高考英语定语句大总结
一. 介词加关系代词

  1.[1983] The doctor is leaving for Africa next month. A. the nurse is talking to him B.whom the nurse is talking C. the nurs is talking to D. Who the nurse is talking
  2. [1985] He didn’t know which room . A. they lived B. they lived in C. did they live D. did they live in
  3. [1992] In the dark street, there wasn’t a single person she could turn for help. A. That B. who C. from whom D. to whom
注意
  1. 含介词的引导词,其介词可放在引导词whom, 注意 含介词的引导词,其介词可放在引导词 which前或在从句原来的位置上。介词不提前, 前或在从句原来的位置上。 前或在从句原来的位置上 介词不提前, 其在从句中作宾语的引导词who, whom, that, 其在从句中作宾语的引导词 which可省。 可省。 可省 但含有介词的短语动词一般不能拆开, 但含有介词的短语动词一般不能拆开,如 look after, be made of, take part in, look forward to等。 等 例:The babies (who/whom) the nurses look after look strong and happy.
  2. where = at/in/to… + which when = at/in/on/during + which why = for which 例:This is the school where/at which I used to teach. They stood at the window, from where they could see what was happening in the street. whose book = the book of which = of which the book
在下列情况下只用that,不用 二. 在下列情况下只用 ,不用which
先行词是all, everything, nothing, anything, ① 先行词是 little, much, the one等不定代词时 等不定代词时 There is nothing ( that ) I can do. I mean the one that was brought yesterday. 先行词被all, any, every, no, some, little, ② 先行词被 much等词修饰时 等词修饰时 I have read all the books (that) you gave me. You may take home any of these books that you like. ③ 先行词被序数词或形容词最高级修饰时 This is the first composition (that)he has written in English. This is the best novel (that) I have ever read.
正是,恰是 ④先行词被the only, the very(正是 恰是 the same, 先行词被 正是 恰是), the last修饰时 修饰时 The white flower is the only one ( that) I really like. This is the very book (that) I want to find. The last place( that) we visited was the hospital. This is the same watch that I lost yesterday. 当先行词有两个或两个以上时,既有人又有物 既有人又有物,定语 ⑤ 当先行词有两个或两个以上时 既有人又有物 定语 从句用that 引导 (that既可指人也可指物 既可指人也可指物) 从句用 既可指人也可指物 He talked about the teachers and schools that he had visited. 关系代词作定语从句中系动词的表语时,或先行在主句中作表语 关系代词作定语从句中系动词的表语时 或先行在主句中作表语 What great changes! It is not the city (that) it was ten years ago. that 不能引导非限制性定语从句 that不能置于介词之后(介词后指物用 不能置于介词之后( 不能置于介词之后 which,指人用 指人用whom) 指人用 )
三.在非限制性定语从句中

  1. 无关系代词 that ,只有 只有which who whom 只有
  2. most of + which/whom引导的定语从句属非限定性 引导的定语从句属非限定性 定语从句,从句前应有逗号与主句分开, 定语从句,从句前应有逗号与主句分开,除most外, 外 还有many, some, any, all, none, several, few, both, 还有 half, the majority, a number, the youngest, three(数词) three(数词 数词) in front of, in the middle of, at the back of, at the bottom of, on the top of, at the foot of + which等。 等 例:He works in a middle school, in front of which there is a river. 3. 在非限制性定语从句中的as, which 在非限制性定语从句中的

  1). the same…as, such…as, so…as, as…as 等 结构中,只用 只用as 结构中 只用 This is not such a book as I expected. I live in the same building as he (lives in). Here is so big a stone as no man can lift. As many children as came here were my father’s pupils.
  2). as 的这种用法通常出现在一些固定短语之中如: 的这种用法通常出现在一些固定短语之中如:
  1.as has been said before 如上所述 .
  2.as may be imagined . 正如可以想象出来的那样
  3.as is well known . 众所周知
  4.as was expected . 正如预料的那样
  5.as has been already pointed out . 正如已经指出的那样
  6.as we all can see . 正如我们都会看到的那样

  3). as 替代一句话即可放句首也可放句末, 替代一句话即可放句首也可放句末, 只能放句末。 而which只能放句末。 只能放句末
The man died last night, which is a lie.
四.定语从句中的主谓一致 定语从句中的主谓一致
定语从句中的谓语动词的人称和数与先行词保持一致。 定语从句中的谓语动词的人称和数与先行词保持一致。 例如: 例如:
  1. Here are such sentences as are often used by the students. ( as指代 指代sentences,谓语动词用 谓语动词用are)。 指代 谓语动词用 。
  2. I, who am a Party member, should work hard for our country.( who指代 谓语用 指代I, 指代 谓语用am.)。 。
  3. He was one of the students who were praised 指代the students) for it. ( who指代 指代 他是被表扬的学生之一。 他是被表扬的学生之一。
  4. He was the only one of the students who was praised for it. ( who 指the only one) 他是唯一被表扬的学生。 他是唯一被表扬的学生。
五. 易与定语从句混淆的其他复合句

  1.定语从句与同位语从句 定语从句与同位语从句 定语从句与前面的名词是修饰与被修饰的关系“ 的 定语从句与前面的名词是修饰与被修饰的关系“…的”。 而同位语从句是用来说明前面名词的内容。 而同位语从句是用来说明前面名词的内容。与that从句 从句 同位的名词必须是一些表事实或概念的抽象名词, 同位的名词必须是一些表事实或概念的抽象名词, 如fact, news, belief, truth, reply等。that在定语从句中 等 在定语从句中 作成分,可用which 或who/whom代替;而that在同位 代替; 作成分,可用 代替 在同位 语从句中不充当任何句子成分,只起连接作用。试比较: 语从句中不充当任何句子成分,只起连接作用。试比较: ① We all have heard the news that our team won. (同位语从句,that从句表示 同位语从句, 从句表示news的内容,that 在从句 的内容, 同位语从句 从句表示 的内容 中不作任何成分) 中不作任何成分 ② We don’t believe the news that/which he told us yesterday. (定语从句,that 作told 的宾语 定语从句, 的宾语) 定语从句

  2. 定语从句与状语从句。 定语从句与状语从句。 试比较: 试比较: ① He left the key where he had been an hour before. (where引导地点状语从句,相当于 the place where) 引导地点状语从句, 引导地点状语从句 相当于in ② He left the place where he lived for many years. (where 引导定语从句,修饰 引导定语从句,修饰the place) ③ He is such a good teacher as all of us love and respect. (as 引导定语从句 引导定语从句) ④ He is such a good teacher that we all like him. (that引导结果状语从句 引导结果状语从句,such…that… “如此 以致 如此…以致 引导结果状语从句 如此 以致…”)

  3.定语从句与主语从句。 试比较: .定语从句与主语从句。 试比较: ① As is known to us all, paper was first made in China. (as 引导定语从句,指代整个主句内容,可置于句首 引导定语从句,指代整个主句内容,可置于句首) ② It is known to us all that paper was first made in China. (it 做形式主语,代替 做形式主语,代替that 引导的主语从句 引导的主语从句)
  4.定语从句与强调结构。试比较: .定语从句与强调结构。试比较: ① It is the house where I met the young man. (where 引导定语从句,修饰 引导定语从句,修饰house,where在定语 , 在定语 从句中作地点状语) 从句中作地点状语 ② It was in the house that I met the young man. (本句为强调结构,可还原为 本句为强调结构, 本句为强调结构 I met the young man in the house.)

  1. It is the young man looked for caught the murderer. A. that …who B. that …they C . they …that D they…which
  2. Is this factory we visited last year? A. where B in which C the one D at which
  3. The book, the cover is broken, is not mine. A. of it B for C whose D of which
  4. This is Mr Smith, I think has something interesting to tell you. A . who B whom C. that D. x
  5. Who has seen the TV film doesn’t admire it? A . that B who C which D as 分析:先行词是who,到是指人,可为了避免重复, 分析:先行词是 ,到是指人,可为了避免重复, 不用who,而用能指代 人的 人的that。答案是 。 不用 , 。答案是A。

  6. You can never imagine what great trouble I have had the patient who received a serious wound. A. treat B. to treat C treating D treated 注:have trouble (difficult) doing sth
  7. This is the last time I shall give you a lesson. A. when B that C which D in which 分析:答案是B。这里的time不指时间,而是次数。 不指时间, 分析:答案是 。这里的 不指时间 而是次数。 且先行词time 被the last 所修饰 所以用 所修饰,所以用 所以用that引导。 引导。 且先行词 引导
  8. I don’t like the way you laugh at her. A . that B on which C which D as
  9. have plenty of money will help their friend. A.Those who B.He who C.That who D.You who
  10. I shall never forget those years I lived in the farm you visited last week. A.when,where B.which,which C.when , which D.which , where
定语从句可缩略为短语: 六.定语从句可缩略为短语: 定语从句可缩略为短语

  1、 缩略为分词短语 有些定语从句可直接略去作主语的 、 关系代词( 例如: 关系代词(who, which,例如: 例如
  1)I know the men(who are )sitting in that car.(IME
  2) The boys helped the people (that were )hurt in the accident. ( ib ) .
  3) The problem (which is) bothering everybody is the lack of money. (ib)
  4) The book (that has been) given to him is an English novel.(NEC)语小说。 语小说。 语小说 有些定语从句不能按上述方法直接缩略, 有些定语从句不能按上述方法直接缩略,而需变动词 为这类定语从句一般缩略为现在分词短语, 为这类定语从句一般缩略为现在分词短语,且在缩略 时要考虑现在分词的时态和词态特征。 时要考虑现在分词的时态和词态特征。 例如: 例如:

  5) The man who owns that car will be fined for illegal parking →The man owning that car will be fined for illegal parking .
  6) Bill, who had taken chemistry in high school , offered to help him . → Bill, having taken chemistry in high school , offered to help him.
  7) Now, however, the furniture which they are carrying down to the truck feels very heavy. →Now, however, the furniture being carried down to the truck feels very heavy.

  2、缩略为形容词短语 、 若定词从句为主体表结构,且表语由形容短词充当, 若定词从句为主体表结构,且表语由形容短词充当, 可直接略去作主词的关系代词和连系动词, 可直接略去作主词的关系代词和连系动词,从而使 定词从句缩略为形容词短语作后置定语。 定词从句缩略为形容词短语作后置定语。 例如: 例如:
  1)The men (who were ) responsible for the administration of the school refused to consider the matter .
  2).We said goodbye to Mrs. Long, (who was) still busy at her chores.
  3).The puppy, (which was) too excited to be calmed , barked furiously.

  3.缩略为名词短语 . 由名词短语作表语的非限制性定语从句略去作 主语的关系代词和连系动词便成为名词短语作同位语。 主语的关系代词和连系动词便成为名词短语作同位语。 例如: 例如:
  1)The company commander, (who was) Captain ) Madison, assembled his men and announced their mission. 连长,墨迪逊上尉 墨迪逊上尉,把战士们集合起来宣布他们的 连长 墨迪逊上尉 把战士们集合起来宣布他们的 战斗任务。 战斗任务。
  2)You should have a talk with Mr. Worth , ) (who is )the adviser to students. 你应该和沃斯先生-学生顾问谈一谈 学生顾问谈一谈。 你应该和沃斯先生 学生顾问谈一谈。
  3) We finally reached Rio, (which was) the end or our journey.

  4.缩略为介词短语 .
若定语从句为主系表句型,且表语为介语短语, 若定语从句为主系表句型,且表语为介语短语,可略去 主语关系代词和连系动词, 主语关系代词和连系动词,使之缩略为介词短语作 后置定语。 后置定语。 例如:He spoke to the girl (who was) from New York 例如 此外,若定语从句中含“ 此外,若定语从句中含“有”动词(has, have, had), 动词( ), 用介词with / without 取替定语从句中主语关系代词 用介
 

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