Grammar The Attributive Clause
●The restrictive & non-restrictive attributive clauses non●The attributive clause & the appositive clause ●The attributive clause & the emphasis structure
Pay special attention to the underlined parts. Is there anything in common between them?
  1. He is a famous scientist.
  2. who’s that girl in red?
  3. I’ve read all the books that you lent me.
  4. I have lost my pen, which I like very much.
The attributive clause (the adjective clause) the restrictive attributive clause nonthe non-restrictive attributive clause noun/pronoun + the attributive clause
the antecedent (person/thing) the relative pronouns/adverbs + clause
The use of the relative pronouns Form 1:
the relative pronouns who whom that which whose referring to person(s) person(s) person(s)/thing(s) thing(s) person(s)/thing(s) (of whom/which) function in the clause subject/object object subject/object subject/object attributive
The use of the relative adverbs the relative adverbs referring to function in the clause when (=at/in/on adverbial of time time which) where (=in/at which) place adverbial of place why (=for which) adverbial of reason reason
Practice: complete the sentences with suitable relatives.
why ___
  1. I know the reason ____ he came late.
  2. Do you know the woman,whose went to son college last year?
  3. The house whosecolor is red is john’s. that _
  4. This is the best film __ I’ve ever seen. __
  5. That’s the town where he worked in 19
  87. __ who __
  6. I have 2 brothers, __ are both soldiers. which _
  7. Next week, ___ you’ll spend in your hometown ,is coming. ___
  8. I’ve tried 2 pairs of shoes, neither of which me well. ____fits
Pay more attention to the agreement between the verb and the antecedent in person and number in the attributive clause, and then complete the sentences: want
  1. Those who to go to the cinema must be at the school gate by 3:30 p.m. (want) doesn’t reach
  2. He who the great wall is not a true man. (not reach) has
  3. She is the only one of the girls who been to Beijing. (have) have
  4. He is one of the boys who seen the film. (have)
Conclusion 1:
  1) When a relative pronoun is used as a subject in the clause, the verb must agree with the antecedent in person and number. (
  2) When the antecedent is the structure “one of +n. (pl.)”, the verb in the clause must be plural, agrees with the plural form. However, if there is “the” or “the only very” before “one”, the verb in the clause must be singular, agrees with the word “one”.
Practice: Complete the following sentences with suitable relatives: when/that
  1. The time I went to Tokyo is in 19
  82. which/that _
  2. I’ll never forget the time _ I spent at college. _
  3. The shop _ I bought the book in which/that is big. where/in__ which __
  4. The shop __ I bought the book is big. Conclusion 2: when the antecedent is a noun for time “where” or place “when” or “where” is not always used to introduce the clause. It depends on the function of the relative word in the clause.
The Difference Between “that” and “which”. Complete the following sentences with “that” or “which”. that
  1. This is the 2nd article I have written in English. that
  2. It is the best film he has ever seen.
  3. This is the very book I want to read. that that
  4. All they told me surprised me.
  5. They talked about the teachers and schools that they had visited.
  6. Who is the comrade was there? that
  7. There is a bed in the room is still vacant. that
  8. Our village is no longer the place it used to be.
  9. He paid the boy $10 for washing the windows, which most of hadn’t been cleaned at least a year.
  10. The weather turned out to be very good, which was more than we could expect.
  11. The clever boy made a hole in the wall, which through he could see what was going on inside the house.
Conclusion 3: When the antecedent refers to thing(s), “that” is often used in the following cases: (
  1) After ordinal number and superlatives (
  2) After the following words: all, only, little, few, much, very, none, last, just, any(thing), every(thing), some(thing), no(thing). (
  3) After two or more antecedents, referring to both person(s) and thing(s). (
  4) After interrogative pronouns “which” or “who”.
  5) When the relative pronoun is used as a predictive in the clause. (
  6) When the main clause begins with “there be ”. In the following cases, “which” is always used. ①After prepositions non②to introduce a non-restrictive attributive clause. ③The whole main sentence is the “antecedent” of the relative clause, and there is always a comma.
Fill in the blanks with suitable relatives to complete the following sentences. why
  1. Tell me the reason you were late for class. that
  2. Who is the girl is speaking there ? who
  3. This is Mr. Smith, has something interesting to tell you. whose
  4. The computer CPU doesn’t work has to be repaired.

  5. This kind of computer, which is well-known , is out of date.
  6. This is just the place that I’ve been longing to visit for years. which
  7. His mother is an engineer, makes him very proud. whom
  8. The old man has 4 sons, three of are doctors.
  1.The earth is round, is known to all. As is known to all, the earth is round
具有“正如”之意,搭配的动词一般是固定的, as 具有“正如”之意,搭配的动词一般是固定的,如: as you know/ as you see/as we planned/ as we expected
The Difference Between the Attributive Clause and the Appositive Clause
一、从词类上区别 同位语从句前面的名词只能是idea, 同位语从句前面的名词只能是idea, fact, news, hope, belief, suggestion, proposal, word, thought, doubt, order等表示抽象意义的名 truth, possibility, promise, order等表示抽象意义的名 而定语从句的先行词可以是名词、代词、 词。而定语从句的先行词可以是名词、代词、主句的一部 分或整个主句。 分或整个主句。 如: We are looking into the question whether he is worth trusting. 我们正在调查的是他是否值得信赖的问题(同位语从句) 我们正在调查的是他是否值得信赖的问题(同位语从句) Word came that he had gone abroad. 据说他已经出国了。(同位语从句) 。(同位语从句 据说他已经出国了。(同位语从句)
The doctor whom you are looking for is in the room. 你找的那位医生在房间里面。 你找的那位医生在房间里面。
作先行词) (定语从句,名词the doctor作先行词) 定语从句,名词the doctor作先行词
Our team has won the game, which makes us very happy. 定语从句,which代表前面提到的整个句子 代表前面提到的整个句子) (定语从句,which代表前面提到的整个句子) His mother did all she could to help him with his study. 他妈妈尽最大努力帮他学习。 他妈妈尽最大努力帮他学习。
(定语从句,代词all作先行词) 定语从句,代词all作先行词) all作先行词
二、从性质上区别 定语从句是从句对其先行词的修饰或限制, 定语从句是从句对其先行词的修饰或限制, 属于形容词性从句的范畴; 属于形容词性从句的范畴;而同位语从句是 从句对前面抽象名词的进一步说明和解释, 从句对前面抽象名词的进一步说明和解释, 属于名词性从句的范畴。 属于名词性从句的范畴。如: The news that our team has won the game is true. 我们队赢了那场比赛的消息是真的。 我们队赢了那场比赛的消息是真的。 同位语从句,补充说明news的内容。) news的内容 (同位语从句,补充说明news的内容。) The news (that) he told me yesterday is true. 昨天他告诉我的那个消息是真的。 昨天他告诉我的那个消息是真的。 定语从句, 从句作定语修饰news) (定语从句,that 从句作定语修饰news)
I made a promise that if anyone set me free I would make him very rich. 我许诺如果谁让我自由,我就让他非常富有。 我许诺如果谁让我自由,我就让他非常富有。 同位语从句,补充说明promise) (同位语从句,补充说明promise) The mother made a promise that pleased all her children. 妈妈做出了一个令她的孩子们高兴的许诺。 妈妈做出了一个令她的孩子们高兴的许诺。 定语从句,that从句作定语修饰promise。) 从句作定语修饰promise (定语从句,that从句作定语修饰promise。)
三、从引导词及其在句子中的成份上区别有些引导词 从引导词及其在句子中的成份上区别有些引导词 what可以引导同位语从句 可以引导同位语从句, 如how, whether, what可以引导同位语从句,但不能 引导定语从句。 引导定语从句。如: That question whether we need it has not been considered. 我们是否需要它这个问题还没有考虑。(同位语从句) 。(同位语从句 我们是否需要它这个问题还没有考虑。(同位语从句) I have no idea what has happened to him. 我不知道他发生了什么事。(同位语从句) 。(同位语从句 我不知道他发生了什么事。(同位语从句) 引导词that引导定语从句时, that引导定语从句时 引导词that引导定语从句时,在从句中一般作主语 或宾语(指物时还可以用which代替), which代替),并且作宾语时 或宾语(指物时还可以用which代替),并且作宾语时 常常省略。That在同位语从句中仅起连接作用 在同位语从句中仅起连接作用, 常常省略。That在同位语从句中仅起连接作用,不充当 任何成份,并且不能省略,也不能用which来代替。 which来代替 任何成份,并且不能省略,也不能用which来代替。
The order that we (should) send a few people to help the other groups was received yesterday. 我们应派几个人去帮助别的几个小组的命令昨天 已收到了。 同位语从句,是对order的具体解释, order的具体解释 已收到了。(同位语从句,是对order的具体解释,
that虽不作成份,但不能省略) that虽不作成份,但不能省略) 虽不作成份
The order (that) we received yesterday was that we (should) send a few people to help the other groups. 我们昨天收到的命令是我们应该派几个人去帮助别 的几个小组。 定语从句,是名词order的修饰语, order的修饰语 的几个小组。(定语从句,是名词order的修饰语,
that在从句中作received的宾语,可以省略) that在从句中作received的宾语,可以省略) 在从句中作received的宾语
从A、B、C、D四个选项中,选出可以填入 四个选项中, 空白处的最佳选项。 空白处的最佳选项。 B
  1. Along with the letter was his promise he would visit me this coming Christmas. A. which B. that C. what D. whether D
  2. Luckily, we’d brought a road map without we would have lost our way. A. it B. that C. this D. which
  3. There is a new problem involved in the popularity of private cars road conditions need . A A. that; to be improved B. which; to be improved C. where; improving D. when; improving
  5. Information has been put forward more middle school graduates will be admitted into universities. A. while B. that C. when D. as
  6. The fact came up specific speech sounds are C recognized by babies as young as 6 months old. A. what B. which C. that D. whose
  7. A decision was made those who D wanted to get a job in the factory would not be allowed to stay. A. what B. when C. which D. that
  8. The question came up at the meeting we had enough money for our research. A.that A.that B. what C. which D. whether

  9. The reason he is late is there was B a breakdown on the railway. A. why; why B. why; that C. because; that D. that; because
The Difference Between the Attributive Clause and the Emphasis Structure 强调句型的句式结构为: 强调句型的句式结构为:“It is/was + 被强调部 that/who从句 从句” 分 + that/who从句”。 在强调时间、地点、原因或方式状语时, 在强调时间、地点、原因或方式状语时,一律 that,而不用when, why或how; 用that,而不用when, why或how; 在强调主语和宾语时,如果主语和宾语指代人, 在强调主语和宾语时,如果主语和宾语指代人, 则可用who whom来代替 who和 来代替that, 则可用who和whom来代替that, 但是从句中的人称和数要与被强调的主语和宾语 保持一致。这些都容易与定语从句混淆。 保持一致。这些都容易与定语从句混淆。
定语从句和强调句型的判断方法: 定语从句和强调句型的判断方法:若将句中的 is/was”和 that/who”去掉 而句子不缺成分, 去掉, “It is/was 和“that/who 去掉,而句子不缺成分, 结构完整,说明原句是强调句型; 结构完整,说明原句是强调句型;若句子结构不 完整,则说明原句为定语从句。 完整,则说明



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