高考英语常用语法图解高考英语常用语法图解
一.名词
I. 名词的种类:
专有名词普通名词
国名地名人名,团体机构名称可数名词不可数名词
个体名词集体名词抽象名词物质名词
II. 名词的数:

  1. 规则名词的复数形式:
名词的复数形式,一般在单数形式后面加-s或-es。现将构成方法与读音规则列表如下:
规则例词
1一般情况在词尾加-smap-maps, sea-seas, girl-girls, day-days
2以s, x, ch, sh结尾的名词后加-esclass-classes, box-boxes, watch-watches,
dish-dishes
3以-f或-fe结尾的词变-f和-fe为v再加-esleaf-leaves, thief-thieves, knife-knives,
loaf-loaves, wife-wives
加-sbelief-beliefs, chief-chiefs, proof-proofs, roof-roofs, gulf-gulfs
4以辅音字母加y结尾的名词,变y为i加-esparty-parties, family-families, story-stories,
city-cities
5以元音字母加y结尾的名词,或专有名词以y结尾的,加-stoy-toys, boy-boys, day-days, ray-rays,
Henry-Henrys
6以辅音字母加-o结尾的名词一般加-eshero-heroes, Negro-Negroes, potato-potatoes,
tomato-tomatoes
不少外来词加-spiano-pianos, photo-photos, auto-autos, kilo-kilos, solo-solos
两者皆可zero-zeros/zeroes, volcano-volcanoes/ volcanos
7以元音字母加-o结尾的名词加-sradio-radios, bamboo-bamboos, zoo-zoos
8以-th结尾的名词加-struth-truths, mouth-mouths, month-months, path-paths,

  2. 不规则名词复数:
英语里有些名词的复数形式是不规则的,现归纳如下:
规则例词
1改变名词中的元音字母或其他形式man-men, woman-women, foot-feet, goose-geese, mouse-mice
2单复数相同sheep, deer, series, means, works, fish, species li, yuan, jin,
3只有复数形式ashes, trousers, clothes, thanks, goods, glasses, compasses,
contents
4一些集体名词总是用作复数people, police, cattle, staff
5部分集体名词既可以作单数(整体)也可以作复数(成员)audience, class, family, crowd, couple, group,
committee, government, population, crew, team, public, enemy, party
6复数形式表示特别含义customs(海关), forces(军队), times(时代), spirits(情绪), drinks(饮料),
sands(沙滩), papers(文件报纸), manners(礼貌), looks(外表), brains(头脑智力), greens(青菜),
ruins(废墟)
7表示“某国人”加-sAmericans, Australians, Germans, Greeks, Swedes, Europeans
单复数同形Swiss, Portuguese, Chinese, Japanese
以-man或-woman结尾的改为-men,-womenEnglishmen, Frenchwomen
8合成名词将主体名词变为复数sons-in-law, lookers-on, passers-by, story-tellers, boy
friends
无主体名词时将最后一部分变为复数grown-ups, housewives, stopwatches
将两部分变为复数women singers, men servants
III. 名词的所有格:
名词在句中表示所有关系的语法形式叫做名词所有格。所有格分两种:一是名词词尾加”s构成,二是由介词of加名词构成。前者多表示有生命的东西,后者多表示无生命的东西。

  1. “s所有格的构成:
单数名词在末尾加”sthe boy”s father, Jack”s book, her son-in-law”s photo,
复数名词一般在末尾加”the teachers” room, the twins” mother,
不规则复数名词后加”sthe children”s toys, women”s rights,
以s结尾的人名所有格加”s或者”Dickens” novels, Charles”s job, the Smiths” house
表示各自的所有关系时,各名词末尾均须加”sJapan”s and America”s problems, Jane”s and Mary”s
bikes
表示共有的所有关系时在最后一词末加”sJapan and America”s problems, Jane and Mary”s father
表示"某人家""店铺",所有格后名词省略the doctor”s, the barber”s, the tailor”s, my uncle”s

  2. “s所有格的用法:
1表示时间today”s newspaper, five weeks” holiday
2表示自然现象the earth”s atmosphere, the tree”s branches
3表示国家城市等地方的名词the country”s plan, the world”s population, China”s industry
4表示工作群体the ship”s crew, majority”s view, the team”s victory
5表示度量衡及价值a mile”s journey, five dollars” worth of apples
6与人类活动有特殊关系的名词the life”s time, the play”s plot
7某些固定词组a bird”s eye view, a stone”s throw, at one”s wit”s end(不知所措)

  3. of所有格的用法:
用于无生命的东西:the legs of the chair, the cover of the book
用于有生命的东西,尤其是有较长定语时:the classrooms of the first-year students
用于名词化的词:the struggle of the oppressed
 
二.冠词
冠词分为不定冠词(a, an),定冠词(the),和零冠词。
I. 不定冠词的用法:
1指一类人或事,相当于a kind ofA plane is a machine that can fly.
2第一次提及某人某物,非特指A boy is waiting for you.
3表示“每一”相当于every,oneWe study eight hours a day.
4表示“相同”相当于the sameWe are nearly of an age.
5用于人名前,表示不认识此人或与某名人有类似性质的人或事A Mr. Smith came to visit you when you were
out
That boy is rather a Lei Feng.
6用于固定词组中A couple of, a bit, once upon a time, in a hurry, have a walk,
many a time
7用于quite, rather, many, half, what, such之后This room is rather a big one.
8用于so(as, too, how)+形容词之后She is as clever a girl as you can wish to meet.
II. 定冠词的用法:
1表示某一类人或物The horse is a useful animal.
2用于世上独一无二的事物名词前the universe, the moon, the Pacific Ocean
3表示说话双方都了解的或上文提到过的人或事Would you mind opening the door?
4用于乐器前面play the violin, play the guitar
5用于形容词和分词前表示一类人the reach, the living, the wounded
6表示“一家人”或“夫妇”the Greens, the Wangs
7用于序数词和形容词副词比较级最高级前He is the taller of the two children.
8用于国家党派等以及江河湖海,山川群岛的名词前the United States, the Communist Party of China,
the French
9用于表示发明物的单数名词前The compass was invented in China.
10在逢十的复数数词之前,指世纪的某个年代in the 1990”s
11用于表示单位的名词前I hired the car by the hour.
12用于方位名词,身体部位名词,及表示时间的词组前He patted me on the shoulder.
III. 零冠词的用法:
1专有名词,物质名词,抽象名词,人名地名等名词前Beijing University, Jack, China, love, air
2名词前有this, my, whose, some, no, each, every等限制I want this book, not that
one. / Whose purse is this?
3季节,月份,星期,节假日,一日三餐前March, Sunday, National Day, spring
4表示职位,身份,头衔的名词前Lincoln was made President of America.
5学科,语言,球类,棋类名词前He likes playing football/chess.
6与by连用表示交通工具的名词前by train, by air, by land
7以and连接的两个相对的名词并用时husband and wife, knife and fork, day and night
8 表示泛指的复数名词前Horses are useful animals.
三.代词:
I. 代词可以分为以下七大类:
1人称代词主格I, you, he, she, it, we, you, they
宾格me, you, him, her, it, us, you, them
2物主代词形容词性my, your, his, her, its, our, their
名词性mine, yours, his, hers, its, ours, theirs
3反身代词myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself, ourselves, yourselves,
themselves
4指示代词this, that, these, those, such, some
5疑问代词who, whom, whose, which, what, whoever, whichever, whatever
6关系代词that, which, who, whom, whose, as
7不定代词one/ some/ any, each/ every, none/ no, many/ much, few/ little/ a
few/ a little,
other/ another, all/ both, neither/ either
II. 不定代词用法注意点:

  1. one, some与any:

  1) one可以泛指任何人,也可特指,复数为ones。some多用于肯定句,any多用于疑问句和否定句。
One should learn to think of others.
Have you any bookmarks? No, I don”t have any bookmarks.
I have some questions to ask.

  2) some可用于疑问句中,表示盼望得到肯定的答复,或者表示建议,请求等。
Would you like some bananas? Could you give me some money?

  3) some 和any修饰可数名词单数时,some表示某个,any表示任何一个。
I have read this article in some magazine. Please correct the mistakes, if any.

  4) some和数词连用表示“大约”,any可与比较级连用表示程度。
There are some 3,000 students in this school. Do you feel any better today?

  2. each和every:
each强调个别,代表的数可以是两个或两个以上,而every强调整体,所指的数必须是三个或三个以上。
Each student has a pocket dictionary. / Each (of us) has a dictionary. / We each
have a dictionary.
Every student has strong and weak points. / Every one of us has strong and weak
points.

  3. none和no:
no等于not any,作定语。none作主语或宾语,代替不可数名词,谓语用单数,代替可数名词,谓语单复数皆可以。
There is no water in the bottle.
How much water is there in the bottle? None.
None of the students are (is) afraid of difficulties.

  4. other和another:

  1) other泛指“另外的,别的”常与其他词连用,如:the other day, every other week, some other reason,
no other way,
the other特指两者中的另外一个,复数为the others。如:
He held a book in one hand and his notes in the other.
Two students in our class failed, but all the others passed the exam.

  2) another指“又一个,另一个”无所指,复数形式是others,泛指“别的人或事”如:
I don”t like this shirt, please show me another (one).
The trousers are too long, please give me another pair / some others.
Some like football, while others like basketball.

  5. all和both, neither和either
all表示不可数名词时,其谓语动词用单数。both和all加否定词表示部分否定,全部否定用neither和none.
All of the books are not written in English. / Not all of the books are written
in English.
Both of us are not teachers. / Not both of us are teachers. / Either of us is a
teacher.
 
四.形容词和副词
I. 形容词:

  1. 形容词的位置:

  1) 形容词作定语通常前置,但在下列情况后置:
1修饰some, any, every, no和body, thing, one等构成的复合不定代词时nobody absent,
everything possible
2以-able, -ible结尾的形容词可置于有最高级或only修饰的名词之后the best book available, the only
solution possible
3alive, alike, awake, aware, asleep等可以后置the only person awake
4和空间、时间、单位连用时a bridge 50 meters long
5成对的形容词可以后置a huge room simple and beautiful
6形容词短语一般后置a man difficult to get on with

  2) 多个形容词修饰同一个名词的顺序:
代词数词性状形容词
冠词前的形容词冠词
指示代词
不定代词
代词所有格序数词基数词性质
状态大小
长短
形状新旧
温度颜色国籍
产地材料
质地名词
all
both
suchthe a
this
another
yoursecond
nextone
fourbeautiful
good
poorlarge
short
squarenew
coolblack
yellowChinese
Londonsilk
stone

  3) 复合形容词的构成:
1形容词+名词+edkind-hearted6名词+形容词world-famous
2形容词+形容词dark-blue7名词+现在分词peace-loving
3形容词+现在分词ordinary-looking8名词+过去分词snow-covered
4副词+现在分词hard-working9数词+名词+edthree-egged
5副词+过去分词newly-built10数词+名词twenty-year
II. 副词
副词的分类:
1时间副词soon, now, early, finally, once, recently5频度副词always, often,
frequently, seldom, never
2地点副词here, nearby, outside, upwards, above6疑问副词how, where, when, why
3方式副词hard, well, fast, slowly, excitedly, really7连接副词how, when, where,
why, whether, however, meanwhile
4程度副词almost, nearly, very, fairly, quite, rather8关系副词when, where, why
III. 形容词和副词比较等级:
形容词和副词的比较等级分为原级,比较级和最高级。比较级和最高级的构成一般是在形容词和副词后加-er和-est,多音节和一些双音节词前加more 和most。

  1. 同级比较时常常用 as…as…以及not so(as)…as…如:I am not so good a player as you are.

  2. 可以修饰比较级的词有:much, many, a lot, even,
 

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