2007-07-13 | 高一英语 重要语法讲解 及练习(上 及练习( 定语从句
  1. 定语从句的结构及理解
  2. 定语从句的关系词的使用
  3. 定语从句的简化表达 知识总结归纳 (一)定语从句的结构:在复合句中,修饰某个名词或代词的句子(做这个名词或代词的定语) 叫定语从句, 定语从句一般放在被修饰的名词或代词后面, 被修饰的名词或代词叫做定语从句的 先行词,它与定语从句之间要有一个词连接,这个词指代先行词的内容叫做关系词(关系代词或 关系副词:that, which, who, whose, when, where, why).先行词在定语从句中充当主 语,宾语,时间,地点,原因状语. 结构:先行词+关系词+定语从句.
  1. There she saw a wall of water that was quickly advancing towards her.
  2. In Japan, someone who sees another person making the gesture will think it means money.
  3. A theme park is a collection of rides, exhibitions or other attractions that are based on a common theme.
  4. The park has a conservation center that helps protect marine animals and their habitats in the rivers and coastal waters of Asia.
  5. Visitors can go on exciting rides where they can feel what it is like to do the things they have seen their heroes do in the movie.
  6. Oprah Winfrey is a black woman whose rise to fame is an inspiring story. (二)定语从句分为限定性定语从句和非限定性定语从句: 限定性定语从句:从句对先行词进行必要的描述或说明,缺少它,则句义显得不完整,从句与先 行词紧密相连. 非限定性定语从句:对先行词进行补充说明,解释,它与先行词之间有逗号隔开.
  1. Before she could move, she heard a loud noise, which grew to a terrible roar.
  2. Tree after tree went down, cut down by the water, which must have been three meters deep.
  3. Flora, whose beautiful hair and dress were all cold and wet, started crying.
  4. Their talk includes rhythm and rhyming words as well as tongue twisters, which often make the audience applaud. (三) 关系词前面可以根据定语从句的内容加上一些介词, 这些关系词在介词后面常用 which 或 whom.
  1. There was a man with whom I would have to work together and finally the manager of the company.
  2. Many people who saw the film were afraid to swim in the sea when they remembered the scenes in which people were eaten by the shark. 知识重点与难点 (一)当先行词有最高级,序数词修饰,是不定代词,或是 all, no, only 等形式时,关系代词 一般用 that,而不能用 which.

  1. The Titanic was the largest ship that had ever been built at that time.
  2. There is one thing that keeps worrying me. (二) 当先行词是表示时间, 地点, 原因的词时, 关系词用 when, where, why 还有 which, that
  1. I'm very glad to return to my hometown where I had lived for 10 years.
  2. This is my hometown which I used to talk about to you.
  3. I think I can understand the reason why he didn't tell the truth to me.
  4. No one believes the reason that he gave us about his absence at the meeting. (三)定语从句的简化表达:
  1. The man who is sitting on the platform is a professor from Wuhan University.
  2. The letter that was mailed last night will reach him tomorrow.
  3. The question that is being discussed is very important.
  4. You are welcome to a party to be given in our class at 7:
  45. 说明:以上的定语从句部分可以用更加简单的非谓语形式表达出来:
  1. The man sitting on the platform is a professor from Wuhan University.
  2. The letter mailed last night will reach him tomorrow.
  3. The question being discussed is very important.
  4. You are welcome to a party to be given in our class at 7:
  45. 说明:修饰一个名词除了后面用定语从句以外,还可以用非谓语动词形式:doing 短语,done 短语,being done 短语,to be done 短语修饰.其结构和意思如下:
  1. 被修饰名词+doing 短语: 正在做….的人/正在发生的事.
  2. 被修饰名词+ done 短语: 被…..的人/事
  3. 被修饰名词+being done 短语:正在被…..的人/事
  4. 被修饰名词+ to be done 短语:将要被…..的人/事 (
  1)Do you know the man talking to my sister ? (
  2)The "crazy" gesture, moving the index finger in a circle in front of the ear, means "you have a phone call" in Brazil. (
  3)Did you see that car being repaired ? (
  4)In a camera, the lens must be focused on the object to be photographed. (
  5)The students to attend the meeting will arrive here tomorrow. (
  6)Goods imported from abroad are not always better than those made in China. (
  7)The Yellow River, said to be "the mother river" runs across China like a huge dragon. 总结:以上做定语的那些短语就是英语语法中所说的分词,不定式的各种形式作定语.
  1. 这些短语作定语应放在被修饰名词的后面.如果单独一个 V-ing 或 V-ed 形式作定语,则可 以放在被修饰名词前面.
  2. 分词作定语时,其动作应与全句动作同时发生.V-ing 表示主动意义和正在做,V-ed 表示被 动意义.being done 表示正在被做的
  3. 不定式作定语表示将要发生的,to be done 表示将要被做的 【典型例题】 [例 1] Friendship is needed by all, plays an important role in people's lives. A. which who D. it B. that C.
分析: plays an important role in people's lives 为非限定性定语从句修饰先行词 Friendship 用 which 连接定语从句. 答案:A [例 2] Uncle Li I worked three years ago has retired now. A. who B. whom C. with whom D. to whom 分析: I worked three years ago 作为定语从句修饰先行词 Uncle Li,从句完整的表 达是:I worked with Uncle Li three years ago. 所以关系词前应加上介词 with. 答案:C [例 3] Is this the reason at the meeting for his carelessness in his work ? A. he explained explained 分析:定语从句 at the meeting for his carelessness in his work 修饰先行词 the reason 指"他在会上就他工作中的粗心解释的原因.先行词在从句中做宾语. 答案:A [例 4] Teachers, work is rather hard, are being better paid than before. A. who B. that C. which D. whose 分析:非限定性定语从句 work is rather hard 修饰先行词 teachers, 它与从句中的 work 是从属关系,关系词用 whose 答案:D [例 5 ] The Olympic Games , in 776 BC, didn't included women players until 19
  12. A. first playing C. first played B. to be first played D. to be first playing B. what he explained C. how he explained D. why he
分析:公元前 776 年被首次举行的奥运会,直到 1912 年才容纳女运动员.in 776 BC 做定语修饰 The Olympic Games,指过去的内容,表示被动.用 done 做定语. 答案:C [例 6] The houses for the teachers and the construction work will start soon. A. built built 分析:根据句意房子即将开工. for the teachers and the construction work 修饰 The houses 应为 The houses The houses 将要为教师和施工修建的房子. 答案:B [例 7] How many of us, a meeting that is not important to us would be interested in the discussion? A. attended have attended B. attending C. to attend D. B. to be built C. to build D. being
分析:根据句意:比如说,我们当中参加一个对我们毫不重要的会议的人会有多少人对这个讨论 感兴趣呢?, say, a meeting that is not important to us 修饰 How many of us 做 定语.与全句动作同步. 答案:B [例 8] She has three children, is working in Australia. A. who them 分析:非限定性定语从句__ is working in Australia 修饰先行词 three children,根据从句 中的 is 判断, 是说: 三个孩子中的一个在澳大利亚工作. 答案:B 【模拟试题】
  1. Susan is the very girl the good deed. A. whom I think did C. who I think did A. by which which
  3. The book he devoted much time is to come out next month. A. where A. when A. being discussed C. to be discussed A. cooked being cooked
  7. Do you know the teacher under the big tree ? A. read B. reads C. reading D. being read B. to be cooked B. which B. in that C. to which C. which B. discussed D. to discuss C. is being cooked D. D. on which D. in which
  4. The day came finally I was given an opportunity to act in the play.
  5.
  1. Don't you think the question tomorrow is of great importance. B. on which B. whom I think she did D. I think who did C. with which D. for B. one of whom C. one of them D. none of

  2. Luckily, the poor boy had enough money he could buy a train ticket.

  6. The food at the moment is for the dinner party.
【试题答案】
  1. C
  2. C
  3. C
  4. A
  5. C Susan 正是我认为作了好事的那位女孩.先行词 the very girl 在从句中做 think 定语从句 he could buy a train ticket.修饰先行词 money:用这笔钱买 定语从句 he devoted much time 意思是:他把大量的时间都投入在这本 定语从句 I was given an opportunity to act in the play 修饰先行词 短语 tomorrow 做定语修饰 the question,根据表达的内容:明天即将 的宾语,同时又是后面宾语从句 did the good deed.的主语,所以关系词不能用 whom 火车票.关系词前面需要加介词:with 书上了.devote….to sth.关系词前加介词:to the day :先行词 the day 在从句中做时间状语:在这一天我得到了扮演一个角色的机会.
被讨论的问题.应当用不定式的被动结构做定语.
  6. D
  7. C 短语 at the moment 做 the food 的定语,表示:正在做的食物.Being 现在分词短语 reading under the big tree 做定语修饰 the teacher 表示:正 done 做定语表示:正在被……的……. 在大树下看书的那位老师.
情态动词
  1. 情态动词的推测表达
  2. 情态动词表达虚拟语气
  3. 某些情态动词的特殊用法 知识重点与难点总结 知识重点: 情态动词在表达推测意义的句子中的运用: (一)用情态动词表达事实的推测.can,could,might,may,must 可以用来表达对事实 的推测.根据说话人对事实的把握性大小,must 表示"肯定…",may / might / can / could 表示"可能……", must 只用于肯定句中,may / might 的否定式 may not / might not 表示 "可能不……", 而 can / could 可以用于疑问句,表示"可能,可能……吗?",其否定式 can't / couldn't 表示"不可能".用情态动词可以对现在或过去的事实进行推测.对不同的时间内容推 测有不同的结构. (二)对现在的事实进行推测: 主要结构:…must / may / might +动词原形 be+名词/形容词/介词短语 be + doing 例句:
  1. You must be Jeanne. I'm Mathilde Loisel. We used to know each other very well.
  2. They must be in bed already at this time of the night.
  3. The teacher must be joking.
  4. Freda isn't in class. She must be sick.
  5. There must be something wrong.
  6. She might be very clever, but she hasn't got much common sense.
  7. He may be arriving this evening.
  8. He may be traveling around the world.
  9. The keys can't be in the room. I have just searched it very carefully.
  10. Can the news be true ? (三)对过去的事实进行推测:结构:情态动词+have done / been+名词/形容词/介词短语 例句:
  1. Mrs. Longmans must have been a pretty girl in her youth.
  2. He couldn't have seen Anna yesterday. She's gone abroad.

  3. I think I must have left my glasses in the library.
  4. He might have overslept again.
  5. Where can Tom have gone ? 情态动词表达虚拟语气:表达"本来…","不然早就…".这是情态动词的一种虚拟语气用法.表 示说话人所讲的与所发生的事实相反.表达了说话人的埋怨,后悔的语气.其结构是在一些情态 动词后面加 have done 结构.根据要表达的意思,有如下结构: should have done / ought to have done:本应该…… shouldn't have done / oughtn't to have done:本不该…… could have done:本来可以…… needn't have done:本来没必要…… would like to have done:本来很想…… would rather not have done: 本来不愿意…… could / might / have done: 不然早就…… 例句:
  1. You shouldn't have laughed at his mistakes.
  2. You could have told us earlier.
  3. I ought to have bought that dictionary last week.
  4. You ought not to have spent so much time in reading novels.
  5. We need not have been in a tearing hurry to catch the train.
  6. They would like to have seen that film last film.
  7. If he had given me his number, I could have telephoned him.
  8. They might have been frozen to death but for the rescue in time. 知识难点: 某些情态动词的特殊用法: need 和 dare 的两种形式的用法 need 和 dare 可以用做实义动词,后面接不定式(to do)结构,在疑问句和否定句中,加助 动词 do/does/did/或 don't/doesn't/didn't.作为情态动词使用时,主要用于疑问句和否定句 中.情态动词 needn't(没有必要,不必)相当于 don't have to 例句:
  1. It is cold, you need to wear some warm clothes.
  2. Need I stay here with you for a while ? 注意: 句型 I dare say+从句. 意思是:我肯定…… = I'm sure 或 There is no doubt that+从句. 例句: I dare say that my uncle will get the money if I die. will 和 would 表示"意志"或"愿意",would 则指过去愿意做…… 例句:
  1. He said that he would help us.
  2. You may telephone if you will accept this job. would 可以表达"过去习惯做……"类似于"used to do" 例句: Thank you, you needn't.
  3. How dare you speak to parents li
 

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