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高考英语定语从句复习教案

  1.概念
  1.
  1.由一个句子作定语,修饰句中一个名词或代词,有时也可以修饰整个句子或句中的部分内容,这样的从句就是 定语从句,被其修饰的名词或代词叫先行词。
  1.
  2.关系词分为两大类,即关系代词和关系副词,其作用一是引出一个定语从句,二是代替其所修饰的先行词,三 是在句中充当某个句子成分。 关 系 词 that which 关系代 词 who whom whose as 关系副 词 when where why 所 指 先 行 词 事,物,人,时间,地点,原因 事,物,人,时间,地点,原因 人 人 事,物,人 事,物,人 时间 地点 原因 主,表,宾 状 状 状 在 从 句 中 所 担 成 分 主,表,宾 主,表,宾 主,表,宾 表,宾 定

  2.高考热点
  2.1 which 关系代词 which 引导非限定性定语从句,可代替上句的整个句子内容,在定语从句中作主语或宾语。 ①Dorothy was always speaking highly of her role in the play, , of course, made the others unhappy. B. which C. this D. what A. who 简析: A 不能指代一句话的内容,C、D 不能引导定语从句。 ② Garol said the work should be done by October, personally, I doubt very much.. A. It B. that C. when D. which 简析:A 不能引导定语从句,B 不能引导非限定性定语从句,.when 是副词,不能作 doubt 的宾语。
  2.2 as 关系代词 as 引导非限定性定语从句,也可代替整个句子内容,在定语从句中作主语或宾语,它引导的非限定性定语从 句可放于句首。 ③ is know to everybody, the moon travels round the earth once very month. A. It B. As C. That D. What 简析:A、D 不能引导定语从句,C 不能引导非限定性定语从句。 ④is mentioned above, the number of the students in senior high school is increasing. B. As C . That D. It A. Which 简析: D 不能引导定语从句,C 不能引导非限定性定语从句, 虽说 which 、as 都可以引导非限定性定语从句,又 可代替整个句子内容,但有下列区别:(见 as 与 which 的用法区别)
  1)as 引导的非限定性定语从句可放于句首, 而 which 引导的不能。
  2)as 引导的定性定语从句有"正如"之意,而 which 引导的没有。
  2.3 when 关系副词 when 引导定语从句时, 只能在定语从句中作时间状语,其修饰的名词必须是表示时间的名词。 ⑤The film brought the hours back to me I was taken good care of in that far-away village. C. when D. where A. until B. that 简析: A 不能引导定语从句,B 不能引导非限定性定语从句, where 修饰表地点的名词,而此题的先行词则是表时 间的 hours。
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⑥It was an exciting moment for these football fans this years, for the first time in years their team won the World Cup. D. when A. that B. while C. which 简析: A 不能引导非限定性定语从句, 不能引导定语从句 , C 虽说可以引导非限定性定语从句, B 但其先行词是物, 或是代替整个句子内容,而此题的先行词是表示时间的 an exciting moment.
  2.4 where 关系副词 Where 引导定从时, 只能在定从中作地点状语,其修饰的名词必须是表示地点的名词。 ⑦After living in Paris for fifty years, he returned to the small town he grew up as a child. A .which B. where C. that D. when 简析: 在定语从句中判断用关系代词还是用关系副词,需要弄明白在从句中需要什么语法成分,也就是说,要看 关系词在定语从句中担任什么成分,本题的定语从句中少地点状语,先行词又是表地点的名词,故应选 B。
  2.5 介词+关系代词 (详见
  3.
  6) 当关系代词作介词宾语,且该介词不是和从句的谓语动词构成固定短语时,介词可以提前,这样就出现"介词+关系代 词"。先行词指物,用"介词+which/whose", 指人则用"介词+whom/whose", 且两个关系代词均不能省略,介词的选择 要遵循两个原则:
  1)根据定语从句中谓语动词与先行词的搭配内容而定。
  2)根据先行词特殊用法而定。 ⑧Alec asked the policemen he worked to contact him whenever there was an accident. C. with whom D. whom A. with him B. who ⑨The gentleman you told me yesterday proved to be a thief. A. who B. about whom C. whom D. with whom
  3.定语从句的注意点
  3.1 which 和 that 用法辨异
  3.
  1.1 通常只能用 that 的情况 ①当先行词是不定代词 all, much, little, few, none, , anything, nothing,everything 等时 (something 后可 以用 which)。 ②先行词既指人又指物时.They talked about things and persons that they remembered。 ③先行词被序数词或形容词的最高级修饰时。 ④先行词被 the very, the only, the last, any, every, no ,all 修饰时。 ⑤先行词是疑问词 who, what, which 时或先行词 在由 which, who 引导的特殊疑问句中时。 Who that you have ever seen can beat him in chess? *⑥关系词在从句中作表语时。 He is not that man that he was.(他已不是过去的他了)=He is not what he used to be.
  3.
  1.2 通常只能用 which 的情况 ①引导非限制性定语从句修饰某物或整个句子时。 ②如果句中有两个定语从句,其中一个用了 that,另一个最好用 which。 Let me show you the novel that I borrowed from the library which was newly open to us. ③先行词本身就是 that 时。 I have that which you gave me.我有你给的那个。 ④介词之后须用 which. This is the one of which I’m speaking. 这就是我所讲的那个。
  3.2 只能用 who 的情况 ①先行词是指人的不定代词 one, ones, nobody, everyone, anyone 或 all 时。 ②先行词是 those 和 people 时。 ③在 there be 开头的句中。 ④先行词指人时后有一个较长的定语或被其他成分隔开时。
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⑤在非限制性定语从句中。
  3.3 as 和 which 用法辨异(代替主句整个内容)

  3.
  3.1 只能用 as 的情况
①as 通常与 the same, such, so 或 as 搭配使用。 ②位于句首的定语从句用 as 引导。 ③as 常解释为“正如...的那样”, “ 正像...” 如:as is known to all, as we all know, as (it) often happens, 。 as has been said before, as was expected, as is said above, as is mentioned above, as is reported in the newspaper 等 *④as 引导的从句在意义上不能与主句相抵触,而 which 不受此限制。试比较: He did the experiment successfully, as had been expected. He failed in the experiment, which was unexpected.

  3.
  3.2 只能用 which 的情况
①充当定语从句的主语时,从句的谓语动词是联系动词或被动语态时用 as, which 都可以,从句的谓语是行为动词 时只用 which。 ②接在介词后面时只用 which。 ③当从句的谓语是否定形式或接一个复合宾语时,只能用 which。 He admires everyone in the class, which I find quite strange.
  3.4 the same... as 和 the same ...that 的用法辨异. ①That’s the same tool as I used last week.(同类事物) ②That’s the same tool that I used last week. 那就是我上周用过的工具。 (指原物)
  3.5 the way 做先行词时,定语从句可由 that, in which 引导或不用引导词。
  3.6 介词+which/whom/whose
考点 1 简单介词+关系代词
知识归纳:用于此结构的关系代词指人时只能用 whom, 指物时只能用 which;介词选择的依据主要是根据从句中 的动词、形容词、名词与介词的固定搭配而定;或者以先行词与从句中的动词关系及所表达的含义而定;或者以先行 词在定语从句中的作用和含义而定,并且含有介词的短语动词不能拆开,介词仍然放在动词之后。 高考考例:
  1. (2004 全国卷) The journey around the world took the old sailor nine months, the sailing time was 226 days. A. of which B. during which C. from which D. for which 解析:关系代词 which 指代 the journey, 定语从句恢复为独立的句子是:The sailing time of the journey was 226 days.故答案选 A。
  2. (2004 全国卷) The English play my students acted at the New Year's party was a great success. A. for which B. at which C. in which D. on which 解析:本句主句部分应是 The English play at the New Year's party was a great success.从句补全为独立的 句子是:My students acted in the play. 故答案选 C。
  3. (2004 上海卷) American women usually identify their best friend as someone they can talk frequently. A. who B. as C. about which D. with whom 解析: 先行词为 someone,被关系代词 whom 代替在从句中作 talk with 的宾语, 介词 with 可以放在关系代词之前, identify...as...意为“把……当作……” ,故答案选 D。
考点 2 复杂介词+关系代词
知识归纳: 用于此结构的关系代词有 which, whom, whose。常用于该结构的复杂介词有:as a result of, at the back of, because of, by means of, for want of, in front of, in case of, on account of 等。例如: ①We got to a house at the back of which was a large garden. ②Is there a certain test by means of which the No. 1 will be decided?
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考点 3 简单介词+关系代词+名词
知识归纳:用于此结构的关系代词有 which, whose。介词的选择取决于关系代词后的名词及整个句子的含义。 高考考例: (1995 上海) In the office, I never seem to have time until after 5:30 p.m. time many people have gone home. A. whose B. that C. on which D. by which 解析:介词 by 表示时间的意思是“到那时为止” 。这句话的意思是“在办公室里,我似乎直到下午
  5:30 才有空,那 时许多人都已经回家了” 。故答案选 D。 This is the boss in whose company his elder sister is working.
考点 4 the+ 名词+of+关系代词
知识归纳:用于此结构的关系代词只有 which。该结构表示所有关系, 口语中常用“whose + 名词”代替。非正式 文体中可以用“of which the +名词” 。 高考考例: (2000 上海) Recently I bought an ancient Chinese vase, was very reasonable. A. which price B. the price of which C. its price D. the price of whose 解析:答案选 B。本题就是一个考查 the+ 名词+of+关系代词结构的一个典型例子。这里 the price of which 指 代 the price of the vase, 答案也可以是 whose price。
考点 5 表示部分的词语+of+关系代词
知识归纳:此时,指人的关系代词只能是 whom, 指事物的关系代词只能是 which。表示部分的词语常见的有:不 定代词 all, both, none, neither, either, some, any; 数词(含基数词,序数词,分数和百分数);数词+名词;the +最高级/比较级;以及表示数目或数量的词语 many, most, few, several, enough, half a, a quarter 等。 高考考例:
  1. (2004 湖北卷) There are two buildings, stands nearly a hundred feet high. A. the larger B. the larger of them C. the larger one that D. the larger of which 解析:答案为 D。the larger of which 指代 the larger of the two buildings; B 选项缺少一个连词。
  2. (2004 辽宁卷) The factory produces half a million pairs of shoes every year, 80% are sold abroad. A. of which B. which of C. of them D. of that 解析:答案为 A。80% of which 指代的是 80% of the shoes。本题意为:这家工厂每年生产的 50 万双鞋子有 80% 都是销往国外的。
  3.7 定语从句和同位语从句之间的区别
  3.
  7.1 定语从句的先行词是名词和代词,定语从句起限制、修饰先行词的作用, 而同位语从句的先行词一般是抽象 名词,它解释、说明先行词的具体内容: ①The news that our team has won is true. (同位语从句) ②The news that he told me is true. (定语从句)
  3.
  7.2 引导词在从句中作成分是定语从句,引导词在从句中不作成分是同位语从句 ①The news (that) he told me is exciting.(作宾语可省) ②The news that he has been elected president of the United States is true. (引导同位语从句不可省)
  3.8 先行词是 reason,关系词在从句中作主语,表语或宾语,用 which/that/as, 作状语用 why 或 for + which。 ①This is the reason that he told me yesterday. ②This is the reason why he was late for the meeting.
  3.9 先行词是 “地点名词” 如在从句中作主语, , 表语或宾语, 关系词用 which/that/as, 作状语用 where 或介词+ which。 ①That is the factory which/that produces 100,000TV sets a year. ②That is t
 

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