answer the question. The man is hard to work with.=It’s hard to work with the man. 当不定式用作定语时,与其所修饰的词之间存在逻辑上的动宾关 系,且主语为该动作的执行者时,也常常用主动形式。 Eg. He wants water to drink. She has a room to live in. I will go to Beijing tomorrow. Do you have anything to be taken there? 二、语法专题──冠词的考点
consider(考虑)+

  1. 考查冠词的一些基本用法,例如:复数名词、不可数名词表示泛 指不用任何冠词;the+单数名词表类指;a/an+单数名词表泛指。
  2. 考查冠词的习惯用法。 in case of fire, be wounded in the leg, on 如: the telephone, leave college 等。
  3. 考查冠词的活用。如:抽象名词的具体化,a success; a/an+专有 名词表泛指,an Edison。
  4. 考查零冠词的用法。 三、题型归纳──结构型单项填空 结构型试题常表现在句子中某些成分的省略、标点符号的出现、倒 装或插入其他成分使前后分离等,从而引起句子结构的变化,扰乱 对句子的判断。
  1. 有省略的复合句。 由于宾语从句或定语从句中谓语部分行为动 词的省略,导致对不定式作状语产生误解。
  2. 标点符号的影响。由于受汉语习惯的影响,往往会因为句子中 的标点符号,弄错句子的结构。
  3. 插入语的影响。有些句子由于中间插入了某些成分,而使句子 显得支离破碎,造成对句子结构的误解。
  4. 倒装句型的基本结构:(
  1)完全倒装;(
  2)部分倒装:
  1)在特殊 疑问句和一般疑问句中;
  2)so/neither/nor+do/be/have/情态动 词+主语; 当虚拟语气的条件从句中省略 if 时,
  3) were, had, 和 should 应置于句首, 采用倒装结构; 表示祝愿的句子:
  4) may+ 主语+动词原形;
  5)as, though 引导让步状语从句时:提前部 分+as+主语+谓语动词;
  6)表示否定意义的副词、介词短语和 连词词组置于句首; 当 not until+时间状语从句置于句首时,
  7) 主句应采用倒装结构,而从句仍用正常语序;
  8)not only…but also…连接两个句子时,第一个句子采用倒装结构,第二个句 子不采用倒装结构;
  9)no sooner…tham…, hardly…when…, scarcely…when…都表示“一…就…” ,强调过去的两个动作 接连发生,当 no sooner, hardly 和 scarcely 置于句首时, 主句常把 had 置于主语之前,采用倒装结构,但从句不倒装。
  10)only+副词/介词短语/宾语/时间状语从句置于句首时,常 采用倒装,但 only+主语则不应采用倒装;
  11)在 so/such… that…引导的结果状语从句中,将 so+adj./adv.或 such 置于 句首时,其主句常采用倒装结构。
  5. 强调句型,感叹句,并列句的应用。
  6. 独 立 主 格 结 构 。
  1) n+to do;
  2) n+doing;
  3) n+done;
  4)n+prep.+n.;
  5) n+adj/adv;
  6)n+n;
  7) with+n+to do/doing/done/adj/adv/prep+n.
  1. He said he would do what he could us. A. help B. to help C. helping D. helped
  2. He spent all the money he had that dictionary. A. buy B. to buy C. buying D. bought
  3. There are more than three thousand students in my school, most of from the country. A. that B. which C. whom D. them
  4. It is his cleverness, not his strenth, defeated his rival. A. that B. which C. what D. who
  5. The way you think of our living conditions sounds reasonable. A. improve B. to improve C. improving D. improvement
  6. I feel strongly that whatever you matter to me. A. don’t B. do doesn’t C. don’t do D. doesn’t do
  7. Is this school you studied in two years ago? A. that B. when C. it D. the one
  8. Please tell me the way thought of the garden. A. take care of B. to take care of C. taking care of D. how to take care of
  9. Mr Wang was much disappointed to see the washing machine he had had went wrong again. A. it repaired B. to be repaired C. repaired D. repairing
  10. We will do everything we can our city. A. to save B. save C. saving D. saved
  11. The air quality in Beijing as well as in the neighboring cities we once spent much time better and better.
2008 高考英语知识串讲
- 5 -
作者: 作者: 胡晓凌
A. in getting B. having got C. in is getting D. has got
  12. Who did the teacher, as well as the monitor, an article for the wall newspaper? A. has write B. has written C. have write D. have written
  13. What do you consider to her? A. to happen B. happening C. happened D. happens
  14. Mr Reed made up his mind to devote all he had to some schools for poor children. A. set up B. setting up C. have set up D. having set up
  15. To his joy, the day he looked forward to at last? A. coming B. come C. came D. have come
  16. How long do you think it is she arrived here? A. when B. that C. before D. since
第3讲 一、Language points
  1. owe sb sth=owe sth to sb:欠某人某物 owe sth to sb/sth: 将…归功于… owing to…: 由于… =thanks to/because of/due to…
  2. think highly/poorly/little/a lot +of sb/sth speak highly/well/badly +of sb/sth sing high praise for sb/sth
  3. apologize to sb for (doing) sth make an apology to sb for (doing) sth excuse sb for (doing) sth forgive sb for (doing) sth pardon sb for (doing) sth
  4. make an impression on sb have an impression of sth impress sth on/upon one’s mind
  5. serve in the army on the office serve the people/the dish serve sb with sth=serve sth to sb serve as the chairman
  6. make jokes about: 取笑, 拿…开玩笑 =make a joke about laugh at: 嘲笑 have a joke with sb: 开某人的玩笑 play a joke on sb=play tricks on sb: 戏弄 in joke: 闹着玩,开玩笑
  7. to do It’s time+ for sth For sb to do sth That-clause(一般过去时)
  8. the one/ones:替代同类事物中特指一个或一些 one: 替代上文提到的同类名词中的一个,表泛指 it: 指上文提到的同一个事物 that: 替代上文出现的带定冠词的名词或不可数名词
  9. none: 用来回答 how many/how much 引导的问句, 常与 of 连用 no one: 只能指人,用来回答 who 引导的问句 neither: 两者都不,表单数 nothing: 用于指物,用来回答 what 引导的问句
  10. cloth 布(u.): a piece of cloth 表示某种特殊用途的布块(桌布) :Wipe up the water with a cloth. clothes: 衣服,服装。是一个没有单数形式的复数名词: A suit of clothes 注:不能直接用数词修饰,但可用 many, few, his, my, thse 之类的词修饰,作主语时谓 语动词用复数。 clothing: 服装,衣着。是一个无复数形式的物质名词,除衣
服外,还包括幌子,手套,鞋袜之类的东西,作主 语时谓语动词用单数。 piece of clothing, an artcle of A clothing dress: 指穿在外面的衣服,尤指在社交场合穿的礼服及妇女 的连衣裙。 suit: 成套的衣服。
  11. live: 活着,有生命的(作定语,主要用来指鸟或其他动物),实 况直播的 lively: 活泼的,有生气的,生动的 alive: 活着的,还有气儿的,是表语形容词,在句中作表语或 后置定语 living: 活着,健在的,现行的
  12. receive: 收到, 接到(客观动作); accept: 接受, 领受(主观意愿) 接受教育、惩罚、支持,遭受不幸,接待客人:只用 receive 接受某条件、建议:只用 accept
  13. turn+adj: 常表示从某种状态向其他状态变化的自然现象 The weather has turned much colder. go+adj: 常表示由好变坏的情况:The milk went wrong/bad. become+adj: 强调施动者的作用或变化的结果 Please don’t get angry. come+adj: 一般表示向好的方面变化。 My dream has come true.
  14. 含有插入语的疑问句: What do you think has happened to him? How do you suppose the film will end? Why do you believe he is unfit for the office?
  15. 主从复合句的反意疑问句:疑问部分根据主句确定,但是主句 的主语是 I/we, 谓语是 think /suppose /believe /hope /imagine /expect /guess /know /feel /be sure /be told 时, 疑问部分根据从句确定, 否定 转移时,疑问部分用肯定语气。 She think it is a good idea, doesn’t she? I think it is a good idea, isn’t it? I don’t think it is a good idea, is it? 二、语法专题──代词的考点
  1. 不定代词:(
  1)all, any, none, both, either, neither; (
  2)another, other, the other, others, the others; (
  3)复合不定代词:someone, anyone, everyone, no one; something, anything, everything, nothing.
  2. it 的用法: (
  1)it 作实意代词,代替日期、时间、季节、距离;代替身份不明的 人,心目中的人和事以及代替上文已提到的或下文将要提到的人、 物或某种情况;代替指示代词 this, that。 (
  2)it 作引导词:作形式主语和形式宾语,代替不定式、动名词和从 句;it 用于强调句型。
  3. 替代词 one, ones, the one, the ones, that, those 的用法。
  4. 人称代词在使用中要注意主格和宾格的区别, 反身代词则要注意 和主语一致。 三、题型归纳──习语、搭配型单项填空 语言的习惯表达是语言在长期使用过程中的结果,不能随意改变。 其表现形式主要在介词短语、 名词短语及非谓语动词短语的习惯搭 配等方面。习语、搭配型单项填空主要考查对英语习语及搭配的掌 握和运用,这就需要在平时多加注意和积累,切不可想当然。
  1. 介词后的宾语: 介词后面常接名词、 代词、 动名词作宾语, 但是, 在考试时要注意一些习惯用法。如:far from satisfied/over; take sth for granted; in hospital 与 in the hospital; at sea 与 at the sea。
  2. 冠词的增删: 固定搭配中名词前的冠词的有无都是习惯用法, 若 去掉或增加,都会使其意思发生变化。如:in prison 与 in the prison; in bed 与 on the bed; in school 与 in the school; in possession of 与 in the possession of; in charge of 与 in the charge of; in front of 与 in the front of。
  3. 非谓语动词短语的考查重点:一是非谓语动词与逻辑主语的关 系;二是非谓语动词与谓语动词所表示动作的时间先后关系;三是 非谓语动词的习惯用法。另外,有些非谓语动词短语已经从非谓语 动词短语中游离了出来,而成为表达某种意思的固定搭配。如:to
2008 高考英语知识串讲
- 6 -
作者: 作者: 胡晓凌
be true; to tell you the truth; to be exact; judging by/from; exactly speaking; frankly speaking; compared to/with 等。
  4. 动词的搭配。如:mean to do sth/mean doing sth; forget to do sth/forget doing sth; be used to doing sth/used to do sth; head for/go to; lend to/borrow from; set about/set out; write down/take down/put down 等。
  5. 动词短语。如:have a cold/catch cold; take place/take one’s place 等。
  6. 短语动词。 run out/run out of; stick to/keep on; bring in/bring on 如: 等。
  7. 形容词短语。如:be strict with/in; different from/in; be careful of/with 等。
  8. 名词短语。如:the number of/a number of; a knowledge of 等。
  1. No matter what you see, don’t take it for, but use your head to think it over. A. grant B. granting C. granted D. grantness
  2. When writing, he often keeps a dictionary. A. in hand B. on hand C. at hand D. hand in
  3. His wife often goes to on Sundays. A. church B. a church C. the church D. churching
  4. It is good for you in your future life English. A. have good knowledge of B. to have good knowledge of C. to have a good knowledge of D. has a good knowledge of
  5. what he said, he has been to Australia. A. Judge by B. Judged by C. Judging from D. To judge from
  6. She is always ready to help others and asking for nothing. A. in return B. in case C. in addition D. in turn
  7. They held a ceremony those killed in the battle. A. instead of B. in favor of C. by means of D. in honor of
  8. The man the shop said we could have two days off. A. in charge of B. in the charge of C. take charge of D. take the charge of
  9. When they got to America, they nearly money. A. ran out B. ran out of C. ran away D. ran away from
  10. Word came that Brown the record in yesterday’s match. A. made B. stroke C. beat D. hit
  11. Look, little Betty is giving a talk to the children and is a teacher. A. somebody of B. anybody like C. something of D. like anything
  12. Mr Wang is very old, but he works like a young man. In deed, I can’t admire him. A. very much B. so well C. too much D. quite well
第4讲 一、Language points
  1. sth sth for sth prepare+ for sth to do sth be prepared for be prepared to do sth make preparations for
  2. They tied for first place in the game. We tied with the visiting team in the basketball match. The dog is tied to a tree.
  3. affect vt. 影响 effect n. 效果,作用 have a good/bad effect on in effect 事实上 cause and effect 因果 take effect 生效,起作用
come into effect 生效,实行 effort n. 努力 without effort 毫不费力 make every effort 尽一切努力 spare no effort 不遗余力
  3. weigh vt. 称…的重量 vi. 重达…, 重量为… put on weight lose weight by weight in meters/pounds/calories by the day/the week/the yard/the dozen/the ton
  4. in…参加…比赛 compete+ with/against…与…竞赛/竞争 for…角逐…,为获取…而竞赛
  5. Where there is
 

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