高考英语《语法》专题复习

  01《短文改错》
高考内容
词法内容。包括名词、代词的数与格, (
  1)词法内容。包括名词、代词的数与格,反身 代词,动词时态语态,非谓语动词、 代词,动词时态语态,非谓语动词、短语动词的 用法,不规则动词的变化形式,形容词的比较级, 用法,不规则动词的变化形式,形容词的比较级, 形容词副词的区别,介词的误用等。 形容词副词的区别,介词的误用等。 句法内容。包括主谓一致、指代一致, (
  2)句法内容。包括主谓一致、指代一致,并列 连词,从属连词等引导各种从句的关联词语, 连词,从属连词等引导各种从句的关联词语,感 叹句,疑问句,祈使句的结构等。 叹句,疑问句,祈使句的结构等。 行文逻辑。包括句子的肯定、否定、 (
  3)行文逻辑。包括句子的肯定、否定、推理判 断等。 断等
考点设置

  1.名词 名词 a.(
  00) She said that she and my schoolmate all wished me success. schoolmates b.(
  04)After class we become stranger strangers at once. c.(
  01)They want me to devote all my time to my studies so that I’ll get subjects marks in all my subject. e.(
  02)On the way up I was busy taking picture since the scenery pictures was so beautiful.
e. (
  05) There are advantage for students to advantages work while studying at school f. (
  06) He had no ideas that the kitchen was not for guests.
g、 g、(
  07) I looked at his other hands. hand
idea
命题特点:本来用复数,却用单数. 改正方法:(
  1)根据名词前的修饰限 定成份;(
  2)根据上下文的逻辑关系.

  2.代词 代词
a.(
  02) It was about noon when we arrived at the foot of the mountain. The three of them were very excited. us b.(
  03) Soon I began to enjoy talking to myself on paper as I was learning to express me in simple English . myself
c.(
  03) One day I wrote a little story and showed to my teacher . it d.(
  05) Some students may also save up for our college or future use .
their
e.(
  03)I was learning to express me in simple English. f.(
  06) I just smiled to me and thought, “What can I do? We are guests after all.”
命题特点: 命题特点:
  1.女性代词指代男性或相反; 女性代词指代男性或相反; 女性代词指代男性或相反
  2.单数指代复数; 单数指代复数; 单数指代复数
  3.代词词性误用。 代词词性误用。 代词词性误用 改正方法:联系上下文的逻辑关系。 改正方法:联系上下文的逻辑关系。
myself myself they
g、(
  07) I took it in me and we walked. mine 、

  1.人称代词的偷换错误 人称代词的偷换错误 人称代词的偷换
  2. 缺少人称代词的错误 缺少人称代词的错误
  3. 人称代词数的一致问题 人称代词数
  4. 人称代词格的一致问题 人称代词格

  1. The Smiths did his best to make me feel at home.(NMET
  03)
their

  2. I have a good friend who’s name is Liu Mei.(2004 福建 福建)
whose

  3.介词
a.(
  01) we do not seem to get much time to talk about together. b.(
  02) I was so tired that I fell asleep at
the moment my head touched the pillow.
about at in
c. (
  03) The main problem was in that I always thought in Chinese and tried to translate anything into English. d.(
  04)We’ll talk with our plan for the weekend over dinner. e.(
  05)I am writing to thank you with your kind help.
about
for
f. (
  06) He was looking for a glass the cupboard.
in
g、 (
  07) Each ^ these lines 、 stands for a trouble in my life. of
命题特点及改正方法:介词涉及搭 配错误,因此可从以下方面确定错 误:
  1)介词的基本用法;
  2)习惯 搭配;
  3)动词词类确定错误,如 talk ,, serve, wait等。
介词的错误

  1.We practise for three times every week.(NMET
  98)
for

  2.And I can’t forget the food you cooked for I.(NMET
  95)
me

  4.动词时态
a.(
  01) They did not want me to do any work at home; they want me to devote all my time to my studies so that--do b.(
  02) The time passes quickly. Evening came. passed
c.(
  03)She liked it very much and reads it to the class. read d. (
  04)I don’t know that they don’t like to talk with me. Sometimes, we talked to each other very well in class. talk
f.(
  05)I will write again and send took you the photos we take together. g. (
  06)We had guests last night who had
have not stayed in a B&B hotel ago. h. (
  07) Then I ask him. asked
命题特点及改正方法:现在时与过去时
的误用,句中一般没有时间状语。每年都 考。要注意联系上下文,着眼于整个语篇 的时态。通常整篇都是过去,突然一个句 子用现在时。其中又以一般现在时和过去 时互改为多。

  5.and\but\or误用及前后不一致
a. (
  00) She is smiling at me but nodding at and me . b. (
  01)It looks as if my parents or treat me as a visitor and a guest. c. (
  02)The food was expensive and but the service was good.
d. (
  06) I came into the living room and saw one of them just go through the kitchen door but turn on the light. and e.(
  02)we fed monkeys, visiting temples and told stories.
visited
f.(
  03) she liked it very much and reads it to the class. read 命题特点: 命题特点: 主要考查and、or、but、 主要考查 、 、 、 so等并列连词的误用。 等并列连词的误用。 等并列连词的误用 改正方法;
  1)根据句意确定误; )根据句意确定误;
  2)根据句子的逻辑关 ) 系确定错误。

  6.从句连词
a.(
  02) It was about noon we arrived at the foot of the mountain. b.(
  04) I don’t know that they don’t like to talk with me. c. (
  03)The main problem was in that I always thought in Chinese and tried to translate everything into English. d.(
  01)What things are in other homes, I wonder. when why in
how
f.(
  05)Earning their own money allows them to spend on anything as if they please.
if
g.(
  06) They did not want breakfast because that they were going out early in the morning. that 命题特点及改正方法: 命题特点及改正方法:句子结构方面的错误主要 涉及句子成份和复合句的关联词等。 涉及句子成份和复合句的关联词等。解答这类题 从以下方面来思考: )句子结构是否完整, 从以下方面来思考:
  1)句子结构是否完整,成 份是否冗缺; ) 份是否冗缺;
  2)复合句中边接方句和从句的关 系词或引导词的运用是否得当等。 系词或引导词的运用是否得当等。

  7.冠词
a. (
  02) As everyone knows, it’s famous mountain with all kinds of plants and animals. b. (
  01)We may be one family and live under a same roof,but--c. (
  04) on Thursday I will have to decide what I want to do over a weekend. a the the
d. (
  05)I hope you’ve had pleasant a journey home
命题特点及改正方法: 命题特点及改正方法:英语中冠 词只有三个, 词只有三个,只能从以下几个方 向出题: )不定冠词a和 互改 互改; 向出题:
  1)不定冠词 和an互改;
  2)不定冠词 或an和定冠词 和定冠词the )不定冠词a或 和定冠词 互改; )根据需要增删冠词。 互改;
  3)根据需要增删冠词。

  8.形容词、副词
a. (
  04)I would describe myself as shy and quietly.
b. (
  04)There have been reports in America about people trying to steal person information for bad purposes. c. (
  04)Finding information on the Net is easily. d.(
  05) So what I learned from the job was much more important as what I earned. quiet
personal
easy than
e.(
  05) My pronunciation was terribly . late f.(
  06) They came back lately and had some tea.
terrible
命题特点及改正方法: 命题特点及改正方法:主要考 查形容词和副词的误用、 查形容词和副词的误用、形容 词及副词的比较级等。 ) 词及副词的比较级等。
  1)根据 adj.或adv.的基本用法确定错误; 的基本用法确定错误; 或 的基本用法确定错误
  2)修饰连系动词或名词用形容 ) 词;
  3)修饰行为动词、形容词、 )修饰行为动词、形容词、 过去分词及整个句子用副词。 过去分词及整个句子用副词。

  9.非谓语动词
a.(
  01)My parents will do all they can to make sure that I get a good education. b.(
  02)We fed monkeys, visiting temples and told stories. visited c.(
  03) Soon I began to enjoy talk talking to myself on paper as I was learning to express myself in simple English. d.(
  05) Some students may also to save to up for our college or future use.
f.(
  05) Earning their own money allow
allows
them to spend on anything as they please.
命题特点改正方法:
  1)谓语动词和非
谓语动词的错用;
  2)动词不定式和动名词的错 用;
  3)现在分词和过去分词的错用等。
一、动词形
主要包括两类错误:动词的时态和 主要包括两类错误:动词的时态和语态 时态 错误,以及主 谓不一致的错误 例如: 的错误。 错误,以及主、谓不一致的错误。例如: NMET20
  03: NMET20
  03:She liked it very much and reads it
to the class. ____ read
NMET20
  00: Now my picture and prize is
hanging in the library.
are ____
动词形常见错误

  1) 一般过去时与一般 现在时错用。 现在时错用。
  2) 第三人称单数形式错用。 第三人称单数形式错用。
  3) and 前后动词时态不一致。(and具有对称性) 前后动词时态不一致。 具有对称性) 具有对称性
  4) 主谓不一致。 主谓不一致。
  5) 缺少谓语动词(尤其缺be动词) 缺少谓语动词(尤其缺 动
  6) 主动语态与被动语态错用
  7) Used to 的运用错误
二、名词数
指名词单、复数形式的用法错误。常表 名词单、复数形式的用法错误。 的用法错误 现为将名词复数写成单数。例如: 现为将名词复数写成单数。例如:
NMET20
  01: …so that I’ll get good marks subjects in all my subject. ____ NMET2003: Their word were a great words encouragement to me.
改正方法: 改正方法: 1.根据名词前的修饰限定 成份. 成份. 2.根据上下文的逻辑关系. 根据上下文的逻辑关系.

  1.There are advantage for students to work while studying at school.(NMET20
  05)
advantages

  2.On the way up I was busy taking picture since the scenery was so beautiful. (NMET20
  02) )
pictures
三、还要注意形和副
注意形容词和副词在句子中的作用和具体用 注意形容词和副词在句子中的作用和具体用 形容词和副词 这也是高考短文改错题的常考点。例如: 法。这也是高考短文改错题的常考点。例如:
NMET 2004 : I would describe myself as shy quiet and quietly.
NMET 2005 : He asked angry if we had finished the work. angrily
命题特点及改正方法: 命题特点及改正方法:
主要考查形容词和副词的误用、 主要考查形容词和副词的误用、形容词及 副词的比较级等。 副词的比较级等。
  1.根据 或adv的基本用法确定错误; 根据adj或 的基本用法确定错误; 根据 的基本用法确定错误
  2.修饰连系动词或名词用形容词; 修饰连系动词或名词用形容词; 修饰连系动词或名词用形容词
  3.修饰行为动词、形容词、过去分词及整 修饰行为动词、形容词、 修饰行为动词 个句子用副词。 个句子用副词。

  1.My pronunciation was terribly. (NMET20
  05) terrible

  2.Unfortunate, there are too many people in my family.(NMET
  99) Unfortunately
应试技巧点拨

  1)整体把握短文大意。 )整体把握短文大意。 (
  2)逐句分析,把握结构。 )逐句分析,把握结构。 问题。 (
  3)粗略分析词法、句法、逻辑上是否有 问题。 )粗略分析词法、句法、 (
  4)逐行修改,先易后难。 )逐行修改,先易后难。 (
  5)复读全文,验证答案。 )复读全文,验证答案。 (
  6)要注意答题是否合乎规范。 )要注意答题是否合乎规范。
四、非谓语,细辨别 非谓语,
这是考查最多的错误形式之一。主要有现 这是考查最多的错误形式之一。主要有现 在分词、过去分词,动名词和不定式错误 错误。 在分词、过去分词,动名词和不定式错误。例 如:
NMET20
  01: My parents love me… and will do : … all they can make sure… ____ … to NMET 2002: We fed monkeys, visiting temples visited and told stories. NMET 2003: Soon I began to enjoy talk to myself on paper as I was learning to express talking myself in simple English.
非谓语动词常见的错误

  1)不定式 )
  2)动名词作主语、
  2)动名词作主语、宾语
  3)and 连接的不定式或动名词前后一 ) 尤其距离较远时) 致(尤其距离较远时)
  4)现在分词和过去分词的区别等。 )现在分词和过去分词的区别等。

  1.They will do all they can make sure that I get a good education.
(NMET20
  01)
to

  2.Play football makes us grow up tall and strong.(NMET19
  98)
Playing
五、习惯用法要记住
主要考查习惯搭配方面的基础知识, 主要考查习惯搭配方面的基础知识,其 错误表现形式主要有三种:多词、 错误表现形式主要有三种:多词、少词和搭 配错误。例如: 配错误。例如:
NMET2000: Suddenly, I caught a si
 

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