋子。 (
  2) Why is John putting on his hat and coat? 约翰为什么穿衣戴帽呢?
  4.to take off : (to remove-said also of clothes) 【说明: take off (脱去)与put on 的意义相反,指脱去衣物鞋帽.民可以用put off, 但较不通用。 】to 【例: 】 (
  1) John took off his hat as he entered the room. 约翰在这屋时脱下他的帽子。 (
  2) Is Helen taking off her coat because it is too warm in the room? 海伦是不是因为室内太暖和而脱去她的外衣呢?
  5.to call up: (to telephone) 【说明: call up (打电话给……)后面一定要有受词,也就是接电话的人。如果受词是代名词的话,常插在call 与up 之 】to 间。 【例: 】 (
  1) I forgot to call up Mr. Jones yesterday although I promised to call him up exactly at three o’clock. 我昨天忘记打电话给钟斯先生,虽然我答应了在三点钟的时候打电话给他的。 (
  2) Did anyone call me up while I was out? 我出去的时候有人打电话来找我吗?
  6.to turn on : (to start, begin) 【说明: turn on (扭开,打开)指扭开电灯,电炉,电扇,煤气等的按钮或开关,以及自来水的水龙头等而言。开电灯也 】to
可以用put on the light. 【例: 】 (
  1) Please turn on the light. This room is dark. 请你扭开电灯,这房间太黑暗了。 (
  2) Someone turned on the radiator in this room while we were out. 我们外出时,有人把房内的电炉扭开了。
  7.to turn off : (to stop, terminate extinguish) 【说明: 】 to turn off (关闭,停止)指扭熄电灯,关闭无线电、自来水等。关灯也可以用put out the light. 【例: 】 (
  1) Please turn off the light. We do not need it now. 请把电灯关了,我们现在不需要它。 (
  2) Shall I turn off the radio or are you still listening to it? 我可以把收音机关掉吗,你是不是还要收听呢?
  8.right away : (immediately, at once, very soon) 【说明: 】right away (立刻,马上)为美国口头语,没有immediately 与 at once 正式, 系一副词片语,与 right now (exactly now )的意思相仿。 【例: 】 (
  1) She says that dinner will be ready right away. 她说晚餐马上就准备好了。 (
  2) Can William come to my office right away? 威廉能够立刻就到我的办公室来吗?

  9.to pick up : (to take-especially with fingers) 【说明: pick up (拾起,拣起)尤指用手指把东西拿起业而言。To pick up 还有很多 其它的用法。如 】to
①让人搭便车: The motorist picked up a couple of servicemen along the highway . (这个乘汽车的人在公路上让两个军人搭乘便车。 ) ②听会, 自然学会, (言语,游戏等) : He never studied French; what he knows he picked up while living in France. (他从来没有学过法文;他所知道的是他住在法国的时候听会的。 ) ③捉住,逮捕,萍水相逢便行订交,选出: I picked up London last night. (昨晚我在无线电听到了伦敦的播音。) 【例: 】 (
  1) John Picked up the newspaper which was on his desk. 约翰把书桌上的报纸拿了起来。 (
  2) Why didn’t you pick up that pencil which lay on the floor? 你为什么不把地板上的那枝铅笔拾起来呢?
  10.at once: (immediately, very soon, right away) 【说明: once (立刻,马上)为一级通用的副词片语,也可以作为同时(simultaneously) 解,如: 】at This book is at once interesting and structive. (此书既有趣又有益。 ) 【例: 】 (
  1) He asked me to come to his office at once. 他请我立刻就到他的办公室去。 (
  2) I want you to send this telegram at once. 我希望你马上把这电报发出去。
  11.to wait for : (to expect, await)
【说明: wait for (等候,期待)可以说等于await, wait 通常都作不及物动词用,如果后面有受词,切不可少用介系词 】to for await 为及物动词,后面不可用介系词,但是没有 wait 普遍。Wait 也可用作及物动词,如:①wait one’s chance 或 opportunity(等机会) ;②Don’t wait dinner for me.(晚饭不要等我) 【例: 】 (
  1) We will wait for you on the corner of Broadway and 86th Street. 我们将在百老汇及86街转角处等你 (
  2) We waited for him for more than an hour and finally left. 我们等了他一个多小时,然后才离开。
  12.at last : (finally) 【说明: last(最后,终于)为一副词片语,与at first 意义相反。也可以用at long last, 可是语气较强,而且有点英国 】at 味道。 【例: 】 (
  1) We waited and waited and at last John arrived. 我们等了又等,后来约翰终于来了。 (
  2) Has he finished that work at last? 他最后把那工作做完了吗?
  13.as usual : (as always, customarily) 【说明: as usual 照常, 】 ( 照例, 仍然) 作副词用, 其意为as is (was ) usual 和往常一般。 usual 是形容词, 不可用usually. 【例: 】 (
  1) Henry is late for class again as usual. 亨利像平常一样上课又迟到了。 (
  2) As usual Helen won first prize in the swimming contest. 海伦在游泳比赛中仍然获胜。
  14.to find out: (to get information, discover, learn) 【说明: find out(得悉,发现,查明)与find 略有不同,find out 指故意去寻而寻出。 】to
【例: 】 (
  1) I was unable to find out the name of the man who called. 我想不出那个打电话来的人的名字。 (
  2) Will you please try to find out for me what time that train arrives? 能否请你替我查明火车什么时候到达?
  15.to look at : (do direct the eyes toward, watch) 【说明: look at (眼睛望着,注视)亦可解释为考虑,调查(consider, investigate) 】to ,如: The judge said that he would look at the matter of the widow’s right to the property. 法官说他将考虑寡妇对这财产的权利。 )look 一般都用作不及物动作,与许多不同的介系词结合而形成各种意义不同的片误。 Look at 与 see 并不相同,see 的意思是看到,往往是无意的,上面两句里的look at 都不可改用see。 【例: 】 (
  1) The teacher told us to look at the blackboard and not at our books. 教师教我们注视黑板,不要看着我们的课本。 (
  2) I like to walk in the park and look at the stars at night. 晚上我喜欢在公园里散步,仰望着天上的群星。

  16.to look for : (to search for, seek) 【说明: look for (寻觅,搜寻)也有期望,盼望的意思,如I don’t look for much profit 】to from the business. (我并不期望从生意中得到优厚的利益。 ) 【例: 】(
  1) He has spent an hour looking for the pen which he lost. 他已经花了一个钟头去寻找他失去的钢笔了。 (
  2) I have lost my gloves. Will you help me look for them? 我的手套丢了,请你帮我找找好吗?
  17.all right : (satisfactory, correct) 【说明: right (满意,可以,没关系)用作形容词,和美国人的 】all
意思相仿,为日常口头语。有很多的英美人用all right, 可是也有许多人认为 不该用它。 【例: 】(
  1) He said that it would be all right to wait in this office for him. 他说在这办公室里等他就好了。 (
  2) Will it be all right with you if I give you that money tomorrow instead of today? 如果我把今天应该给你的那笔钱明天给你,可以吗?
  18.right here, right there, right now, etc : (exactly here, exactly there, etc.) 【说明: 】right here(就在这儿) ,right there(就在那儿) ,right now(现在立刻)为日常 口头语,right 是副词,它的意思是exactly precisely, just,或 immediately,把here, there, now 等的范围缩小了。还有 right away 与 right off 都是立刻,马上的意思。 【例: 】(
  1) He said that he would meet us right here on this corner. 他说他将在这转角处跟我们碰面。 (
  2) Right then I saw very clearly that he was not telling the truth. 那时我就看得很清楚,他没有说实话。 (
  3) Let’s do it right now. 让我们现在就做这件事吧!
  19.little by little : (gradually, by degrees, slowly) 【说明: 】little by little(逐渐,慢慢地)为副词片语,指每次都是一点,因而有逐渐, 慢慢地的意思。 【例: 】(
  1) If you study regularly each day, little by little your vocabulary of English words will increase. 如果你每天有规律地学习,你的英文字汇将逐渐增加。 (
  2) His health seems to be improving little by little. 他的健康似乎慢慢地好转了。
  20.tired out : (extremely tired)
【说明: 】tired out(非常疲倦)为形容词片语,tired 是由过去分词转成的形容词,表示 由于精力被消耗得很多,因而觉得疲倦。Out 是副词作thoroughly, completely, entirely 解,用以形容tired. 【例: 】(
  1) I have worked very hard today and am tired out. 我今天很辛苦地工作,所以累极了。 (
  2) He was tired out after his long trip to California. 至加利福尼亚州长途旅行归来后,他觉得非常疲倦。

  21.to call on : (to visit) 【说明: call on (拜望,访问)意思是过访,小竭。On 也可 upon 后面的受词一定是人,如果访问某一个地方,则用 】to call at. Call on 还有好些别的意思,如 He called on all his friends to help him. 这儿的call on 应解释为要求,求助于。 【例: 】 (
  1) Last night several friends called on us. 昨晚有几个朋友来看我们。 (
  2) How many salesmen call on Mr. Evans every day? 每天有多少推销员拜访伊文思先生呢
  22.Never mind : (do not mind, do not pay any attention to it.) 【说明: 】never mind(不要紧,不必介意)为礼貌用语。Mind 作动词用作介意解。 【例: 】 (
  1) “Never mind!” she said when I offered to open the window for her. 当我提出要为她打开窗子时,她说,不要紧! (
  2)when William wished to return the money which he owed you why did you say: “Never mind! What until next week when you receive your salary.” 当威廉要还他所欠你的借款时,你为什么说:“不要紧!等到下星期你领到
薪水再还好了”。
  23.to pick out : (to choose, select) 【说明: pick out (挑选,拣选)多指购物时的挑选而言。out 用作副词,形容及物动词pick. 】to 【例: 】 (
  1) I want to pick out some new ties to give as Christmas presents to my friends. 我要选些新领带,送给我的朋友们作为圣诞礼物。 (
  2)which book did you pick out to send to Helen? 你挑选了那一本书给海伦呢?
  24.to take one’s time : (to work or go leisurely, not to hurry) 【说明: take one’s time(从容不迫,慢慢来)指有足够的时间,尽可慢慢的去做,time 的后面可以跟现在分词,如 】to 例一中的doing,作为主词补语;也可以跟in, 接着用一名词或动名词作为 in 的受词如例二。 【例: 】 (
  1) there is no hurry. You can take your time doing that work. 不要忙,你可以慢慢地去做那个工作。 (
  2)william never works rapidly. He always takes his time in everything that he does. 威廉做事从来不匆忙,他总是从从容容地做每一件事。
  25.to talk over : (to discuss. Consider) 【说明: talk over(讲座,商量)指讲座、会商尚未实施的计划或问题,或以商谈说服,使别人赞成自己的计划。后面 】to 的受词如果是名词,应放在 over
 

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