高考改错十大思路
高考英语短文改错题,是命题者将中学生常犯的 各种典型错误更集中、更系统地整理出来,放入一篇 内容较为浅显、题材较为轻松的文章中设计而成的, 它主要考查考生判断、发现、纠正语篇中语言错误的 能力以及在语篇中综合、准确地运用英语能力,考生 在该题的得分率较低。 综观近十年的高考短文改错题,不难看出常见的 改错十大思路是:一致关系、连接手段、平行结构、 非谓语动词形式、删除冗言、冠词使用,名词数与格, 词语搭配,词性分辨,行文逻辑等。现结合近三年的 高考试题对这十大思路分析如下:
一、一致关系
短文改错中所涉及到的一致关系包括主谓一致、 短文改错中所涉及到的一致关系包括主谓一致、时态一致和代词指代一 谓语动词的单、复数形式要与句子的主语在人称和数上保持一致, 致。谓语动词的单、复数形式要与句子的主语在人称和数上保持一致,动词 的时态要与时间状语或上下文的时态保持一致, 的时态要与时间状语或上下文的时态保持一致,代词所指的内容与其先行词 在词性和数方面以及与其自身的指代,要在意义上保持一致。例如: 在词性和数方面以及与其自身的指代,要在意义上保持一致。例如:
  1、(01春季)But then there is always more mysteries to look into. is--are
  2、(01春季)I think I liked those classes because I felt that it helped me it--they understand how the world works.
  3、(NMET 20
  01)They didn’t want me to do any work at home. They want me to devote all my time to my studies so that I’ll get good marks in all my didn’t?don’t subjects.
  4、(2002春季)for example, when he bought a chocolate cake, he put them them--it in a secret place that I couldn’ t find. is--was
  5、(2002春季)He said he is busy. them--us
  6、(NMET
  02)The three of them were very excited .
  7、(NMET
  03)…..and tried to translate anything into English. anything--everything
  8、(NMET
  03)Their word were a great encouragement to me. word--words
二、连接手段
连接不当会造成上下文不衔接。英语中句与句连接一般使 用并列连词或从属连词。或若并列句,要判断句与句之间是并 列、转折、选择、递进关系,还是让步关系。、从而选择恰当 的连词,若为复合句,首先应判断内含何种从句,然后根据主、 从句之间的关系判断连接词的使用是否正确,是否有遗漏或多 余现象,要注意句子结构的完整性。例如:
  1、(01春季)I think I like those classes because I felt that they what--how helped me understand what the world works. it 前加 why
  2、(01春季)In one class, I learned it rained.
  3、(02春季)For example, when he bought a chocolate cake find 后加 it he put in a secret place where I couldn’t find.
  4、(NMET
  02) It was about noon we arrived at the foot of the we 前加when mountain.
三、平行结构
平行结构是指两个或更多的具有相似或相同的句法功能的 词、词组或从句并列在一起的结构,在表达相互平行的概念时, 要使用相同的语法结构,即动词与动词并列,形容词与形容词 并列,不定式与不定式并列,短语与短语并列。平行结构常使 用等立连词and, but, or或连词词组not only…but also…,not.. but, either…or…,neither…nor…,as well as等。例如:
  1、(NMET20
  02)As we climbed the mountain, we fed monkeys, visiting temples and told stories.
visiting--visited

  2、(NMET20
  03) I followed her advice and should put down 100 words or so each day.
  3、(NMET20
  03) She liked it very much and reads itShould 去掉 to the class.
reads--read
四、非谓语动词形式
主要考查不定式符号to的多余或遗漏,to是介词还是不定 式符号,现在分词与过去分词、动名词等。例如:
  1、(01年春季)But then there are always more mysteries look into. look 前加 to
  2、(01年春季)After learn the basics of the subject, nothing learn--learning else seemed very practical to me .
  3、(NMET
  01)My parents love me dearly of course and will do all they can make sure that I get a good education.
make前加 to

  4、(02春季)He didn’ t want share things with other people.
want 后加 to

  5、(02春季)That is, a game of tennis making him very busy.
making--made

  6、(NMET
  03)Soon I began to enjoy talk to myself on paper.
talk--talking
五、删除冗言
造成冗言错误的原因主要由于汉英表达上的差异。对英语惯用 语在使用上的细微差异,主要考程度副词和频度副词。如: much more, often等的多余,介词的多余,语义的重复,固定搭配中多 余的词以及由于受汉语的影响而多用了某些词语等。例如:
  1、(NMET
  01) Like most of my schoolmates, I have neither brothers nor sisters--in any other words, I am an only child.
去 any

  2、(NMET
  01) We may be one family and live under the same roof, but we do not seem to get much time to talk about 去 about together.
  3、(02春季) For instance, on one night he played strong and 去 on loud music till four o’ clock in the morning.
  4、(NMET
  02) Evening came down. 去 down
  5、(NMET
  03) The main problem was in that I always thought in 去 in Chinese.
六、冠词的使用
冠词是英语中特有的词,由于汉语中没有与之相对应的 词,大家对它的用法感到难以掌握,高考英语短文改错题对 冠词的考查几乎每年都有,但多数是考查其基本用法,如不 可数名词泛指时前面多冠词;单数可数名词前少冠词不定冠 词a,an与定冠词the的错误使用;固定搭配中冠词的误用等 等。例如:
  1、(01春季)For example, when I was a child, the rain was a mystery. 去 the
  2、(NMET
  01) We may be one family and live under a same roof, but we do not seem to get much time to talk together.
a same?the same

  3、(NMET
  02)As everyone knows, it is famous mountain famous 前加 a with all kinds of plants and animals.
七、名词的数与格
汉语中的名词没有单复数形式。英语则不同,如果英语 的名词是可数名词,它有单复数形式。一般来讲,不可数名 词没有复数式。例如:
  1、(01春季)I used to love science class?all of them? biology, chemistry, geography, physics.
class--classes

  2、(NMET
  02) They don’t want me to do any work at home; they want me to devote all my time to my studies so that subject--subjects I’ll get good marks in all my subject.
  3、There are around one hundred woman workers in this factory. woman--women
  4、The mother took great proud in her daughter.
  5、Do you know he is a friend of John?
proud--pride John?John’s
八、词语搭配
这主要考查介词与动词,名词、形容词的固定搭配,副 词与动词的固定搭配,及物动词后面介词或副词的多余以及 不及物动词后面缺少介词,英语中的一些固定结构及习惯搭 配等。例如:
  1、(NMET
  02) I was so tired that I fell asleep at the moment 去 at my head touched the pillow.
  2、(NMET
  03) My teacher advised me to keep my diary.
keep my diary?keep a diary

  3、The great discovery is great importance in science.
is 后加 of

  4、The artist is known for everyone in the town.
for--to

  5、He failed but he wanted to try the second time.
the second time?a second time
九、词性分辨
根据词在句中的位置与其它词的修饰与被修饰关系,判 断词的正确使用形式,根据词在句子中不同的句法功能,使 用与之相适应的词性。例如:
  1、(02春季)He never helped other.
other?others 或 other? other people

  2、(02春季)But he is difference now.
difference--different
十、行文逻辑
这主要测试行文中not的有无;come与leave的误 用;before与after的混用。例如:
  1、(NMET
  95) Uncle Ben will also go back for Christmas.
go--come

  2、(NMET
  01) What things are in other homes, I wonder.
What--How
短文改错例 I: Have you ever heard Angel Falls?
  1、heard ?heard of It is a highest waterfall in the world, deep in the jungles
  2、 a--the of Venezuela. Few has ever seen Angel Falls.
  3、 has--have That is very hard to get there. If you went
  4、 That--It in land, you would have to travel for weeks through
  5、 in land--by land thick jungles. If you went by plane, it would take about
  6、 正确 four hours. No one knew about this high waterfall since 19
  30.
  7、 since--until In that year, James Angel, American pilot, flew over the area.
  8、 an American Suddenly he saw a waterfall, that seemed
  9、 that-- which to drop straight out of from the clouds.
  10、 去掉from
短文改错例 II. Today I visited the Smiths?my first time visit to a American family. They live in a small town. It was very kind for them to meet me at the railway station and drove me to their home. The Smiths did his best to make me feel at home. They offered me coffee and other drinks. We have a good time talking and laughing together. They eager to know everything about China and asked me lots of question. In fact, they are planning to visit China in the next year.
1, 去掉 time 2, a--an 3, for--of 4, drove--drive 5, his--their 6, 正确 7, have--had 8,eager 前加 were 9, question 加 s 10, 去掉 in
短文改错例 III. The journey was long and tired. We left London at five o’clock 1, tired--tiring in the evening and spent eight hours on the train. 2, on--in We had been traveling for three hours after someone appeared selling 3, after--before food or drinks. It was darkness all the time we were 4, darkness--dark crossing Wales so we could see nothing across the windows. When 5, across--through we finally arrive nearly everyone was sleeping. 6, arrive--arrived As soon as a train stopped everyone came to life, grabbing(抓)7, a--the suitcase and rushing onto the platform. 8, 正确 While we were getting off the train it was an announcement 9, it--there that the boat had not arrived already from Ireland and there 10, already--yet had been a delay, when the boat finally came we had been waiting for over two hours.
 

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